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 News in July 2006: The history websites on this domain now have a companion website, and an updating website as well, on a new domain, at Merchant Networks Project, produced by Dan Byrnes and Ken Cozens (of London).

This new website (it is hoped) will become a major exercise in economic and maritime history, with much attention to London/British Empire and some attention to Sydney, Australia.

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Vagaries and distractions of family history: Section Five

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A preponderance of Scots names is apparent in the above outlines. (Some names of French origin seem mere distractions) After the American Revolution, in the later 1780s, Henry Dundas (first Viscount Melville, 1742-1811) as a government minister, and as a senior Scottish politician, worked at the level of policy on the management of the East India Company to promote the installation of more talented young Scotsmen in Company operations in the East, especially in India. ([1]) Orchestrating this policy  coincided with other operations, including the establishment of a convict colony at New South Wales, (Sydney, Australia), from 1786-1788. With the movement of British whalers, then sealers,  into the Pacific. With British conflict with the French over India interests. With moves by American merchants into East India and Chinese trade, followed by the entry of United States whalers in the Pacific. With British conflict with the Spanish at Nootka Sound on the West Canadian coast over seal fur destined to be sold at Canton.

 One result of Dundas' policy was the projection of Scottish family linkages more deeply into Imperial affairs, whether military and expansive, or in commercial affairs where a search for  greater cohesion was noticeable. This makes the study of Scottish family histories extremely valuable in tracing the family histories of non-Scottish families as well - which can be noted especially with Australian colonial history. As people - and their money - moved about the British Empire of the Nineteenth Century, to Canada, Australia, New Zealand, (and also the United States), extended families became "extended geographically". Today, we can complain that family histories (as we now find them), as influenced by this general trend; they tend to ramble considerably. ([2]) Records are far-flung, it is difficult to keep track of multiple trends in social and economic development in the more distant reaches of the British Empire, and so on.

 However, members of Scottish families, more so those who did well out of working for British Imperial interests, and also due to the way they intermarried chiefly with British stock, can be easy to trace because of the Scots tendency to "clannishness", to stay close to what they viewed as their own. ([3])  With family histories, the use of this approach, if pursued methodically, will benefit also from information gained from economic history, maritime history, the history of the application of new technology.

 The point can be illustrated within British Imperial history, generally,  by reference to some notable families, some with a Scottish background. Such as that of the historian, Thomas Babington Macaulay, who spent time in India. Robert Campbell (1769-1846), from Greenock, Scotland, of Campbell's Wharf, Sydney, one of Sydney's most productive merchants, who had been preceded in India by his lesser-known merchant brother, John. ([4]) The noted New Zealand merchant, John Logan Campbell (1817-1912) (no relation to Robert Campbell of Sydney or Duncan Campbell the Thames hulks overseer and relative of William Bligh). The outcomes of the American Revolution had the effect of putting a centrifugal kind of spin on many family histories, as opportunities and income sources changed markedly. This certainly showed in the history of the extended family of the hulks overseer, Duncan Campbell (1726-1803), since some of them worked in India.  ([5]) Given Campbell's commercial career, his interests on Jamaica, and the careers of his relatives, one suspects that his descendants would not have spent time in India, or dealing in Eastern trade, if Britain had won the American War of Independence.

 

George Fife Angas (1789-1859), financier, promoter of the colonisation of South Australia, and a settler there, was a Scot notable in Australasian history. If such family histories are elaborated, it is impossible to ignore trends in British Imperial development which may be taken as a vindication of Dundas' original 1780s policy of promoting Scots' initiative in the context of changing Imperial fortunes,  opportunities and theatres of action. Two things can be noted about here about Dundas' policy...

 (a) Historians of the politics of his day, or, of  the East India Company, still confess to a sense of mystery as to how Dundas arrived at his policy, and seem not to know whom he conferred with about it. One might feel that Dundas simply had great confidence in the likely outcomes of the Scottish Enlightenment that had spread since the union of Scotland with England in 1708.

 (b) This may all be the case, but to date, family historians, and indeed, historians using family history for purposes of illuminating other sorts of histories, have tended to be blinkered about the use of family history by the way they reference the high-points of history, generally. Emphasis on the connections of family members with the hero of some military encounter, a famous admiral or politician, a notable writer, a successful exercise in colonisation, can deflect both amateurs and professional historians from gathering more of the often-far-flung facts that successful family history requires. The particular value of at least beginning with Scottish-based family histories is that the information gathered becomes cohesive and indicates validly how many individual families intermarried. At times, inheritances can be traced usefully. Here, a question can be asked: what happens if connections are gathered into sets, and the sets bestride "history" in some unexpected ways? What happens to the high points of history? Are any new realisations possible?

 

An excellent example of the way notable and non-notable family histories can ramble in historical contexts arises with the case of the background of the English writer Virginia Woolf, nee Stephen. (1882-1941). ([6]) A talented writer, though suffering from bipolar disorder, and with a disturbed family background, it is said, due to sexual abuse in her youth, she finally suicided. ([7]) The Stephen family from which she came was originally, as noted, from Aberdeenshire, and male members later shone in the legal profession in both Britain and in New South Wales, Australia. Sir James Stephen (1789-1859) was at the Colonial Office, and Virginia's father Sir Leslie (1832-1904), edited the English Dictionary of National Biography. The Stephens were a family however which seemed to leave its Scots heritage behind, at least as far as folkways are concerned. ([8])

 

One of Virginia's forebears has become entertainingly notorious, James Pattle (1775-1845). ([9]) In noting what happened to Pattle after he died, Virginia Woolf-Stephen helped to firm a tradition of citation which has been less than helpful in widening the curiosities of researchers in family history. (broken link? - http://members.madasafish.com/~mqofs - on Pattle genealogy) One  tale on Pattle is bizarre and deserves to be commented liberally. James Pattle, judge of a High Court Appeal in India, died 1845 at Calcutta, was born 31 December, 1775, at Beauleah, Bengal, the son of a director of the East India Company 1787-1795, Thomas Pattle, and his first wife, Sarah Hasleby. James married a Frenchwoman, Adeline De l'ETang. James Pattle was known as  "a drunkard and a liar", renowned for extravagant wickedness, known as "King of Liars", or "Jim Blazes". By repute, he drank himself to death by 1845. ([10]) As Virginia Woolf wrote, James Pattle wished to be buried "for family reasons" beside his mother at Camberwell in London. The story goes, his body was sealed in a cask of rum for transport to London. ([11]) He wished to be buried besides his mother.

 

James Pattle's father applied for a Bengal cadet writership for him in 1791, after his education by Daniel Duff, writer (lawyer), MA of Battersea. Pattle became a senior member in India of the Board of Revenue and a judge of the Court of Appeal at Mursedabad. He began his service in  1792 in Bengal, where he'd been born, as a writer before moving to other legal posts.

 With 53 years' service, Pattle became "one of the longest-serving East India Company men". At one time he lived in Garden Reach overlooking the Hooghly River. ([12]).

 

A story has been told...

 

"VIRGINIA WOOLF AND THE CASK OF RUM"

(A talk by Prof. Joan Stevens, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand.)  (Copyright restricted)

 

"In my last talk, I traced the connections between Edward Jerningham Wakefield, son of Gibbon Wakefield, and various families who had served with the old East India Company at the end of the eighteenth century. One of these was the family to which his mother belonged, Pattle. Jerningham Wakefield's grandfather was Thomas Charles Pattle. Now Thomas had a brother, James, who had seven beautiful daughters. James Pattle had married a French girl, daughter of the Chevalier de

Thackeray gif

Novelist William Makepace Thackeray.

l'Etang, one of Queen Marie Antoinette's pages.  After the Queen's execution, he and his young wife were banished.  They went to British India, where their one daughter married James Pattle.  All the family became friends of the Thackerays, with whom there remained ties for the rest of their lives.  As a young man in London in the 1830s and 1840s, the novelist William Thackeray was constantly in Pattle company, while he and his parents when in France kept up with old Madame de l'Etang in her widowhood, as well as with her daughter Mrs. James Pattle.  As for the Pattle daughters, "they possessed", as a descendant, wrote "great beauty and vivid personality".

 

However, before I tell you tales of the seven beautiful daughters, I must say more about their father.  James Pattle, nicknamed Jim Blazes.

 

Let me quote, first, the words of his great grandchild Virginia Woolf. "He was a gentleman of marked, but doubtful reputation who, after living a riotous life and earning the title of "the biggest liar in India", finally drank himself to death and was consigned to a cask of rum to await shipment to England."  Here I interpolate, that the reason for the cask of rum was a bet.  The cask story is best told in the breathless prose of young Kate Stanley, later to be the mother of Bertrand Russell, in a letter of 1860, where she repeats what she was just heard at Mrs. Carlyle's.  As both accounts are needed to give you the picture, I shall thread them together.  Here is young Kate, then.  "Mr. Pattle once made a bet with a man that he would be buried in England - he lived in India - it was for £100, and this man said he would never live to go back to England.   Mr. Pattle did die in India but, in his will, he said he only left his fortune to his wife on condition he was buried in England in the Churchyard he named -- so though it was very inconvenient -- Mrs. Pattle was obliged to go to the trouble and expense of doing it or else she could not have the fortune, so Mr. Pattle was put in a cask with spirits to preserve him and embalmed.

 

Here I must pause, to return to Virginia Woolf's narrative.  She, at least, uses commas... "The cask was stood outside the widow's bedroom door", she writes, "In the middle of the night, Mrs. Pattle heard a violent explosion, rushed out; and found her husband, having burst the lid of his coffin, bolt upright, menacing her in death as he had menaced her in life." They put the cask on a ship for England but, when the sailors found out what was in it, says Kate Stanley, they "positively refused to go on with it and said they would throw it overboard or come back to Calcutta; so, as the Captain thought Mrs. Pattle would rather not have it thrown overboard, he had brought it back to her."

 

Mrs. Pattle then chartered a ship herself, but this too returned, baffled by a "great storm of thunder and lightning".  Next, she put the cask inside a large wooden case and tried a third time.  Ill with nervous strain, quite understandably, she then went to the seaside for a holiday.  I quote young Kate Stanley again.  "When she had been there two days, a frightful storm arose. Wind and rain and thunder, and the sea was in a great state; and a ship near the shore was in great distress.  It struck and was quite wrecked, and every soul on board perished.  What next morning, among the debris, should Mrs. Pattle find washed on shore to the foot of her house but a large case at once recognized as Mr. Pattle's tomb.  So the cask was again taken out and put in a spare room in their house.  Soon after, in the middle of the night, a great noise was heard as if the roof was coming down.   Mrs. Pattle, running upstairs with the key of the room where Mr. Pattle was kept, opened it; and what should she see but the cask lid off and Mr. Pattle sitting up in the cask half out like a jack-in-the-box.  She was so frightened, she fell ill and they gave up sending Mr. Pattle to England.  The gas had generated and burst the cask."

 

Well, it's a wonderful story, you'll agree.  Virginia Woolf summed it all up by reporting "That Pattle had been such a scamp, the devil wouldn't let him go out of India." If James Pattle brought a liar's imagination and unconquerable vitality to the marriage, his French wife brought great beauty, which all the daughters but one inherited.  Let me now tell you more about them. Remember, they are the cousins of Eliza Pattle, the wife of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.  The eldest was Mia, who married Dr. John Jackson. Her daughter, Julia Jackson, married Herbert Duckworth, publisher.  He died, however, and she married again, taking as her second husband the author, Leslie Stephen.  For Stephen, too, it was a second marriage; his first being to Harriet, younger daughter of William Thackeray; their child, little Laura Stephen, died young -- or what would she have done with her inheritance?

 

Stephen's second marriage, however, to Mrs. Julia Duckworth, grandchild of James Pattle, produced its own brand of genius.  For there were four children, all noted in their day.  The most brilliant, Virginia, married Leonard Woolf, and is known to you all as Virginia Woolf.  If you've been able to keep my family tree in your head, you'll have worked it out that Virginia Woolf's mother, Julia Jackson-Duckworth-Stephen, and Edward Jerningham Wakefield, son of Gibbon Wakefield by Eliza Pattle, were second cousins. The next of James Pattle's lovely daughters, Sarah, married Henry Prinsep, a wealthy Indian merchant who returned to London in 1843.  Her house was always open to Thackeray, who was a constant visitor.  His letters and diaries record many delightful meetings there with the Pattle girls, as he called them.

