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This page updated 31 January 2010

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The Phantom First Fleet:
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Links to sites on related topics:
Investors in C19th Australia - 1:
Investors in C19th Australia - 2:
Investors in C19th Australia - 3:
Investors in C19th Australia - 4:
A Bitter Pill - American debtors and Thomas Jefferson
Emptying the Hulks:
The Blackheath Connection - original article:
The London whalers from 1786 - an original article:
Bibliography - Part One:
Bibliography - Part Two:

The Blackheath Connection

Note: Some chapters of this website book are left overlong to discourage breach of copyright by casual netsurfers

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New from October 2001: Now on the Net, Charles Campbell's book, The Intolerable Hulks:

Chapter 1. John St Barbe and his Seething Lane link to Walsingham: The convict contractor lists: The degradation of convict status in Virginia: Jonathan Forward Sydenham and relics: The export of rattlesnakes: The bad press of the convict transportation system: Redirecting the English convict service: An unrecognised small mercy:
Chapter 1 Words 5204 and with footnotes 6535 pages 12 footnotes 38

Chapter 2. The Elusive Duncan Campbell: The Massacre at Glencoe:
Chapter 3 Words 4446 with footnotes 5419 pages 10 footnotes 12

Chapter 3. Genealogical shock Part 1: Seeking the facts of Campbell genealogy : Colonel John Campbell of Black River Jamaica and the Darien Company (and the Claibornes of Virginia, circa 1700): Jamaica planters and economic history: The 1685 invasion of Scotland:
Chapter 3 Words 2129 with footnotes 3669 pages 7 footnotes 20

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Chapter 4. Many are now possessed of opulent fortunes: English expansionism and genealogical shock, Part II: The origins of Neil Campbell of the College of Glasgow: Jean Campbell and an Earl of Argyll. Life at the College of Glasgow: Simson the heretic:
Chapter 4 Words 6567, words and footnotes 8898 pages 16 footnotes 39

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Chapter 5. The popular Mollie Campbell: The boy Duncan Campbell: Influence of graduates of the College of Glasgow: Wedding of Mollie Campbell:
Chapter 5 Words 3386 words and footnotes 3706 pages 8 footnotes 13

Chapter 6. A discovery of Jamaica: Statistics on Jamaica: A Scots heritage: Slavery on Jamaica: Duncan and Rebecca Campbell: Campbell the arch convict contractor: Shipping in the convict service, 1717-1785: Britain's state of crime:
Chapter 6 Words 5330 words and footnotes 6257 pages 12 footnotes 43

Chapter 7. Poverty and prisoners: Were there criminal classes? The great crime problem of Britain: Blinkered vision on transportation: `Robustious days':
Chapter 7 Words 4151, words with footnotes 4752 pages 9 footnotes 32

Chapter 8. Redevelopment of the convict service from 1716: Property in the service of the body of the convict: Before Duncan Campbell's reappearance:
Chapter 8 Words 5322 and words with footnotes 7242 pages 13 footnotes 79

Chapter 9. Duncan Campbell's reappearance: The partnership John Stewart and Campbell JS&C: Campbell visits Virginia: Commercial complexities: Official contracts to transport: The dread of gaol fever: Brutality on a convict ship:
Chapter 9 words 6316 words with footnotes 8980 pages 17 footnotes 106

Chapter 10. Society of Arts, Manufacture and Commerce: George III: A new environment for the American merchants in London: Debt problems: Wilkes, the lightning rod of liberty: George III ascends the throne:
Chapter 10 Words 6059 words with footnotes 8078 pages 14 footnotes 58

Chapter 11. Alderman William Beckford: Britain glances again at the Pacific: Random slices on family matters from 1758: Increases in numbers of convicts: Commerce and the Campbell family: More random slices and Richard Betham: More convicts versus less credit in the colonies: Endnotes:
Chapter 11 Words 5580 words with footnotes 7615 pages 14 footnotes 75