 

Then there was Julia Pattle, who married Charles Cameron, an important Indian official; she was the only plain sister, but she made up for it by her picturesque behaviour, especially in middle life, when she became one of the pioneers of portrait photography.  Together with Mrs. Prinsep who, by the 1860s, had the painters, Watts and Burne Jones, and who knows others besides, living in her menage at Little Holland House in London.  Julia netted for her camera most of the celebrities of the day.  Julia Cameron's story, which is delightful, I cannot cover here; but you will find it in all its vitality in her volume, called Victorian Photographs, which has the introduction by her niece, Virginia Woolf, from which I have been quoting.  If you still believe that the Victorians were conventional, have a look at this book.

 

Then there was the youngest Pattle girl, Virginia, Thackeray's favourite, who was so strikingly beautiful that she used to be mobbed in the London streets.  All through the 1840s, Thackeray commented on her loveliness, whenever he met her at the Prinseps or elsewhere.  His admiration culminated in an article in Punch, "On a good looking young lady", in 1850.  Her wedding to Charles, Viscount Eastnor, later 3rd Earl Somers, in October 1850, was one of the brilliant occasions of the time.  "She looked beautiful" wrote Thackeray "and has taken possession of Eastnor Castle and her rank as Princess, and reigns to the delight of everybody."

 

*      *      *

 

The above tales, with their mentions of various people who remained in association for family reasons if no other, could well be cross-referenced, as follows. It was presumably the case from 1787, that Thomas, Judge James Pattle's father, as an East India Company director had views on the opening up of the Pacific Ocean to British shipping by virtue of the establishment of a convict colony at Sydney. From 1787, an increasingly influential Company investor was the banker Francis Baring, who as chairman of the Company in the early 1790s took a dim view of London-based whalers operating in the Pacific, perhaps engaging in trade illicit from the Company point of view. Too little is known of Baring's view here, or the views of his associates. ([13]) In 1789 the Directors of the East India Company were: ([14])< /p>

 

Chairman: Nathaniel Smith ([15]); Deputy-chair, John Michie. William Bensley, Thomas Cheap, Lionel Darrell ([16]), Thos. Fitzhugh, Stephen Lushington ([17]), James Moffatt, Thomas Pattle, John Roberts, Joseph Sparkes, Robert Thornton ([18]), John Travers, Jacob Bosanquet ([19]), William Devaynes ([20]), William Elphinstone, John Hunter, Charles Mills, Thomas Perry, Abraham Robarts ([21]), John Smith, George Tatem, John Townton, John Woodhouse. Secretary,  Thomas Morton. Deputy-secretary, William Ramsay.([22]) Of these men, some are notable for their association with the terms of "the Botany Bay debate". And given "the Botany Bay debate", it is important to note how few of London's merchants took opportunities to explore commercial opportunities which might have arisen in the Pacific. This of course can serve to throw the merchants who did become involved, into clearer relief. 

 

*     *     *

 

The Pattle family is rendered thus: One Pattle progenitor is Thomas Pattle, born c.1710 in England, son of Edward Pattle and Ruth Casson. He married Elizabeth Brooke as second wife (a member of the family which became the Brookes of Sarawak.) He was "of Poplar and Stepney", and at one time a part-owner and/or captain of an East Indiaman. In 1748 he was of Poplar in the Parish of St Dunstan's, Stepney. ([23])

 

Edward Pattle, who married Ruth Casson, had a relative Thomas Pattle (died 3 July 1702), who  had a son Thomas (who had a daughter, Elizabeth). The father here may be the same as one Thomas Pattle an East India Company factor on the Malabar Coast in 1677-78. In any case, the Pattles had a long association with East India trade, based in India. One Capt. Thomas Charles Pattle, a merchant at Canton, was born in 1773 at Beauleah, Bengal; he died in 815 at Macao. He was the son of Thomas Pattle, East India Company director and his wife Sarah  Hasleby; this Thomas Pattle, son of Thomas and Sarah married as first wife, Eliza Anne Frances Middleton. He had brothers James ("Jim Blazes" as above, with seven daughters), and William, of a Bengal Light Cavalry.. This Thomas was also, confusingly, a  half-cousin of the father of Rajah Brooke of Sarawak. ([24])  Capt. Thomas Pattle was of the Canton Civil Service in 1788 and a second member of the Select Committee off and on between 1805-1815. He was appointed a supercargo in 1794 and later became a director of the East India Company. The provers of his will in 1815 were Sir William Fraser (not yet identified) and Charles Magniac (of the firm which became Jardine-Matheson). (The Pattle family also has vague cross-links with the descendants of noted goldsmith Paul Storr (1771-1844), via the Baronets Champneys, as given p. 118 in Christopher Lever, Goldsmiths and Silversmiths of England. London, Hutchinson, 1975.) ([25]) The residue of Thomas' estate was invested in 1865. He had an estate worth not £90,000, as he thought, but £163,769. ([26]) Via inheritances, some of that fortune went to fund the colonisation schemes of Edward Gibbon Wakefield (1796-1862).

 

**************< /o:p>

 

"The seven beautiful Pattle sisters":

 

James ("Jim Blazes") Pattle "was highly successful, very wealthy, and had a beautiful, forgiving wife, Adeline Maria de l'Etang (1793-1845), and beautiful daughters who all made

successful marriages to wealthy men." ([27]) The daughters of "Jim Blazes" were thus:

 

  5 (from progenitor 1)-- James PATTLE (1775-1845) ([28])

                 sp-Adeline DE L'ETANG (1793-1845)

                    6-- James Rocke Mitford PATTLE Died Young ( -1813)

                    6-- Maria PATTLE (1818-1892)

                     sp-Dr John JACKSON of Calcutta (1804-1887) ([29])

                        7-- Julia Prinsep JACKSON widow, wife2 (1846-1895)

                         sp-Sir Leslie STEPHEN KCB, Bart1 (1832-1904)

                            8-- Adeline Virginia (Woolf) STEPHEN writer (1882-1941) ([30])

      sp-Leonard WOOLF (1880-1969)

                            8-- Julian Thoby STEPHEN Died Young (1880-1906) ([31])

8-- Vanessa STEPHEN (1879)

                             sp-Arthur Clive BELL, Art Critic (1881-1964)

                                9-- Quentin BELL, History Professor, (1910)

                                 7-- Virginia Pattle JACKSON (1827-1910)

                         sp-Charles SOMERS, Earl3 Somers, Viscount Eastnor (1810-1883)

                        7-- Adeline Maria JACKSON (1837-1881)

                         sp-Sir Henry Halford VAUGHAN (1811-1885)

                            8-- William Wyamar VAUGHAN

                             sp-Margaret Madge SYMONDS

                                9-- Janet Maria VAUGHAN (1899)

                            8-- Millicent VAUGHAN

                             sp-Sir Vere ISHAM, Bart11

                        7-- Mary Louisa JACKSON (1841-1916)

                         sp-Herbert FISHER, Royal  Tutor

                            8-- Herbert A. L. FISHER, Educator

                              6-- Adeline PATTLE

                     sp-General Colin MACKENZIE

                    6-- Sara Monckton PATTLE (1848)

                     sp-Sir Henry Thoby PRINSEP, East India Company figure (1793-1878)

                        7--Sir Henry Auriol PRINSEP (1836-1914)

                         sp-Lilian SMYTHE

                        7-- Valentine Cameron PRINSEP (1838-1904)

                       sp-Florence LEYLAND

                 7-- Virginia PRINSEP (Listed in the IGI) (Born 1848, christened Paddington, London)

                        7-- Alice PRINSEP

                         sp-Charles Henry GURNEY, Banker (born 1833) ([32])

                            8-- Rachel Anne GURNEY wife1 ( -1920)

                             sp-William Humble WARD, Earl3 Dudley, Viscount Ednam, governor-general of Australia (1867-1932) ([33])

                                9-- William Humble Eric WARD, Earl Dudley (1894)

                                 sp-Lady Rosemary Millicent LEVESON-GOWER

                                    10--Lt. William Humble David WARD (1920)

                                9--Capt. Robert Arthur WARD (Army)

                                9-- Cyril Augustus WARD MVO, RNVR

                                9--Lt. Gerald Ernest Francis WARD

                            8-- Laura GURNEY-49308

                             sp-Sir Thomas Herbert TROUBRIDGE, Bart4 ( -1938)

                            8-- Henry Edward GURNEY

                    6-- Louisa PATTLE

                     sp-H. V. BAYLEY

                          6-- Sophia PATTLE

                     sp-Sir John Warrender DALRYMPLE, Bart7 (1824-1888)

                    6-- Virginia PATTLE (1827-1910)

                     sp-Charles SOMERS Earl3 Somers, Viscount Eastnor-53498 (1810-1883) ([34])

                        7-- Adeline Mary (Somers-Cocks) SOMERS had issue, (1852)

                         sp-George William RUSSELL, Duke13 Bedford (1852-1893)

                        7-- Isabel SOMERS ([35])

                         sp-Lord Henry Richard Charles SOMERS (1849-1932)

                    6-- Julia Margaret Pattle, Photographer (1815-1879)

                     sp-Charles Hay CAMERON (-1880) ([36])

                        7-- Julia CAMERON, wife1 ( -1873) ([37])

                         sp-Charles Lloyd NORMAN, Banker (1833-1889) ([38]) ([39])

                5--Capt. Thomas Charles PATTLE ( -1815)

                 sp-Elizabeth BROOKE, wife2

                 sp-Eliza Anne Frances MIDDLETON, wife1( -1820)

                    6-- Ruth Casson PATTLE ( -1829)

                     sp-Capt. Robert BROOKE. (1727)

                        7-- Thomas BROOKE, EICS Judge (1760-1835)

                         sp-Anna Maria STUART, wife2

                            8-- Henry BROOKE Died Young

                            8--Sir James BROOKE of Sarawak, Unmarried (1803-1868) ([40])

                             ..................6-- Eliza Susan PATTLE wife1

                     sp-Edward Gibbon WAKEFIELD NZ Co., WA Co. (1796-1862)

                        7-- Nina WAKEFIELD, invalid ( -1835)

                        7-- Edward Jerningham WAKEFIELD, MP, author (1820-1879)

                         sp-Ellen ROE

                5-- William PATTLE, Bengal Light Cavalry

             sp-Susanne WILSON-24288 ( -1875)

                5-- Thomas PATTLE-22902

                 sp-Marian Lucia MAUDE-14250

                    6-- Thomas Philip Marmaduke PATTLE, Magistrate-24728 (1849-1890)

                     sp-Annie BARTER-24405 (1852-1930)

                        7-- Cecil John St John PATTLE-13839

                        7-- Frank Montague Ormond PATTLE-13241

                        7-- Harold Alfred PATTLE-13240

                        7-- Rupert James Hartwell PATTLE-10036 (1883-1932)

                         sp-Nellie Caroline GODFREY-32538 (1886-1972)

 

Some subsidiary genealogical matters need to be explained...

 

*     *     *

 

The Middleton Connections:

 

Nathaniel Middleton is notable here only in that he had children, whom he recognised, by an unknown Indian woman. Their daughter was:

    2-- Eliza Anne Frances MIDDLETON wife1 ( -1820)

     sp-Capt. Thomas Charles PATTLE  ( -1815)

        3-- Ruth Casson PATTLE ( -1829)

         sp-Capt. Robert BROOKE. (1727)

            4-- Thomas BROOKE EICS, Judge (1760-1835)

             sp-Anna Maria STUART wife2

                5-- Henry BROOKE Died Young

                5--Sir James BROOKE, Unmarried, of Sarawak, (1803-1868)

                 sp-Margaret NOTKNOWN

                 sp-Lily Willes cousin JOHNSON wife2

                    6-- Charles Vyner BROOKE, Third Rajah of Sarawak (c.1874)

                    6-- Charles Anthony JOHNSON-BROOKE Rajah

                     sp-Margaret Alice Lili DE WINDT

                        7-- Ghita JOHNSON-BROOKE ( -1873)

                        7-- Charles Vyner JOHNSON-BROOKE

                         sp-Lady Sylvia Leonora BRETT, Lady Brooke (1885-1971)

                            8-- Leonora Margaret BROOKE wife2

                             sp-Kenneth MACKAY, Earl2 Inchcape, of the P&O line. (1887-1932)

                            8-- Bertram BROOKE (1876-1965)

                             sp-Gladys Milton PALMER ( -1952)

                            8-- Vyner BROOKE

                             sp-Miss NOTKNOWN

                    6-- Bertram BROOKE (1786)

                    6-- Harry BROOKE (1879)

                    6-- Stuart BROOKE

                5-- Emma Frances BROOKE (1822)

                 sp-Rev Francis Charles JOHNSON

                    6--Sir John Johnson-Brooke BROOKE, Rajah Sarawak

                     sp-Annie GRANT, wife1 ( -1858)

                        7-- Basil BROOKE (1857)

                        7-- John Charles Evelyn BROOKE ( -1934)

                         sp-Violet BARRINGTON

                            8--Vice-Admiral Basil Charles Barrington BROOKE

                             sp-Nora TOPPIN

                                9-- Peter Barrington BROOKE

                     sp-Julia WELSTEAD wife2

                        7--Capt. William Frederic BROOKE

                        7-- Charles Anthony BROOKE

                        7-- Henry Stuart BROOKE, Prison Governor ( -1894)

                    6--Sir Charles Anthony JOHNSON-BROOKE (1874-1963)

                5-- Margaret BROOKE (1825)

                 sp-Rev. Anthony SAVAGE (1825)

        3-- Eliza Susan PATTLE wife1

         sp-Edward Gibbon WAKEFIELD, NZCo WA Co. (1796-1862)

            4-- Nina WAKEFIELD, invalid ( -1835)

            4-- Edward Jerningham WAKEFIELD, MP, author (1820-1879)

             sp-Ellen ROE

     sp-Major Alexander ROBSON

    2-- Emily MIDDLETON

     sp-Edward JERNINGHAM, Barrister

 

While the Australian colonies grew,  disparate groups of British merchants worked in India, South East Asia and China. Little is known of many of them, such as the brother, John, of the better-known Sydney merchant, Robert Campbell (1769-1846). The figure who became "the family banker of the Macarthurs", the wool-producing family of Parramatta near Sydney, was Walter Stephenson Davidson (1785-1869), who spent many of his early years in the East, is still little-known. What, if anything, can unite mention of such names? Anything as simple as "Australian opportunity". None of the Pattles had forebears who had connections with moves to establish a convict colony at Sydney; or people associated with those moves, yet oddly enough, they, or, their extended-family connections, were linked with many figures who after 1800 did have connections with various sorts of Australian history - including the promoter of systematic colonisation, Edward Gibbon Wakefield.

 

And at this juncture, yet another "literary" set of connections can be traced...

 

*     *     *

 

The Thackeray Connection:

 

Also part of the circles known to Virginia Woolf-Stephen were members of the family of the novelist William Makepeace Thackeray. It is little-known of this writer's family that they were distantly related to kin of the hulks overseer, Duncan Campbell (1726-1803), as follows, via the Shakespear family, which for present purposes can be regarded as originally of London. The Shakespears were yet another family which moved its members to India after the American Revolution.
See website by Steve Pearson in UK: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~shakespeare/  

 

*     *     *

 

Below is a partial descendancy list for Shakespears of London ([41]) as a link to line of Thackeray the novelist and also to the Campbells of Jamaica, also the family of Duncan Campbell of London, (1726-1803), overseer of the Thames Prison Hulks.

                                              

Shakespear of London DESCENDANCY CHART:

 

1-- Senior Progenitor SHAKESPEAR

 sp-Miss NOTKNOWN

    2-- Senior SHAKESPEAR

     sp-Miss NOTKNOWN

        3-- John SHAKESPEAR (1619-1689)

         sp-Margaret JUDE, widow, wife1 (1615-1652)

         sp-Martha Wall SEELEY wife2, of Wapping (1635-1695)

            4-- Jonathan SHAKESPEAR (1670-1735)

             sp-Elizabeth SHALLETT (1679-1745)

                5-- Arthur SHAKESPEAR Unm (1699-1749)

                5-- John SHAKESPEAR Alderman, Ropemaker (1718-1775)

                 sp-Elizabeth CURRIE (1726-1807) ([42])

6-- John SHAKESPEAR, of Brookwood (1749-1825)

                     sp-Mary DAVENPORT, wife1 (1757-1793)

                        7-- Henry Davenport SHAKESPEAR, EICo, In India

                         sp-Louisa Caroline Tobin MUIRSON (1794-1868)

                            8-- William Shakespear CHILDE-PEMBERTON, Composer and  author (1857-1924)

                             sp-Constance Violet Lucy BLIGH, Lady

                            8-- Louisa Mary Ann SHAKESPEAR ( -1844)

                             sp-Capt. James Macaulay HIGGINSON, in India-46331

                            8-- Augusta SHAKESPEAR

                            8-- Agnes SHAKESPEAR

                            8-- Henrietta SHAKESPEAR

                             sp-Rev. Henry Brougham VIZARD

                        7-- John Talbot SHAKESPEAR, BCS, EICo (1783-1825)

                         sp-Amelia (Emily) THACKERAY (1780-1824)

                            8-- Richmond Campbell SHAKESPEAR (1812-1861)

                             sp-Maria Sophia THOMPSON (had issue) (1825-1899)

                                9-- Richmond SHAKESPEAR (1844-1931)

                            8-- Emily Anne SHAKESPEAR (1804-1887)

                             sp-William Fleming DICK BCS

                                9-- Augusta DICK (1822-1859)

                                 sp-Lt.-General James F. TENNANT, Bengal Engineers

                                    10--William Francis TENNANT, Schoolmaster in Tasmania (1857)

                                9-- Harris St John DICK (1834-1879)

                                 sp-Grace NOTKNOWN

                            8-- William Makepeace SHAKESPEAR (1807-1835)

                            8-- John Dowdeswell SHAKESPEAR (1806-1867)

                             sp-Marianne Elizabeth HODGSON

                            8-- Augusta Ludlow SHAKESPEAR (1809-1893)

                             sp-Sir John LOW, Major, Lt.-General ( -1880) ([43])

                                9-- Charlotte Herbert LOW (1833-1853)

                                 sp-Sir Theophilus John METCALFE, Bart ( -1883)

                        10--Charles Herbert Theophilus METCALFE, Railway Engineer (1853-1928)

                                9-- William Malcolm LOW (1835-1923)

                                 sp-Lady Ida FEILDING

                            8-- George Trant SHAKESPEAR (1810-1844)

                            8-- Marianne Eliza SHAKESPEAR (1816-1891)

                             sp-Major IRVINE

                            8-- Charlotte Mary Anne SHAKESPEAR (had issue) (1813)

                             sp-James Henry CRAWFORD, BCS

                                9-- Selina CRAWFORD, wife2 (1844)

                                 sp-Lt--General James F. TENNANT, Bengal Engineers

                        7-- William Oliver SHAKESPEAR, EICo at Madras (1784-1838)

                         sp-Leonora Charlotte MAXTONE ( -1832)

                            8-- Charlotte Emilie SHAKESPEAR

                             sp-Captain MOORE

                            8-- George Frederick SHAKESPEAR

                             sp-Emily Charlotte TAYLOR

                            8-- Charles Maxtone SHAKESPEAR

                             sp-Maria FRASER

                        7-- Arthur SHAKESPEAR, Soldier (1789-1845)

                         sp-Harriet Sophia SKIP-DYOT-BUCKNALL (1799-1877)

                            8-- George Bucknall SHAKESPEAR (1819-1895)

                             sp-Henrietta Louisa PANET

                            8-- John Davenport SHAKESPEAR

                            8-- William Powlett SHAKESPEAR (1820-1844)

                        7-- Mary Anne SHAKESPEAR (1793-1850)

                         sp-Rev. Francis THACKERAY

                        7-- Charlotte Georgina SHAKESPEAR (1802-1888)

                         sp-Dr. James ALLARDYCE

                     sp-Charlotte FLETCHER, wife2

                    6-- David SHAKESPEAR, West India Merchant (1751-1823)

                     sp-Catherine WAGSTAFFE (had issue) ( -1805)

                        7--Rev. John Mure SHAKESPEAR, at Madras (1785-1836)

                         sp-Fransisque Eliza MUNTZ ( -1829)

                            8-- John Joseph SHAKESPEAR (1820-1881)

                            8-- Frances Eliza SHAKESPEAR (1818)

                        7-- Arthur SHAKESPEAR (No issue) ( -1846)

                         sp-Louisa cousin SAGE (No issue) ( -1860)

                        7-- Catherine Campbell SHAKESPEAR (1774)

                         sp-John Spencer GRIFFITH

                            8-- Catherine Anne GRIFFITH (1795)

                             sp- Admiral John Erskine DOUGLAS

                                9-- Helen DOUGLAS

                                 sp-Colin MACKENZIE, Madras army

                                9-- Crofton DOUGLAS (To Australia) ( -1922)

                                 sp-Miss NOTKNOWN (had issue)

                        7-- Elizabeth Currie SHAKESPEAR (1775)

                         sp-Rev HAMILTON of New York

                            8-- James Dunn HAMILTON, Bombay Army

                            8-- George Singer HAMILTON

                             sp-Miss NOTKNOWN

                        7-- Ann Caroline SHAKESPEAR, Unm (1777-1860)

                        7-- Sarah Frances SHAKESPEAR (No issue) (1777-1858)

                         sp-Colonel William ROOME, Bombay Army

                        7-- Arthur SHAKESPEAR (Fought at Waterloo) (1788-)

                    6-- Arthur Richmond SHAKESPEAR Ropemaker, MP (1748-1818)                   

               sp-Jane RIDLEY (1777-1804)

                        7-- John Matthew SHAKESPEAR, of Albany, No issue (1778-1844)

                        7-- Arthur William SHAKESPEAR, Rector, No issue (1783)

                    6-- Anne SHAKESPEAR (1573-1834)

                     sp-John BLAGROVE of "Cardiff Hall", Jamaica (1777-1824)

                    6-- Martha SHAKESPEAR ( -1843)

                     sp-Rev. John Robert LLOYD, of Aston Hall (1779)

                        7-- William LLOYD

                         sp-Louisa HARVEY

                        7-- Elizabeth LLOYD

                         sp-Robert CURTIS Esq.

                        7-- Louisa Charlotte LLOYD

                         sp-Thomas KENYON, Hon

                    6-- Sarah SHAKESPEAR ( -1829)

                     sp-Joseph SAGE, Assay Master of the Mint (1779-1820)

                        7-- Joseph White SAGE

                         sp-Miss NOTKNOWN wife1

                         sp-Miss NOTKNOWN wife2

                        7-- Richard Palmer SAGE

                         sp-Anna Martha BOULTON

                            8-- Emily BOULTON

                             sp-Rev. R. W. WHICKHAM, of Holmwood ( -1908)

                                9-- Thomas E. P. WHICKHAM

                                 sp-Elsie GRIEVE

                                    10--Michael WICKHAM

                                    10--Anthony WICKHAM

                        7-- Louisa cousin SAGE (No issue) ( -1860)

                         sp-Arthur SHAKESPEAR (No issue) ( -1846)

                            6-- Mary SHAKESPEAR (1762-1845)

                     sp-Laver OLIVER, Esq.