Chapter 12. Before the financial bust of 1772: Quarantines against convicts: A family uproar: Legal commentary from Blackstone: Colonial political feeling rises: Death again in Campbell's household: Capt. Cook in the Pacific:
Chapter 12 Words 6191 words with footnotes 7884 pages 14 footnotes 59

James Cook, Explorer
Rather academic

Capt James Cook
HM Bark Endeavour< /A>

Capt James Cook (Broken link?):

Chapter 13. The Tayloes of Virginia and William and Thomas Eden: Matthew Ridley as agent for JS&C: Sundry Campbell Letters: William Beckford as absentee Jamaica landowner: Transportation opens from Scotland: End of Capt. Colin Somerville: Tobacco and customs laws: List of Duncan Campbell's colonial correspondents:
Chapter 13 words 7205 words and footnotes 10309 pages 18 footnotes 70

Chapter 14. `The whole city was in tears': Currying favour with gaolers: `Think what you are about': Moving into Mincing Lane: The little-known Sir Robert Herries: Background to the Boston Tea Party and the international tea trade:
Chapter 14 words 5180 words with footnotes 9652 pages 16 footnotes 60

Chapter 15. Protesting about affairs in India: The "first bank at Canton": Questions of the opium trade: The Boston Tea Party revisited: American grievances: Radical tactics and financing the American Revolution: Death of Rebecca Campbell:
Chapter 15 words 4464 words with footnotes 6744 pages 13 footnotes 55

Chapter 16. Founding Fathers and the debt repudiation question: More on Robert Morris: Debts in the colonies, reaction in Britain to non-payment of debts: The British Creditors:
Chapter 16 words 4464 words with footnotes 6744 pages 13 footnotes 55

Chapter 17. Deepening of debt problems: Analysis of debt questions: The English South Whale Fishery: Brief history of British whaling: Whaling connections: Gathering destruction of the convict service: The death of Rebecca Campbell: Financing the American Revolution: Chapter 17 words 9152 words with footnotes 11475 pages 21 footnotes 100.
Chapter 17 Words 9152 with footnotes 11475 pages 21 footnotes 100

Chapter 18. Duncan Campbell and legislation: `all of my business is to show him hell': The paper trail on convicts: Hypocrisy and the Hulks: Parliament and the Thames in 1776: Hulks Act of 1776: Jealousy of Trinity House: Finding work for non-transportable prisoners: Seaworthy "hulks": Justitia and Tayloe: Campbell's contribution to the 1776 Hulks Act:
Chapter 18 Words 8667 words and footnotes 11132 pages 20 footnotes 84

Chapter 19. The new regime for Thames hulks prisoners: Tobacco in North America: `Or on any other navigable river': `Becoming resignation to the divine will':
Chapter 19 Words 8241 words and footnotes 9664 pages 17 footnotes 52

Chapter 20. More on Robert Morris and tobacco: London merchants, 1775-1800: History and amnesia: More London merchants: The hulks, continued: Campbell's merchant leadership: Campbell's former agent, Matthew Ridley: War and hulks business: Transportation not to America, 1779: `Nests of pestilence': The Gordon Riots, 1780: Hurricanes over Jamaica:
Chapter 20 Words 10978 words and footnotes 13376 pages 25 footnotes 84

Chapter 21. Hurricanes over Jamaica: Matthew Ridley and Robert Morris: Before Lord Cornwallis surrendered at Yorktown... the year 1781: History, amnesia and William Bligh: A daughter disappoints: Convict records: the paper trail revisited: Becky, gone: Lord Cornwallis surrenders: `a very deep hole in my capital':
Chapter 21 words 7409 words with footnotes 9740 pages 13 footnotes 45

Check website:
Mutiny on HMS Bounty:

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Chapter 22. Trade policy: Evan Nepean at the Home Office: Transportable convicts and sovereignty over a place: The problem of terra nullius: On Phillip's Commissions: Hulks business. The African Plan, Stage One.
Chapter 22 Words 8296 words with footnotes 12068 pages 22 footnotes 86