                    6-- Colin SHAKESPEAR, EICo, In India (1764-1635)

                     sp-Harriot DAWSON

                5-- Sarah SHAKESPEAR (1704-1781)

                 sp-Timothy MAINTRU

                    6-- John MAINTRU

                5-- Joseph SHAKESPEAR, Capt. (1705-1740)

            4-- Elizabeth SHAKESPEAR (1678)

             sp-Abraham SHAW

 

*     *     *

 

The Thackeray- Shakespear - Campbell Connection:

 

Follows a partial DESCENDANCY CHART for Thackeray the Novelist

 

1--Progenitor, Rev. Thomas THACKERAY, Royal Chaplain

 sp-Miss NOTKNOWN

    2-- William Makepeace THACKERAY, of Middlesex ( -1863)

     sp-Amelia WEBB (1758-1810)

        3-- Richmond Makepeace THACKERAY, In India (1810-1815)

         sp-Anne BECHER

            4-- Jane THACKERAY

             sp-Surveyor-General Major RENNELL, of Bengal (1770)

            4-- Henrietta THACKERAY

             sp-James HARRIS India, East India merchant (1774)

         sp-Miss NOTKNOWN (Lover)

            4-- Sarah THACKERAY (1806-1841)

             sp-James BLECHYNDEN, Esq. of Calcutta

        3-- Augusta THACKERAY, In India

        3--Rev. Francis THACKERAY

         sp-Mary Anne SHAKESPEAR (1793-1850)

        3-- Anne Ritchie THACKERAY

        3-- Harriet Marion Anne THACKERAY, wife1 (1837-1875)

         sp-Sir Leslie KCB STEPHEN, Bart1 (1832-1904)

            4-- Caroline Emma STEPHEN, Unmarried ( -1909)

        3-- Amelia (Emily) THACKERAY (1780-1824)

         sp-John Talbot SHAKESPEAR, BCS, EICo (1783-1825)

            4-- Richmond Campbell SHAKESPEAR (1812-1861)

             sp-Maria Sophia THOMPSON (had issue) (1825-1899)

                5-- Richmond SHAKESPEAR (1844-1931)

            4-- Emily Anne SHAKESPEAR (1804-1887)

             sp-William Fleming DICK BCS

                5-- Augusta DICK (1822-1859)

                 sp-Lt.-General James F. TENNANT, of Bengal Engineers.

                    6-- William Francis TENNANT, Schoolmaster in Tasmania (1857)

                5-- Harris St John DICK (1834-1879)

                 sp-Grace NOTKNOWN

            4-- William Makepeace SHAKESPEAR (1807-1835)

            4-- John Dowdeswell SHAKESPEAR (1806-1867)

             sp-Marianne Elizabeth HODGSON

            4-- Augusta Ludlow SHAKESPEAR (1809-1893)

             sp-Major Sir John LOW ( -1880)

                5-- Charlotte Herbert LOW (1833-1853)

                 sp-Sir Theophilus John METCALFE, Bart ( -1883)

                    6-- Charles Herbert Theophilus METCALFE, Railway Engineer (1853-1928)

                5-- William Malcolm LOW (1835-1923)

                 sp-Lady Ida FEILDING

            4-- George Trant SHAKESPEAR-44892 (1810-1844)

            4-- Marianne Eliza SHAKESPEAR-57422 (1816-1891)

             sp-Major IRVINE

            4-- Charlotte Mary Anne SHAKESPEAR (had issue) (1813)

             sp-James Henry CRAWFORD, BCS

                5-- Selina CRAWFORD, wife2 (1844)

                 sp-Lt.-General James F. TENNANT, Bengal Engineers.

        3-- Charlotte Sarah THACKERAY

         sp-John RITCHIE

        3-- Anne Isabella THACKERAY (1863)

         sp-Sir Richmond RITCHIE (1850) ([44])

 

And so we find that while there are no formally or direct historical connections between the families of Duncan Campbell the hulks overseer, and Thackeray the novelist, genealogical interconnections nevertheless abound. Historians generally ought to be aware of such connections, if for no other reason than that interconnections, sometimes unexpected, existed amongst families who had members "working for the Empire" in India. Presumably, other interconnections will in time come to light which may bear more forcefully on questions in Australasian history, proper. In this vein, the story of John Prinsep becomes more entertaining. ([45])

 

*     *     *

 

The Prinsep Connection: John Prinsep as a convict contractor: Section Six

 

The difficulties of explaining the Prinsep Connection in the context of "convict contractors" are several - and are connected with the contextual complexities of referring to the diverting Pattle family history as outlined above.

 

By 1800, a new name, Prinsep, had entered the lists of merchants wanting to send a convict ship to Australia. This Prinsep name came to London via India, with new ideas in mind - John Prinsep. Between 1800-1804, John Prinsep and his partners Lambert and Saunders were expressing interest in shipping prisoners to Sydney. ([46]) ([47]) Prinsep's  involvements are little reported, but there is an air of mercantile giftedness in what little is known of him. John Prinsep (1746-1831) had been 17 years in India where he pioneered indigo production. He returned to London with a fortune by 1788, became established as a merchant, and by 1804 he (unsuccessfully) planned a whale fishery in the South Seas, transporting convicts on the outward voyage, as per John St Barbe's proposal of the early 1790s, and shipping wool and freight back to London. ([48]) In July, 1804, regarded as a London merchant, John Prinsep was examined in Council Chamber at Whitehall, presumably about such possibilities. In 1804, as commercial men operating on an impressive scale, Prinsep and Saunders tendered a remarkable 16 ships to the East India Company; probably, mostly in the Bengal rice trade.

 

However, the later involvements of John Prinsep's sons in Western Australia are still not clear. What is clear, however, is that Prinsep plans, however much they failed in execution, had moved from New South Wales to Western Australia - involving a continental overview - the first such continental overview adumbrated by any merchants with London-India shipping and commercial connections. And perhaps prompted by NSW wool-production promoter, John Macarthur, perhaps not, Prinsep early on had at least considered wool freight from New South Wales. But the Prinsep picture failed to develop.

 

*     *     *

 

Some of the history of the Prinsep extended family is as follows...

 

A PRINSEP DESCENDANCY CHART:

 

1-- John PRINSEP, East India Company Indigo producer, London  (c.1790-1832) sp-Sophia NOTKNOWN ([49]); Charles Robert PRINSEP EICo Calcutta (c.1844) sp-Louisa Anne WHITE ( -1853); 3-- Henry Charles PRINSEP Settler Western Australia (c1844-1922) sp-Charlotte Josephine BUSSELL (1849-1929); 3-- Mary Emily PRINSEP widow, wife2 ( -1931) sp-Hallam TENNYSON, Baron2 Tennyson, Governor South Australia, governor-general Australia (1852-1928); 2-- Sophia PRINSEP sp- Mr. HALDIMAND, 2-- Henry Thoby PRINSEP EICo merchant (1793-1878) sp-Sara  PATTLE (IGI) (c.1848); 3-- Henry Auriol PRINSEP, 3-- Virginia PRINSEP (IGI) (c.1848), 3-- Alice PRINSEP sp-Charles Henry GURNEY Banker (c.1833); 4-- Rachel Anne GURNEY wife1 ( -1920) sp-William Humble WARD Earl3 Dudley, Governor -General Australia (1867-1932) ([50]); 5-- William Humble Eric WARD Earl3 Dudley (c.1894) sp- Lady Rosemary Millicent LEVESON-GOWER; 6--Lt. William Humble David WARD (c.1920); 5--Capt. (army) Robert Arthur WARD; 5-- Cyril Augustus WARD RNVR, 5--Lt. Gerald Ernest Francis WARD; 4-- Laura GURNEY sp- Sir Thomas Herbert TROUBRIDGE Sir, Bart4 ( -1938), 4-- Henry Edward GURNEY ([51]);  2-- James PRINSEP, Orientalist, reformer of currency of India, ( -1840); 2-- William PRINSEP, Merchant with agency house William Palmer and Co (c.1796) sp-? ([52]) ([53])

 

The Prinsep genealogy becomes tantalising. We find amongst the information, a governor-general of Australia, a Pattle daughter, a banker name (Gurney), and William Prinsep an agent of the agency house, William Palmer and Co. Too little is known of Palmer and Co., and one remains ambivalent about whether or not this family name, Palmer, was connected at all with the extended  family of Palmer, from 1788 the first commissary of the new colony at New South Wales.

 

*     *     *

 

Where questions of investment in New South Wales are concerned, some of the great er weight, before 1800, needs to be gathered around evidence on the trading activities of the New South Wales Corps. By about 1800, the weightiest commercial names which can be mentioned regarding investment possibilities are ranged around the acquaintanceships of John Macarthur. Here, the name of Macarthur's later "family banker" Walter Stephenson Davidson (1785-1869) looms the largest, from 1803-1804, and rather mysteriously. ([54])

 

Davidson, who was in New South Wales by 1803, but departed,  may have had links in eastern trade with two sons of Francis Baring (Thomas in Bengal and Henry at Canton, both with business careers unwritten to date). ([55]) The business linkages they formed have never been adumbrated, and Barings' work generally with the east remains little-known. It is with following up Davidson's career in this respect that many complexities of relationships commercial and personal between the banking fraternity in the United Kingdom need to be tallied. Lambert, Prinsep and Saunders were of 148 Leadenhall Street. ([56])

 

To 1830, one Robert Saunders, probably of Mincing Lane, with partners, was a London-Calcutta indigo dealer; he was probably son of the otherwise-unknown partner, Saunders, of John Prinsep,  from about 1800. To 1826, a J. Saunders appears as a wool trader and is listed by Le Coteur as a member of the Van Diemens Land Company; but there is no proof he was connected with the original partner Saunders with Prinsep. ([57])

 

One Henry Thoby Prinsep was active with the East India Company by 1827. In S. B. Singh's findings, he is acting-secretary about 1827 to Government Territorial Department in India, ([58]) at a time when some European and Indian agency houses were failing, the failures affecting investors in England badly. ([59])

 

Meanwhile, the acquaintanceships of John Macarthur become devilishly complicated to delineate. However, there is a drift about "eastern trade" in plans suggested by Macarthur's acquaintances which presumably surfaced in Macarthur's later vision about Pacific opportunities, termed his "quadrangular trade pattern" as illustrated and discussed by Hainsworth. ([60]) ([61])

 

At this point, consultation of the footnotes given here will have alerted the reader to the existence of an excess of tantalising interconnections. In brief, one might say that the families already noted contributed later (Nineteenth Century) names who were involved in history proper in the administration of British colonies. This may be a reflection of the educational attainments of such families, of their income levels (sometimes drawn from Eastern trade?), or their social class. What is extraordinary about the social classes in question is the way they intermarried with England's banker families. For these banker families were remarkable for the way they married into social spaces confined (perhaps outlined is a better word), by long-term financial interests. When the lists are consulted, of Englishmen (Britishers?) investing in Nineteenth Century Australasian colonies, in companies devoted to the exploitation of the resources of those colonies, what is found at the core of available genealogical information - are the intermarriages of banker families. ([62])

 

***************< /o:p>

 

We could at this point turn to listings historians have made of investors in the most influential companies promoting the development of Australasian companies. Here, the appearance of the colony of Western Australia still poses problems, as it involves the convict contractor name Mangles, (while two notable investors in Western Australia were Thomas Peel and Solomon Levey...).

 

The problem arises however of considering the career of Joseph Lachlan, not just a convict contractor, but a bulk-taker of such contracts, who seems to have operated for persons not unknown, simply unnamed. Lachlan's activities give camouflage and cover to better information about convict contracting involvements from about 1814. During Lachlan's period of activity from 1817-1829, some other convict contractors included: George Lyall, Samuel Francis Somes ([63]), Charles Enderby, Aaron Chapman and Thomas Henry Buckle. But what we do not know is whether Lachlan operated on his own account (which seems unlikely), for those named here, or other parties unnamed. 

 

********************< o:p>

 

Mangles the convict contractors and Western Australia: Section Seven

 

In general, the convict contractors as listed in Bateson's The Convict Ships had few relatives in Australasia, or none, even years later. This helps to explain why information of them surfaces so seldom via extended genealogical researches; and not in all cases does research on the merely commercial connections in the colonies, of convict contractors, lead back to solid caches of information in the United Kingdom. An exception to this is with the story of the founding of Western Australia, involving the convict contracting firm, Mangles.

 

By 1800, some merchants concerned with East India Company business included Mangles, Wilkinson, Hamilton and Co. Mangles were contractors who operated in low-key fashion, sending convict service ships regularly from 1800. ([64]) More successful from 1800 than Prinsep, Mangles can be regarded as having been a force in trade to India, and they also had one family member a director of the East India Company. An examination of their family history can be discouraging, however.

 

*     *     *

 

A Mangles family descendancy chart

    1 -- Robert Mangles of London (1731-1788) ([65])

     sp.-Miss Unknown

        2-- John Mangles  (1760-1837)

         sp.-Harriet Camden

            2-- James Mangles, Capt. RN. (1786-1867)

        2-- James Mangles, MP for Guildford. ([66])

         sp.-Mary Hughes

            3-- Charles Edward Mangles of the Australia trade. (1798-1873) ([67])

             sp.-Rose Newcombe

                4-- Rose Mangles (1835)

            3-- Ross Donnelly Mangles, NZ Co. (1801-1877) ([68])

             sp.-Harriet Newcombe

                4-- Louisa Malkyn Mangles

                4-- Emily Mangles (d.1927)

                 sp.-Charles Norman, Lloyds Banker (1833-1889) ([69])

            3-- Ellen Mangles of Woodbridge, Surrey (1807-1874) ([70])

             sp.-Sir James Stirling, Gov. WA (1791-1865) ([71])

                4-- Frederick Stirling, Australian naval commander

                4-- Walter Albert Stirling, soldier in India (1837-1857)

                4-- Andrew Stirling

                4-- William Stirling

                4-- Agnes Stirling

                4-- Elenor Stirling

                3-- Emily Mangles

            3-- Caroline Mangles

             sp.-Rev. Arthur Onslow ([72])

                4--Rev. Thomas George Onslow (1826)

                 sp.-Edith Augusta Hawkins, wife1 (d.1857)

                    5-- Edith Fanny Hawkins (d.1944)

                     sp.-Charles Constable Curtis

        Also part of the family were the brothers George W. Mangles, West Australian settler and Capt. John Mangles, RN, Botanist, parents unknown.

 

As with other genealogies noted above, the Mangles genealogy is unsatisfactory. Some entries in the IGI helpfully support Mangles' genealogy from other sources, others in the IGI do not. One family member, Captain John Mangles,  unmarried, helped the Western Australian botanist, Georgiana Molloy, ([73]) but he is difficult to place in his family history; his brother George became a West Australian settler. ([74])

 

The convict shipping run helped Mangles' trade to India, and between 1816 and 1842 their ship Surrey made eleven voyages with convicts to NSW and Tasmania. ([75]) One element in the Mangles family story is of the "small world" variety, since two Mangles men married to sisters Newcombe - who were daughters of George Newcombe of the Audit Office. If working at the Audit Office by 1830, Newcombe may well have known of the auditing of the papers associated with the contract-making for transportation by Thomas Shelton, and of the bureaucratic arguments on that strange matter. ([76]) Emily Mangles married to Norman, of the Norman banking family of Bromley Common, London.

 

The Norman family connection meant some connection to the family Stone, of the bankers Stone-Martin, whose (financial ) history is linked to the origins of the bank begun by Francis Baring - although this financial history is not yet in useful detail. Further to the mysteries of the Stone banker family, Caroline Mangles married Rev. Arthur Onslow, who by his second wife, Marianna Campbell, had a son, Arthur Alexander Onslow, who married Elizabeth Macarthur, daughter of James II Macarthur and Emily Stone. Emily, who was from the same Stone family; Emily being daughter of banker, Henry Stone. ([77]) Here, in brief, one Harriet Herring married the later Sir Francis baring. Her sister Mary married banker Richard Stone. Richard had a son, Henry Stone, banker of Lombard Street. In Clay's book on the bankers Norman, Henry Stone seems to be a partner in the bank Stone and Martin, later Martin and Co. From 1764, Francis Baring banked with his brother-in-law Richard Stone. ([78]) Later, John Martin MP can be noticed in these family linkages, since the name Martin became linked with that of the Norman banker family of Bromley Common. ([79])  

 

And, Arthur Pooley Onslow married Rosa, daughter of the New South Wales colonial secretary, Alexander Macleay. ([80]) As to banker families, and surely a reflection of a  confident class consciousness, a later female descendant here married a son of Gerard Smith, governor of Western Australia, who was of the line of the Smith-Payne-Smith bankers, that is, a relative of John Abel Smith, the first governor of the Australian Agricultural Company.

 

So with the little-studied Mangles family, who worked the convict service from about 1804, taking contracts handled by Thomas Shelton, are found genealogical linkages with noted British (London) banker families, some of which families invested in colonial Australia. That is, it is still not clear whether unexplained matters of (otherwise unremarkable?) family history can - or should - be directly or indirectly related to matters of investment in Australasia. This is all cloudier since the Mangles family is known to have invested in Western Australia, but they do not seem to have invested directly in New South Wales - and the extent to which they invested indirectly in New South Wales is also not clear. What the Mangles family history does indicate, clearly, is that a convict contracting firm had members who married to the emerging Australian upper class. The implications of any such facts remain unclear, partly since the vice-regal sector of Australasian society, in general, has never been studied in concerted ways. If it was studied, as a social sector, the genealogical interconnections noticed here could not be avoided.

 

**********************

 

Prior to the establishment of the Australian Agricultural Company: Section Eight

 

By  1816, members of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufacture and Commerce, who had later Australian Agricultural Company connections, included Lord Bathurst, James Brogden, Walter Buchanan, Sir Robert Farquhar and Sir Thomas Farquhar, James Esdaile Hammett, ([81]) John Macarthur Jnr, Thomas Potter Macqueen,  ([82]) Richard Twining, and George Miller. Pemberton notes that John Macarthur Jnr. had a "first meeting" with wool trader Donald Maclean of Carrick and Maclean, Blackwell Hall factors. Here, George Brown was a partner with G&J Brown, merchants, and Maclean's father-in-law was George Gerard de Hochpied Larpent, a partner in the East India house of Paxton, Cockerell and Trail, ([83]) and a chairman of an East India Trade committee promoting the settlement of Northern New Holland. ([84])

 

Since 1823 was a distinct watershed year, earlier-compiled lists of men influential in proceedings, perhaps, need recompilation. ([85]) It is here convenient to note the members of the London General Shipowners Society. ([86])< /p>

 

 Now, we need to consider the first lists relevant to the Australian Agricultural Company as well as other companies active 1823-1840, including Edward Gibbon Wakefield and the promoters of the South Australian colony, with notes on various men interpolated. The list is alphabetical only.

 

Preceding however, is a matter involving the London shipowner and colonial emigration agent, John Marshall. ([87]) Marshall became a prime mover for the fusion of two underwriting societies (the Red and the Green), that is, the establishment of a single register on a broader basis. These issues came to a head at an annual meeting of the  Shipowners Society on 11 December, 1823, and were resolved. It is ironic, of course, that in the 1790s, one of the names at Lloyd's of London, John St. Barbe, who helped start the rebel Red Book at Lloyd's, was also the whaling investor who suggested to government that whaling ships be regularly allowed to ship convicts to New South Wales.

 

*     *     *

 

Since 1823 was a distinct watershed year, earlier compiled lists of men influential in proceedings, perhaps, need recompilation. ([88]) Now, we need to consider the first lists relevant to the Australian Agricultural Company as well as other companies active 1823-1840, including Edward Gibbon Wakefield and the promoters of the South Australian colony, with notes on various men interpolated. The list is alphabetical only.

 

*     *     *< /p>

By  1816, members of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufacture and Commerce, who had later Australian Agricultural Company connections, included Lord Bathurst, James Brogden, Walter Buchanan, Sir Robert Farquhar and Sir Thomas Farquhar, James Esdaile Hammett, ([89]) John Macarthur Jnr, Thomas Potter Macqueen,  ([90]) Richard Twining, and George Miller. Pemberton notes that John Macarthur Jnr. Had a "first meeting" with wool trader Donald Maclean of Carrick and Maclean, Blackwell Hall factors. Here, George Brown was a partner with G&J Brown, merchants and Maclean's father-in-law was George Gerard de Hochpied Larpent, a partner in the East India house of Paxton, Cockerell and Trail, ([91]) and a chairman of an East India Trade committee promoting the settlement of Northern New Holland. ([92]) By 1823, John Macarthur Jnr. Had become chairman of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts committee on colonies and trade, and he promoted prospects for  Australian wool, in effect, his father's scheme of 1803. A mere fortnight after the Australian Agricultural Company as formed, Macarthur in that capacity obtained the services of Wilmot Horton as vice-president of the society, i.e., about May 1824. ([93]) In London, John Macarthur Jnr kept in touch with other Australians in London, such as W. C. Wentworth, Alexander Riley, William Jones, Governor King's family (whose agents were the Enderbys), plus various army and navy men and merchant ship captains.

 

When the Australian Agricultural Company was formed, banker and MP John Abel Smith (1801-1879) took the chair. He came from a family of highly discreet merchant bankers, Smith, Payne and Smiths, and took more interest in "eastern trade" than anyone else in his extended family; for which he became distrusted. One view is that he wasted his patrimony on eastern trade - and in Australasia. ([94]) Australasian historians have known too little about his activities - including his business links with precursors of Jardine-Matheson, and opium dealing. ([95])< /p>

 

An even more mysterious character is Walter Stephenson Davidson, who has been regarded as "family banker" for the Macarthur family. Davidson had a mostly unexplained position with the bankers, Herries-Farquhar and Co., and it is presumably partly via his position - partner? - with this bank that Farquhars invested in the Australian Agricultural Company? Here, a conjecture can be explored. From the early 1770s, Herries-Farquhar had pioneered the English use of what is today termed, the traveller's cheque; and to 1783, while they pioneered this financial innovation to fashionable England, Sir Robert Herries (1730-1815) had also managed to remain the main buyer of North American tobacco for the French Farmers-General - during a war. How Herries did this without incurring the odium of the City, and was actually knighted,  is intriguing. One imagines that since the war was unpopular, finance names who disapproved of the war may have even helped Herries; he was certainly aided by Scots tobacco shippers for the duration. Suffice to say, the Australian Agricultural Company obtained a fine group of investors. It is not impossible that by 1824, since Herries-Farquhar had been promoting traveller's cheques to fashionable England for 50 years, their mailing list of affluent clients was long. ([96]) Perhaps, Davidson at Herries-Farquhar simply did a mail-out concerning the prospectus of the Australian Agricultural Company? This possibility is just one reason to review the lists of company investors?         

 

Significantly for Australian commercial development, the watershed year of 1823-1824 meant that a greater concentration of purely finance names, including W. S. Davidson, and not just shipping managers (such as Mangles), or shippers also involved in Eastern trade (such as Paxton, Cockerell and Traill), turned their attention to Australasia. Politicians also. This meant new forces arose in mercantile capitalism, and from this decade, shipping operators viewing Australasia tended to be less of an old school, more of the newer school of Duncan Dunbar and Joseph Somes. From 1823, lists of "ship men", including whalers, are overtaken by the names of financiers and politicians.

 

This paper has had the ambition of placing financial names in a different sort of context, genealogical, to which it should be relatively easy to attach other data on commercial activity. The need arises to review all relevant lists of investors and other figures interested in: the Australian Agricultural Company ([97]) or New South Wales in general, the Van Diemens Land Company, ([98]), in Western Australia, South Australia, and also the Canada Company. (Pemberton meantime finds an indirect set of interests in NSW arising within Russia and Baltic houses, [though not in the Russia Company itself]. These were dealers in flax, hemp, oil and timber, such as Stephen Thornton and Brothers, Astell, Thornton and Tooke, William Astell and Thomas Tooke;  William Astell of S. Thornton and Co., Old Broad Street.) Here, Henry Sykes Thornton may figure. ([99])< /p>

 

By 1823, John Macarthur Jnr. had become chairman of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts committee on colonies and trade, and he promoted prospects for  Australian wool, in effect, his father's scheme of 1803. A mere fortnight after the Australian Agricultural Company as formed, Macarthur in that capacity obtained the services of Wilmot Horton as vice-president of the society, i.e., about May 1824. ([100]) In London, John Macarthur Jnr kept in touch with other Australians in London, such as W. C. Wentworth, Alexander Riley, William Jones, Governor King's family (whose agents were the Enderbys), plus various army and navy men and merchant ship captains.

 

When the Australian Agricultural Company was formed, banker and MP John Abel Smith (1801-1879) took the chair. He came from a family of highly discreet merchant bankers, Smith, Payne and Smiths, and took more interest in "eastern trade" than anyone else in his extended family; for which he became distrusted. ([101]) One family view is that he wasted his patrimony on eastern trade - and in Australasia. ([102]) Australasian historians have known too little about his activities - including his business links with precursors of Jardine-Matheson, and with opium dealing. ([103])< /p>

 

An even more mysterious financial operator is Walter Stephenson Davidson, who has been regarded as "family banker" for the Macarthur family. ([104]) Davidson had a mostly unexplained position with the bankers, Herries-Farquhar and Co. It is presumably partly via his position - partner with this bank? - that Farquhars invested in the Australian Agricultural Company?