Chapter 23. Fear of an organised police force: Flotsam on a crime wave: The British Creditors: Part 1:: The British Creditors: Part 2: A new ship Britannia: A business overview, 1782: Alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay: `The fear of its awakening': The blasting of London's tobacco traders: Land dealings in North America. `Shame, Neil, Shame!': Bligh's favour to Campbell: Endnotes: On the "structure" of convict shipping to Australia:
Chapter 23 Words 11212 words with footnotes 14350 pages 25 footnotes 78

Chapter 24. The fleet now daily expected: 'You do not mention Henny': Death in New London: More on the British Creditors 1: William Bligh, merchants, prestige, and literary confusion: The outlook of George M. Macaulay: More on the British Creditors 2:
Chapter 24 Words 8770 words with footnotes 12846 pages 24 footnotes 83

Chapter 25. The resumption of convict transportation 1783: `Men unworthy to remain in this island' Part One: A business overview: Henry Dundas and attitudes of the East India Company: From the Bengal famine to Penang: The Larkins family of Blackheath: Secret plans for men unworthy Part Two:
Chapter 25 Words 5997 words with footnotes 10726 pages 31 footnotes 141

Chapter 26. George Moore's first ship, Swift 1: Matra-esque problems: army contractors and Loyalists in North America: Further mutiny on George Moore's ships:
Chapter 26 Words 6026 words and footnotes 7465 pages 13 footnotes 64

Chapter 27. Confusions of the year 1784: Pitt and the East India Company problem: The mystery of Sir George Young and unnamed merchants in 1784: Slavers out whaling or sealing? Rewriting the legislation in 1784: Pepper-Arden's inane first draft, March 1784: 'Mr Campbell does not think himself authorized':
Chapter 27 Words 5163 words with footnotes 6958 pages 13 footnotes 40

Chapter 28. After Selwyn's rewrite of the legislation, August 1784: The legal foundations of New South Wales: Duncan Campbell, The British Creditors, Loyalists, and Matra's plans: Campbell's new warrant for the hulks: Softening up the East India Company: Matters relating to Fletcher Christian: `I presume to hand your lordship': Robert Morris and American tobacco, 1784: Crowded hulks versus `the length of the navigation': The heart of darkness revisited: 'Next in degree to that of death': Ships for Nootka Sound: Transported labour and later views on Australian culture:
Chapter 28 Words 86818 words with footnotes 10739 pages 19 footnotes 60

Chapter 29. The hulks are `quite full': No convicts for hard labour: Into the hearts of darkness: Whalers and sealers: `The ill-judged parsimony of ministers': The convict republic in the heart of darkness: Further into the heart of darkness: Duncan Campbell and questions of tobacco: The interest groups within the East India Company: `They must be resisted by force': Lord Beauchamp's committee: 1785. `Man and arm your ships': The unknown rise of the unknown Thomas Shelton: Botany Bay or Das Voltas? A report never finally printed: Pulling down overcrowded gaols?
Chapter 29 Words 10294 words with footnotes 12578 pages 30 footnotes 111

Chapter 30. The vain ambitions of the Nantucket whalers. Campbell's preoccupations with land in Kent: `I fear Mr Adams demands are not the most moderate': Convicts at Cumberland Fort, Portsmouth: Duncan Campbell and The Blackheath Connection `The gaols are in so crowded a state': `Destitute in all comforts of life':
Chapter 30 Words 8192 words with footnotes 10089 pages 18 footnotes 65

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Chapter 31. Debt collecting in America: London petitions the king: Descended from those written out of history: An overview of the Botany Bay debate as a problem in history: Britain's ambit claim in the Pacific: The year 1786: Social life in the Campbell-Bligh connection: French whaling threatens London's whalers: A secret quote: The campaign to reinstate the `taps' in the gaols: The London petition of March 1786:
Chapter 31 Words 7362 words with footnotes 9697 pages 19 footnotes 65