 

Here, a conjecture can be explored. From the early 1770s, the bank Herries-Farquhar had pioneered the English use of what is today termed, the traveller's cheque. To 1783, while they pioneered this financial innovation to fashionable England, Sir Robert Herries (1730-1815) also remained as the main buyer of North American tobacco for the French Farmers-General - during a war! How Herries did this without incurring the odium of the City, and was actually knighted,  is more than  intriguing. (Herries' career reminds one of the tone of distaste that many commentators use, including historians, concerning the "disloyalty" of the financier who is committed to internationalism - and might end in playing off two or more warring parties against each other. Or, end in being "forced" to play them off in order to survive.)

 

One imagines that since the American war was unpopular to 1783, finance names who disapproved of the war may have even helped Herries; he was certainly aided by Scots tobacco shippers for the duration. Suffice to say, the Australian Agricultural Company obtained a fine group of investors. It is not impossible that by 1824, since Herries-Farquhar had been promoting traveller's cheques to fashionable England for 50 years, their mailing list of affluent clients was as long as it was interesting. ([105]) Perhaps, Davidson at Herries-Farquhar simply did a mail-out concerning the prospectus of the Australian Agricultural Company? This possibility is just one reason to review the lists of company investors?         

 

Significantly for Australian commercial development, the watershed year of 1823-1824 meant that a greater concentration of purely finance names, including W. S. Davidson, and not just shipping managers (such as Mangles), or shippers also involved in Eastern trade (such as Paxton, Cockerell and Traill), turned their attention to Australasia. Politicians also. Reformers and "radicals", also. This meant new forces arose in mercantile capitalism, and from this decade, British-based shipping operators viewing Australasia tended to be less of an old school, more of the newer school represented by  Duncan Dunbar and Joseph Somes. From 1823, lists of "ship men" interested in Australian colonies, including whalers, including convict contractors, are overtaken by the names of financiers and politicians.

 

*     *     *

 

The following section of this article has the ambition of placing financial names in a revised context, genealogical, to which it should be relatively easy to attach other data on commercial activity. The need arises to review all relevant lists of investors and other figures interested in: the Australian Agricultural Company ([106]) or New South Wales in general, the Van Diemens Land Company, ([107]), in Western Australia, South Australia, and also the Canada Company. (Pemberton meantime finds an indirect set of interests in NSW arising within Russia and Baltic houses, [though not in the Russia Company itself]. These were dealers in flax, hemp, oil and timber, such as Stephen Thornton and Brothers, Astell, Thornton and Tooke, William Astell and Thomas Tooke;  William Astell of S. Thornton and Co., Old Broad Street.) Here, Henry Sykes Thornton may figure also. ([108])< /p>

 

**********************

 



[1] On Dundas here... James G. Parker, 'Scottish Enterprise in India, 1750-1914', pp. 191-219 in R. A. Cage, (Ed.), The Scots Abroad: Labour, Capital, Enterprise, 1750-1914. London, Croom Helm, 1985. Parker, p. 197 in Cage's book writes: "The origins of Dundas' interests in the (East India) Company's affairs are obscure, but he seems early to have developed a genuine concern for Indian matters over and above the obvious potential value of the Company's patronage to his political control of Scotland for Pitt." But Parker warns also against over-estimating the extent of Dundas' "personal Indian patronage".   

[2] Jacob M. Price, 'One Family's Empire: The Russell-Lee-Clerk Connection in Maryland, Britain and India, 1707-1857', Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 72, 1977., pp. 165-225.

[3] For example, in the entries on his own family in Dictionary of National Biography, the editor, Sir Leslie Stephen (1832-1904) indicates that his family came from Aberdeenshire, Scotland..

[4] On Robert Campbell's career see Eric Richards, 'Australia and the Scottish Connection, 1788-1914', Chapter 5, in R. A. Cage, (Ed.), The Scots Abroad: Labour, Capital, Enterprise, 1750-1914. London, Croom Helm, 1985., p. 117.

[5] A model of research on meandering genealogical movements due to changes in Imperial fortunes is: Jacob M. Price, 'One Family's Empire: The Russell-Lee-Clerk Connection in Maryland, Britain and India, 1707-1857', Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 72, 1977., pp. 165-225. Some of the personnel discussed had business-political linkages with Duncan Campbell (1726-1803). As discussed in an unpublished article, Dan Byrnes, A Bitter Pill: An assessment of the significance of the meeting between Thomas Jefferson and Duncan Campbell of the British Creditors in London, 23 April, 1786. Unpublished. Armidale, NSW, Australia, November 1994.

[6] On Virginia Woolf see: Quentin Bell, Bloomsbury. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson. Nigel Nicolson, (Ed.), The Question of Things Happening: The Letters of Virginia Woolf, 1912-1922. London, The Hogarth Press, 1976. Louise DeSalvo, Virginia Woolf: The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Her Life and Work. New York, Ballantine Books, 1989. L. M. Mowle, A Genealogical History of Pioneer Families of Australia. Fifth edition. Sydney, Rigby, 1978., genealogy for Stephen, p. 328. Alma Halbert Bond, Who Killed Virginia Woolf: a psychobiography. New York. Human Services Press. 1989. Lyndall Gordon, Virginia Woolf: A Writer's Life. OUP. 1984. Anne Olivier Bell and Andrew McNeillie, (Eds.), The Diary of Virginia Woolf, Vol. 2, 1920-1924. London, Penguin, 1981. Note: I am indebted to Armidale resident Georgina Chaseling (nee Bennett) for much assistance with the links between the name Prinsep and the circle of writer, Virginia Woolf, the Bloomsbury Group. Ms Chaseling is descended from the Stephen family who were part of Woolf's circle.

[7] Here we could discuss people in detail, with a Pattle progenitor (broken link? - htttp://members.madasafish.com/~mqofs on Pattle genealogy) ; Thomas Pattle and wife Elizabeth Brooke, James Pattle, High Court Judge, Julia Prinsep-Jackson, Adeline Virginia Stephen-Woolf, Charles Somer Earl Somers, Frederic W. Maitland, Historian. Sir Francis Darwin died 1925, Henry Thoby Prinsep d. 1878 of EICo. Sir Henry Auriol Prinsep (1836-1914). Charles Henry Gurney, discuss Gurney/Overend bankers etc., William Ward Earl3 Dudley, governor-general of Australia, photographer Julia Margaret Pattle/Cameron, banker Charles Lloyd Norman, the Brookes (Rajahs) of Sarawak, Edward Gibbon Wakefield. On the name Henry Auriol Prinsep, son of John Prinsep (1746-1831-32) and Sophia Notknown... I have a suspicion that Sophia's surname name here was Auriol. This is based partly on a hint from the IGI (fiche version), partly on the commonality of a man having a middle name actually his mother's maiden name. In 1782, the daughter Charlotte Louisa Auriol, daughter of J. Auriol, married an East India Company employee, Thomas Dashwood. There is a chance she was a sister of the wife of John Prinsep. See Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Dashwood of Kirtlington Park.

[8] Sir Leslie Stephen was first editor of English Dictionary of National Biography. L. M. Mowle, A Genealogical History of Pioneer Families of Australia. Fifth edition. Sydney, Rigby, 1978. Genealogy for Stephen, p. 328. On Sir Leslie Stephen, KCB, Bart1 (1832-1904), son of  the anti-slaver James Stephen, and his wife Jane Catherine Venn (of the Clapham Sect), he married Julia (Prinsep) Jackson (1846-1895 daughter of Maria Pattle (1818-1892) the daughter of  "Jim Blazes" Pattle), widow, and as second wife he married  Harriet Marion Anne Thackeray, (daughter of the novelist, William Makepeace Thackeray). On Sir Leslie Stephen, Bart1, KCB, Table by Q. Bell. Also on the Stephen family: Noel Annan, Leslie Stephen: The Godless Victorian. London and Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1984.

[9] I am here citing a talk by by Prof. Joan Stevens, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand, material provided by Mary Pattle Hover. James, who had seven beautiful daughters. James Pattle had married a French girl, daughter of the Chevalier Antoine de l'Etang, one of Queen Marie Antoinette's pages.  After the Queen's execution, he and his young wife were banished. They went to British India, where their one daughter married James Pattle. "All the family became friends of the Thackerays, with whom there remained ties for the ..."

[10] Regina Marler, (Ed.), Introduction by Quentin Bell, Selected Letters of Vanessa Bell. London, Bloomsbury Pub Ltd., 1993-1994. (p. xxiii on a grandmother, Therese Blin de Grincourt). James King, Virginia Woolf. London, Penguin, 1994-1995., p. 7. Frances Spalding, Vanessa Bell. London, Phoenix, 1994. On William Wyamar Vaughan, a cousin of Virginia Woolf, see p. 271 of Anne Olivier Bell and Andrew McNeillie, (Eds.), The Diary of Virginia Woolf, Vol. 2, 1920-1924. London, Penguin, 1981. He was headmaster of Rugby school. Quentin Bell, Bloomsbury, London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968.

[11] He had views c. 1815 on profitable use of labour of Indian convicts. He left £9000 in his will. He died at Chowringee Road, Calcutta, and had daughters one dead four married, two unmarried. He had also lived at Epsom, UK. He has a nephew, Major Thomas Reed. Mary Pattle Hover has mentioned some descendants named Hoseason. His mother Sarah lived 1755-1813.

[12] From further data per Mary Hover we find that another Pattle girl was baptised Louisa Calbrook Pattle,  with Calbrook the name of Charles Pattle's arch enemy in India. (Presumably, Sir Edward Colebrooke, found to be corrupt and taking bribes at Delhi, as noted p. 318 of John Clive, Macaulay: The Shaping of the Historian. New York, Knopf, 1974.) Pattle and James Prinsep helped construction for the first Calcutta Ice House. His daughters were Adeline II, Julia Margaret (the eccentric one), Sara, Maria, Louisa. Virginia and Sophia.

[13] Prior to 1805, Francis Baring the banker had two sons in the East, one in Bengal, one at Canton. It is not known with whom these sons dealt. It may be possible they dealt especially with American clients at a time when the North-west American fur trade to China was expanding. On that fur trade, see James R. Gibson, Otter Skins, Boston Ships, and China Goods: The Maritime Fur Trade of the Northwest Coast, 1785-1841. Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1992. Paperback edition of 1999.

[14] Source: 1789 Annual Register.< /span>

[15] Nathaniel Smith (1730-1794), MP,  governor EICo, son of Nathaniel Smith and Anne Gould; he married  Hester Dance. Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1754-1790. [Two Vols.] London, Parliament Trust of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1964., Vol. 3, p. 448. He was a posthumous son of Capt. Nathaniel Smith of St Giles, Cripplegate, and spent 12 years in East India Company naval service, rising to commander and captain. He retired in 1771 and was active as a company director till he died in May 1794 Namier nmotes him as chairman of EICo 1783-1785 and 1788-1789. He was deputy-chair of EICo and an MP in 1786.

[16] Sir Lionel Darrell (1742-1803), first Baronet, governor East India Company, MP, son of Lionel Darrell and Honoria Hardwicke; he married Isabella Tullie. He remained in close contact with Richard Atkinson and was of the Sulivan EICo faction (the enemies of Clive of India). Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1754-1790. [Two Vols.] London, Parliament Trust of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1964., Vol. 2, p. 299. He had a younger brother, John, an EICo servant. Lionel was a director of the EICo from 1780 till he died in 1803, almost continuously. His wife's father was  once an EICO director. His family was probably in the Portugal trade. Christie on non-elite MPs, p. 73. Sir Lionel Darrell's son-in-law was Miles Nightingale, who might have been selected as the NSW governor who actually became Lachlan Macquairie. (See DNB entry for Miles Nightingale.) Lt-General Miles Nightingale (1768-1829), KCB, married Florentia Darrell. He was aide-de-camp to Lord Cornwallis, often commanded Highlanders, and he avoided becoming governor of New South Wales by claiming arthritis in his writing hand. He became commander-in-chief of Java, once took Bali. H. M. Ellis in his biography of Lachlan Macquarie notes a rumour that Nightingale was a son of Cornwallis.

[17] This man seems to be Sir Stephen Lushington (1744-1807), Bart1, Director EICo., of South Hill Park, son of Rev. Henry Lushington and his first wife, Mary Altham. Burke's Landed Gentry for Lushington. He was an EICo director 1782-1786, 1792-1796, 1797-1801, 1802-1805, chairman 1789-1790. 1795-1796, 1799-1800. He was close to Henry Fletcher, a follower of the Duke of Portland. Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1754-1790. [Two Vols.] London, Parliament Trust of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1964., Vol. 3, p. 63. Stenton, British Parliamentarians, Vol. 1, p. 246 for his sons. There was also a Stephen Lushington (1782-1873), MP, son of Stephen Lushington, an MP for Tower Hamlets, a reformer and abolitionist, a Judge of the High Court of Admiralty  in 1838-1867.

[18] Robert Thornton (1759-1826), MP, director of the EICo, son of Russia Co. merchant, John Thornton and  Lucy Watson of Hull; he married Maria Eyre of Clapham. Burke's Landed Gentry for Thornton formerly of Birkin. He was of the EICo City interest, and admired Adam Smith as a citizen of the world. Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1754-1790. [Two Vols.] London, Parliament Trust of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1964., Vol. 3, p. 525. Ernest Marshall Howse, Saints in Politics: the `Clapham sect' and the Growth of Freedom. London, Allen and Unwin, 1973., p. 15.

[19] Jacob Bosanquet (died 1828), chairman of East India Company, also of the Levant Company. Son of Levant Co. merchant, Jacob Bosanquet and Elizabeth Hanbury; he married Henrietta Armytage,  widow. Burke's Landed Gentry for Smith-Bosanquet.

[20] William Devaynes (1730-1809), MP, chairman, East India Company, army contractor, son of an émigré, John Devaynes and Mary Barker; he married firstly Jane Wintle and then Mary Wileman. Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1754-1790. [Two Vols.] London, Parliament Trust of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1964., Vol. 2, p. 319. Devaynes was in a bank known as Crofts, Roberts, Devaynes and Dawes. (Christie, non-elite MPs). He was a leader in the EICo directorate after 1770 and a large governmetn contractor, 1776-1782. With John Hennicker and George Wombwell and Edward Wheler had victualling contracts for 12-14000 men in America. (All except Henniker were EICo directors and friends of Hastings.) Devaynes by 1777 was the only commissioner of the Africa Co in parliament at a time when the EICo was accused of allowing private trade to be set up tending to a monopoly. Devaynes had a mulatto daughter mentioned in his will. This man was a friend of Colonel William Dalrymple, as noted in Frost, Convicts and Empire, p. 62 re strategic arguments on the location of possible Australian colonies or expeditions to the South Seas, pp. 99.

[21] Abraham Robarts (died 1816), banker, MP, son of Capt. Abraham Robarts. He married Miss Tierney, as in  Burke's Landed Gentry for Robarts of Lillingstone Lovell. He was MP for Worcester from 1796 till he died in 1816. He can be noted as a slaver since in Christie on non-elite MPs he appears as a West India factor as well as an EICo director. He was also a partner in Lechmere's bank in Worcester. He is probably the man with a daughter marrying into the line of Grant-Dalton formerly Thellusson of Brodsworth Hall. Edna Healey, Coutts, pp. 405ff. Robarts' bank with (Sir) William Curtis began in 1791 at 15 Lombard St., the site of the old Lloyd's Coffee House. A firm Robarts, Payne, and Robarts of Kings Arms Yard were involved in the 1773 tea deals provoking the Boston Tea Party. Part of the family was Abraham Wildey  Robarts (died 1858), Esq., Writer for the EICo for seven years at Canton from 1794, MP, member of the NZCo.; he married Charlotte Anne Wilkinson and  inherited banking business in 1816. (See Christie, non-elite MPs.) See also Peter Adams, Fatal Necessity: British Intervention in New Zealand, 1830-1847. Oxford University Press, 1977., on the New Zealand Company. Robarts was in India at a time when Sir Wm. Curtis was sending regular ships to China. He joined his father's bank in 1801. (Edna Healey on Coutts, p. 406). Burke's Landed Gentry for Robarts of Lillingstone Lovell.

[22] Source: 1789 Annual Register.

[23] Which raises a point. From post-Elizabethan times, so many commercial/maritime families lived in the parishes of St Dunstan's in the East, and the West, that a book should be written. Naval treasurer Sir John Hawkins (1531-1595) was of St Dunstan's as was Maurice Thompson (1651-1733 as noted in Robert Brenner, Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London's Overseas Traders, 1550-1653. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1993.), one of the major early promoters of Anglo-Virginia trade.Hugh Pattle died 1653-54, a progenitor of the Pattles discussed here, married to Elizabeth Williamson, was of St Dunstan's. Similarly with the financier and London Lord Mayor, Sir Gilbert Heathcote, (1651-1733). Anne Launce of the extended family of  Duncan Campbell (1726-1803) the hulks overseer was associated with the parish. A convict contractor to Australia, Samuel Moates, died 1831-32, married a widow Silvia nee Coombes in 18922 at St Dunstan's, Stepney, Letter to the author from Ian Berryman. The anti-slaver, Henry Venn (1796-1873) was a curate at St Dunstan's in the West.

[24] See Paul Bloomfield, Edward Gibbon Wakefield: Builder of the British Commonwealth, table on Wakefield, p. 35, where he appears as a Canton merchant.

[25] Notes on Magniac appear elsewhere in this paper.

[26] Information per Mary Hover of Florida, USA. Burke's Peerage and Baronetcy for Brooke of Sarawak.

[27] On Adeline de l'Etang, see James King on V Woolf, p. 7. She had earlier links to Chevalier de l'Etang and Therese Blin de Grincourt. She is descended from a servant of Marie Antoinette, Chevalier de l'Etang. (See also p. 365 of the notes of Annan on Sir Leslie Stephen.)

[28] This chart is based on a large handwritten chart kindly provided by the family of Mary Pattle Hover, Florida, USA. I have here excluded the South African branch of the family.

[29] On Dr John Jackson, table by Marler, (Ed.), p. xxiii. The Pattle girls' maternal grandmother was Therese Blin de Grincourt formerly of Versailles, France. He was a leading physician at the Medical College at Calcutta. His wife went home in 1848 for health reasons; this wife Maria is sister of Sarah Pattle and her husband Henry Thoby Prinsep, retired Anglo-India administrator.

[30] Given the family progress over time, the writer seems to have been named Adeline Virginia for Adeline de l'Etang, or one of her ancestors.

[31] The name Thoby is quite uncommon, but I have not been able to find where it originates.

[32] Charles Henry Gurney, a partner in Saunderson's bank. In his family background is one Edward Wakefield (husband of Priscilla Bell), of the family of Edward Gibbon Wakefield the colonist. Burke's Landed Gentry for Gurney of Keswick and Gurney of North Runcton. GEC, Peerage, Dudley of Dudley Castle, p. 419.

[33] He was also a Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. GEC, Peerage, Dudley of Dudley Castle, p. 491; Ward of Birmingham, p. 344. Burke's Landed Gentry for De Falbe and for Gurney of North Runcton.

[34] Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Somers. GEC, Peerage, Bedford, p. 87.

[35] On Isabel Somers, see Michael Stenton, (Ed.), Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: A Biographical Dictionary of the House of Commons. Peterhouse, Cambridge, UK. Harvester Press. 1976-1978. (Four Vols.). Vol. 1, 1832-1885. Vol. 2, 1886-1918., Vol. 1, p. 356.

[36] Cameron was governor of the Bahamas 1804-1820 and also a legal figure in India while Macaulay the historian was in India. Charles Hay Cameron's genealogy is given in Burke's Landed Gentry for Cameron of Lochiel. His genealogy also produces a governor of Victoria, Australia (1863-1866); Sir Charles Darling (1809-1870). Davis McCaughey, Naomi Perkins and Angus Trumble, Victoria's Colonial Governors, 1839-1900. Melbourne University Press, 1993. For lists of governors and/or governors-general of  Australia and New Zealand, see A. W. Ward, G. W. Prothero, Stanley Leathes, The Cambridge Modern History. Volume XIII. Genealogical Tables and Lists and General Index. Cambridge University Press, 1911. Also on Charles Hay Cameron, see Frances Spalding on Vanessa Bell, given below.

[37] On Julia Cameron and her husband Charles Lloyd Norman, Burke's Landed Gentry  for Norman of Bromley Common.

[38] On Charles Lloyd Norman (1833-1889), banker, son of  George Wade Norman, an investor in the Australian Agricultural Company and Sibella Stone, C. L. Norman married a first wife, Julia Cameron, and then Emily Mangles (daughter of director of the New Zealand Company Ross Donelly Mangles and Harriet Newcombe). The name Mangles is a London-based convict contractor name as discussed below, with connections to Western Australian settlement. See Burke's Peerage & Baronetage for Norman of Bromley Common. Youssef  Cassis, 'Bankers in English Society in the late eighteenth century', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 38, No. 2, May 1985., pp. 210-229., here p. 215. Sir Henry Clay, Lord Norman. London, Macmillan, 1957. pp. 1-12., here, p. 6. David Kynaston, The City of London: A World of its Own, 1815-1890. Vol. 1. London, Chatto and Windus, 1994., here, p. 29. G. W. Norman is a good example of how socially well-knit were bankers of a reforming outlook. He was "friend and neighbour" at Bromley Common to bankers such as Hankey, George Grote, Hay Cameron, Lubbock, Stone, Martin. See also, Pike, Dissent, variously.   

[39] Genealogically, the name Norman links three generations earlier to the families of Stone and Herring, both names in banking history being instrumental in backing the origins of the bank managed by the later Sir Francis Baring.

[40] On the Brookes of Sarawak, see also Cassandra Pybus, White Rajah: A Dynastic Intrigue. St Lucia, University of Queensland Press, 1996.

[41] Genealogists of this family state that they have no connection to the family of William Shakespear the playwright.

[42] Elizabeth Currie (1726-1807) was of the extended family of the hulks overseer Duncan Campbell (1726-1803) as follows. Duncan's father was principal Neil Campbel of the College of Glasgow (Glasgow University). Neil had an uncle, Colonel John Campbell, who became the first Campbell to settle on Jamaica in 1700. Colonel John married Catherine Claiborne of a Virginian family. Catherine Caliborne had a daughter Anne Campbell (1700-1783) who married a London-West India merchant, David Currie (died  1771); they had a daughter, Elizabeth who married London alderman John Shakespeare. One of her sons was Arthur (1748-1818) an MP. This is not clear from an otherwise helpful book, J. Shakespear, John Shakespear of Shadwell and his Descendants, 1619-1931. Newcastle, UK, Self-Published. 1931. I am indebted to Virginian genealogist John Dorman for information on Catherine Claiborne's marriage. These Curries were no relations of the family Currie noted in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Currie, of which family, incidentally, Sir Frederick Currie (1799-1875), Bart1, married to Susannah Larkins of the Larkins family noted in Byrnes, `The Blackheath Connection', p. 89, Note 134.

[43] Lt.-General Sir John Low. He is denoted as Major in the family tree produced by Lt. Col. Shakespear, noted above. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Metcalfe.

[44] Surprisingly little information can be found on this family in Australia.

[45] A. C. Staples, 'Memoirs of William Prinsep; Calcutta years, 1817-1842', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 26, No. 2, April-June 1989., pp. 61-79.

[46] On many points in maritime history, generally, illuminating essays can be found in C. Northcote Parkinson, (Ed.), The Trade Winds: A Study of British Overseas Trade during the French Wars, 1793-1815. London, Allen and Unwin, 1948., p. 143: about 1804, Prinsep and Saunders tendered 16 ships to the  East India Company.

[47] Pemberton, London Connection, p. 121, July 11, 1804, wool gentlemen meet inc. Hunter and Waterhouse, both RN, Capts Prentice and Townson of New South Wales Corps, William Wilson of Monument Yard, agent for Rbt Campbell and Marsden, and William Stewart Master Mariner of Lambert, Prinsep and Saunders, shipping and East India agents of 147 Leadenhall St, owners of Anne to NSW in 1800. See also, Sibella Macarthur-Onslow, Some Early Records of the Macarthurs of Camden. [Orig. 1914] Sydney, Rigby, 1973..