Chapter 32. The Debt Repudiation Question: an exoneration for the Founding Fathers of the United States of America: Thomas Jefferson's trade mission to Great Britain: Questions of whaling: Lord Carmarthen and the British Creditors' petition: A bitter pill he and his friends could never swallow': After the Jefferson-Campbell meeting: Significance of the Jefferson-Campbell meeting: The East India Company, the whalers, and an ulterior motive: Further political pressure on the convict problem: a quickening of pace: Convicts and priorities: George Macaulay's unfathomable desire to transport convicts to Africa: The "accursed monopoly" of the East India Company:
Chapter 32 Words 13043 words with footnotes 19282 pages 33 footnotes 147

Chapter 33. Futile debate: Duncan Campbell moves his convict records: Lord George Gordon leaks the Botany Bay story: Diplomatic awareness of Britain's intentions in the Pacific: Lord Gordon's Prisoner's Petition: Robert Hughes and The Fatal Shore: Some conclusions on the Botany Bay debate: Convict shipping to Australia and The Navy Office Accounts: Possible personal intervention by George III: Bureaucracy, a variety of plans, and the First Fleet: The Botany Bay debate and terra nullius: London steps up the pressure about prisoners: Botany Bay becomes a real alternative: The anonymously-written `Heads of a Plan': George Macaulay and a phantom First Fleet: The South whalers begin to explore the Pacific:
Chapter 33 Words 10116 words with footnotes 12851 pages 34 footnotes 106

Chapter 34. The First Fleet misunderstood: Alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay disappears from history: America sends ships to China: West India merchants, slaves, Macaulay, Campbell, and ships to Tahiti for breadfruit: The role of William Richards: history and amnesia: Newspaper coverage: Gathering the First Fleet ships: Merchants and the "Botany Bay debate": East India Company distaste for "Botany Bay": The role of the evangelists:
Chapter 34 Words 10568 words with footnotes pages 24 footnotes 77

Chapter 35. Questions on forcing convicts to labour at Botany Bay: Newspaper coverage of the First Fleet: Thomas Shelton and the Home Office: The lack of a contract for the First Fleet: The contract maker, Thomas Shelton: A strange preamble to an Act for transporting convicts: Gathering the First Fleet convicts: More on the role of Thomas Shelton: In the prisons: `so very undigested and very expensive a scheme': 10 January, 1787: a day of meetings: Arthur Phillip's reputation: London and Freemasonry after the First Fleet (From May 1787): A brief chronology: Payments to merchants: Arthur Phillip, governor of New South Wales:
Chapter 35 Words 16993 words with footnotes 20585 pages 37 footnotes 118

Chapter 36. Emptying the hulks: The First Three Convict Fleets to Australia: An alternative theory on the mounting of the breadfruit voyage: More emptying of the hulks: The disappearance of George Moore: The ambitions of William Richards: Before the departure of the First Fleet: The Bligh-Campbell Connection: Some aspects of crewing the Bounty: The tenders for a breadfruit ship:
Chapter 36 Words 11854 words with footnotes 14157 pages 25 footnotes 88

Chapter 37. HMAV Bounty and the Bligh-Campbell connection: Further aspects of the crewing of Bounty: Lack of merchant interest in Pacific opportunities: After Bligh's open boat voyage: Duncan Campbell hears of the mutiny on HMAV Bounty: The return of William Bligh: Fletcher Christian's family attacked: Heywood's faux pas: Lady Penrhyn, alderman Macaulay and Tahiti: Lady Penrhyn's secret orders: Bligh and Blackheath Freemasonry:
Chapter 37 Words 8569 words with footnotes 11083 pages 19 footnotes 65

Chapter 38. Thames hulks prisoners and work protocols: The convicts on the Lion revolt: The reappearance of Camden, Calvert and King, slavers of the Africa Company: Nova Scotia still on the books for convict transportation: A lack of news from Botany Bay: Sir Joseph Banks and the Blackheath Connection: A little-known transportation to America: A Desultory beginning: 1788: January 26, 1788: 1788: Snippets and Coincidences: British whaling, 1788: Jeremy Bentham visits the hulks: Selling the labour of the Thames hulks prisoners: The appearance of the Knuckle Club at Blackheath: 1789: Aspects of commercial life: The innocent William Richards tries again:
Chapter 38 Words 11915 words with footnotes 13588 pages 25 footnotes 86

Chapter 39: Digesting the news from NSW: Observations after the Bounty mutiny: Shipping matters in London: A further attempt to recover American debts: The formation of the NSW Corps: The year 1789 - Part 2: Reports on the Nootka Convention: Slave fetters for the Second Fleet: Specially selected artificers: The continually crowded gaols: After Bligh's open boat voyage: Prisoner problems persist: The odious Second Fleet captains: John Macarthur duels with Captain Gilbert: The Second Fleet ships gather: Unknown activities of the London slavers: The year 1790: The Botany Bay debate revisited: Duncan Campbell hears of the mutiny on HMAV Bounty: Campbell's reaction to Bligh's return: The whalers and the Third Fleet: Irish remarks on the resumption of transportation: London contractors associated with NSW: Endnotes: (1) On Martinez and Spanish fury at Nootka: (2) After the Second Fleet in London: reasons for the spoiling of maritime history:
Chapter 39 Words 20321 words and footnotes 25656 pages 44 footnotes 183

Chapter 40. At the Board of Trade, 1790: John St Barbe's letter on carrying convicts: William Richards attacked: Botany Bay and India: The year 1791: Lloyd's names and interest in the Pacific: `do you keep me out of the scrape': A war of secrecy: The Third Fleet embarkation continues: As the Third Fleet departed: Phases of The Blackheath Connection: The Macaulay-St Barbe Partnership: Capt. Manning's views of prospects at Sydney: Before Bligh's second breadfruit voyage: Bligh's second breadfruit voyage and the interests of the London Missionary Society: Before Heywood's vocabulary of the Tahitian language went to the London Missionary Society: The departure of the Pitt: Whalers, the Pacific, the Third Fleet, and the crushing of William Richards: Richards reacts to news from Botany Bay: William Richards before his bankruptcy: Richards further on business to New South Wales: At the Board of Trade: Moves against slavery:
Chapter 40 Words 17005 words and footnotes 22012 pages 41 footnotes 152

Chapter 41. Duncan Campbell's sons tour the Continent: Chasing American Debts: John St Barbe and Captain William Raven: On the New South Wales Corps: Between Blackheath and New Zealand: The year 1792: The Larkins family expresses interest in New South Wales: A feud between slavers: The African trade war continues:
Chapter 41 Words 9906 words with footnotes 12895 pages 23 footnotes 86

Chapter 42: The Battle of the Red Book and the Green Book at Lloyd's: Campbell fires his American agent: William Russell and the Court Brothers:
Chapter 42 Words 7377 words with footnotes 8846 pages 15 footnotes 30

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Chapter 43. `The serpent we are nursing at Botany Bay': The mystery of the merchants not named by Sir George Young: Where the money went (Part One): Where the money went (Part Two): Did NSW profits flow to Blackheath?
Chapter 43 Words 4752 words and footnotes 6489 pages 12 footnotes 41 Hearse gif

Chapter 44. The Scottish Martyrs: More aftermaths of the American Revolution: financial matters: Duncan Campbell's will: Life in Duncan Campbell's household: Campbell relinquishes the hulks: Hulks administration from 1800: The death of Duncan Campbell in 1803:
Chapter 44 Words 7436 words and footnotes 9928 pages 18 footnotes 68 Cook's ship Endeavour gif

Cargo: seriously needing protection from river thieves by the 1790s...

Chapter 45. The year 1795: The year 1796: The Blackheath Connection (Phase Two): Blackheath and the London Missionary Society: further phases within The Blackheath Connection: Phase Two to 1800:
Chapter 45 Words 5284 words and footnotes 8452 pages 15 footnotes 74

Chapter 46. An Australasian quadrangular trade pattern: Further on James Duncan of Blackheath: The Blackheath Connection (the beginning of Phase Two): Duncan Campbell's last years: Varieties of business:
Chapter 46 Words 9585 words with footnotes 12549 pages 23 footnotes 95

Chapters 47++ (not yet)

[Finis Contents]

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