[48] Pemberton, The London Connection, 1804ff, p. 121, Note 3. John Prinsep (1746-1831), partner in (Lambert) Prinsep and Saunders, was 17 years in India where he pioneered indigo production, to arrive back in London with a fortune by 1788. He re-established as a merchant, and by 1804 he planned a whale fishery in the South Seas, taking convicts by contract to NSW, backloading wool and freight. See DNB entrries on people of the Prinsep family.

[49] On John Prinsep, see Singh, European Agency Houses, p. 2, pp. 108ff, p. 116, p. 211, p. 244, Note 1. Prinsep by 1779 was also a chintz contractor; he had an indigo plantation near Baraset in the 24 Parganas, called Neelganj. He also set up a mint at Putah and contracted with governmetn for copper coinage for the presidency. In 1779 the  EICo let a first contract for indigo for the Company to John Prinsep, who remained the sole contractor till 1784, but as the Company made losses, other contractors were used. One Lt. Boyce had found a way to manufacture indigo, but his terms were not accepted, by 1788 the Company still lost on indigo. Singh, European Agency Houses, pp. 106ff, notes that Prinsep and Saunders about the time they were dealing with Cockerell Trail and Co in India, shipping rice, edible in England, weer also shipping convicts to Aust. In London, Prinsep and Saunders engaged 16 ships to proceed out to bring back rice, Fairlie Gilmore and Co. had similar ideas at the same time  had the same idea, with 15 ships intended from India to send rice, and 22 ships licenced in England to go out for rice, 37 ships in all. Henry Dundas and David Scott both wanted such uses for India ships. Similar dealings were desired for cotton for England. Prinsep and Saunders might have bought 1000 tons of rice with their country ships. These dealings are also noted -  Prinsep and Saunders tendering 16 ships to the EICo - in C. Northcote Parkinson, (Ed.), The Trade Winds: A Study of British Overseas Trade during the French Wars, 1793-1815. London, Allen and Unwin, 1948., p. 143.

[50] On Capt. Robert Arthur Ward, GEC, Peerage, Dudley of Dudley Castle, p. 491, Note B. On William Humble Ward, third Earl Dudley, governor-general of Australia, see Burke's Landed Gentry  for Gurney of North Runcton. His progenitor is first BaronWard in GEC, Peerage, Dudley of Dudley Castle, p. 491; Ward of Birmingham, p. 344. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Birmingham.

[51] On HENRY EDWARD GURNEY, Burke's Landed Gentry for Gurney of North Runcton.

[52] See A. C. Staples, 'Memoirs of William Prinsep; Calcutta years, 1817-1842', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 26, No. 2, April-June 1989., pp. 61-79.

[53] 1804, Parkinson mentions large Eastern Merchants, p. 343, such as Hogue and Davidson and Co; Hugh Atkins; Reid, Palmer and Co; Edward Brightman; Johannes Sarkies; Shaik Gullum Hossain; Fairlie Ferguson and Co, agents for Calcutta Insurance Co.

[54] See also, Sibella Macarthur-Onslow, Some Early Records of the Macarthurs of Camden. [Orig. 1914] Sydney, Rigby, 1973., pp. 92-95.

[55] Henry Baring (1776-1848), merchant at Canton and Thomas (1771-1846) at Calcutta/Bengal. H. R. Fox Bourne, English Merchants: Memoirs in Illustration of the Progress of British Commerce, Vol. 2, p. 243. Ralph W. Hidy The House of Baring in American Trade and Finance: English Merchant Bankers at Work, 17630-1861. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1949., p. 29, p. 495, Note 51. Stenton, British Parliamentarians, Vol. 1, pp. 21-23, Vol. 2, p. 21.

[56] I have been unable to find anything further on Lambert or Saunders.

[57] See George Sugden Le Couteur, Colonial Investment Adventure, 1824-1855: a comparative study of the establishment and early investment experiences in New South Wales, Tasmania and Canada, of four British companies. Ph.D. thesis, Sydney University, 1978.

[58] S. B. Singh, European Agency Houses in Bengal, 1783-1883. Calcutta, Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, 1966.

[59] Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 121, Note 3. See also, DNB entries for members of the Prinsep family.

[60] See D. R. Hainsworth, The Sydney Traders: Simeon Lord and his Contemporaries, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1972., p. 68.

[61] John Prinsep by 1804 laid plans - which were interesting but premature - to import wool from eastern Australia. The plans involved John Maitland, John Macarthur, Mr. Coles, Mr. Wilson at Monument Yard, Capt. Waterhouse and Mr. Stewart. John Maitland, of Basinghall Street, was an influential wool merchant who had links with Sir Joseph Banks and Macarthur. (See Harold B. Carter, His Majesty's Spanish Flock: Sir Joseph Banks and the Merinoes of George III of England. Sydney, Angus And Robertson, 1964.  Harold B. Carter, Sir Joseph Banks, 1743-1820. London, British Museum (Natural History), 1988.) At an  1804 auction of the King's sheep, Maitland was interested in Macarthur's proposal for a company to produce  wool in New South Wales and supported it in company with Hulletts, who'd dummy-bought two ewes for Macarthur, and owned the Argo. At the sale, Banks warned Macarthur of the Obstructive Act of 1788 preventing export of sheep. Later, Macarthur suggested to Lord Camden a Treasury warrant be drawn for the export. A company with a capital of £10,000 was proposed, but the plan went awry. By July 1804, John Prinsep was examined in Council Chamber at Whitehall. See also Sibella Macarthur-Onslow, Some Early Records of the Macarthurs of Camden, 92-95.

[62] Here, perhaps, a glance at the late eighteenth century is appropriate, in respect of the movement to abolish slavery, of "the Clapham sect", and especially a glance at the idealism of that sect. Their idealism apart, many of the abolition movement were moneyed men, skilled in financial dealings. It may even have been that given their collective financial acumen, the abolitionists thus had confidence that the Imperial financial sky would not fall in if slavery was abolished. For many of their enemies appeared to believe that ruin would be the result of abolishing slavery. The point here is that in their marriages, the families of the abolitionists observed the social habits of the much-intermarried English banker families. Here, the name Wilberforce, which has no direct connection with Australasian histories proper, becomes particularly noticeable in connection with families which did have some connections with Australasian history.

[63] According to Bateson, The Convict Ships, 37 convict transports brought prisoners to Western Australia between 1850 and 1868, with the shipowners involved including Duncan Dunbar, John Allan, Joseph Somes and J. H. Luscombe. Their long-term commercial activities so far have remained largely unresearched.

[64] For example, Friendship, Capt. Hugh Reed, a convict transport of 1800-1801, 430 tons, owned by John and James Mangles. Bateson, The Convict Ships,  pp. 157ff.

[65] Robert Mangles (1731-1788) of London was also of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, and had sons John and James. About 1750 he went to London and set up as a ships chandler. (In litt per Ian Berryman in WA in March 1996.) The Mangles genealogy given here has been sourced from the following references: ADB for James Stirling, governor of Western Australia. The IGI. Burke's Landed Gentry for Norman of Bromley Common. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Onslow. Cameron, Ambition's Fire, pp. 38-44. Hasluck, Thomas Peel, pp. 18-21ff. Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 421 and elsewhere. Stenton,  British Parliamentarians, Vol. 1, pp. 258-259. Ian Berryman in litt.  On the banker family, Norman; Sir Henry Clay, Lord Norman. London, Macmillan, 1957. pp. 1-12. Youssef  Cassis, `Bankers in English Society in the late eighteenth century'', p. 215. Cassis, City Bankers, p. 226. Kynaston, City of London, p. 29, p. 84. Burke's Landed Gentry for Lubbock formerly Bonham-Carter. ADB entry for General Sir Henry Wylie Norman, (1826-1904), governor of Queensland. Autobiography of George Wade Norman, Completed 3 September, 1857, Kent County Archives, Microfilm U310-F69. [Copy, Dixson Library, UNE. I am grateful to Prof. Alan Atkinson for drawing my attention to this item]. On the genealogy of bankers Stone, see Clay,  Norman, pp. 6-7. Lennard Bickel, Australia's First Lady: The Story of Elizabeth Macarthur. North Sydney, Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1991., pp. 175ff. Ralph W. Hidy, The House of Baring in American Trade and Finance: English Merchant Bankers at Work, 17630-1861. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1949., p. 15. Burke's Landed Gentry for Holland-Martin of Overbury.   

[66] James Mangles, a Whig MP For Guildford 1832-1837, son of Robert Mangles, was a ships chandler and an East India proprietor, also a director of the East India Company. He was part of the firm, F&C Mangles of London. (From a discursive citation we find that in Trevelyan's life of Macaulay, Vol. 1, p. 431, some of Macaulay's circle in India included Cameron and MacLeod the law commissioners, Mangles, Colvin and John Peter Grant, the latter three of a younger circle.) James Mangles seems to have married a woman Camden, who was maybe related to the family of Camden linked to the early convict contractors, Camden, Calvert and King? James the MP, married to Mary Hughes, had a nephew, Capt. [John?] Mangles, RN. James' address was 6 Cannon Row, London, and Woodbridge, Surrey. He was high sheriff for Surrey in 1808. This family, Mangles, is supposed to have once have had much discussion with James Stirling, later governor of Western Australia, on "colonising matters". Some arcane ship-buying matters on Mangles' part are noted in Bateson, The Convict Ships,  pp. 232ff and notes thereto. Confusingly, from 1816, the convict transport Mangles was owned not by Mangles, but by the Buckle firm..

[67] Charles Edward Mangles, MP, "of the Australia trade" (1798-1873) also pursued East India interests. He was son of MP James Mangles, of F. G. Mangles and Mary Hughes, and was married to Rose Newcombe, Broeze, Brooks, p. 80, has Charles on the Board of the Union Bank of Australia (UBA), and as a senior partner of Mangles, Price and Co. (From 1834, Mangles Price and Co. were at New Broad St as names with Lloyd's.)  It should be noted that the bank,  Herries/Farquhar, became part of the UBA. Broeze, Brooks, p. 314, Note 56 has a man Mangles as treasurer of the Australasian Church Missionary Society by 1838. Pemberton, London Connection, p. 421. Charles was also chairman of the London and South-Eastern Railway, 1859-1872. Butlin, Australia and New Zealand Bank, p. 56 has him on the early board of the UBA. I am grateful to Ian Berryman for discussion of some points here in litt. Broeze, Brooks, p. 80: by the 1830s the WA trade was dominated by Mangles Price and Co and the firm's senior partner Charles Edward Mangles was on the board of Union Bank of Australia.

[68] Ross Donnelly Mangles (1801-1877) was an India Merchant, director of the East India Company, MP, son of MP James Mangles and Mary Hughes; he married Harriet Newcombe. Ross Donnelly was of 9 Henrietta St., Cavendish Sq., London, and of Woodbridge, Surrey. He had spent time in the  Bengal Civil Service. He became a director of the New Zealand Co. and once visited New Zealand on banking matters, about 1841. He was a deputy-lieutenant of London. A liberal, he was also anti-Papist. He was appointed a Member for the Council of India in September 1858, to 1866.

[69] Charles Lloyd Norman (1833-1889), Banker, son of George Wade Norman an AA Co. investor and Sibella Stone; he married firstly Emily Mangles and secondly Julia Cameron. He was a partner in the bank Finlay-Hodgson, which was absorbed by Baring Bros., and later a partner in Barings. Clay, Norman, p. 6.

[70] Ellen Mangles of  Woodbridge, Surrey, (1807-1874), married James Stirling, first governor of Western Australia. She once offered her own money to help failing Stirling businesses. She had  five sons and six daughters.

[71] Sir James Stirling (1791-1865), governor of Western Australia. Cameron., Ambition's Fire, p. 7, p. 38, p. 44, p. 86. Stirling once had a little-known partner, Matthey, thinking of an investment of £30,000 in WA by about 1825, when the Stirling family's own financial bubble burst. es of 1825. His own ADB entry. In 1833 a Mangles-family-inspired effort to settle Anglo-Indians near Albany on the south coast foundered when the first vessel was lost in 1833 with all hands, ship unnamed.

[72] Rev. Arthur Onslow (b.1773), rector of Crayford, Kent, was son of Lt-Col George Onslow MP and Jane Thorp. Arthur's first wife was Marianna Campbell, his second, Caroline Mangles.

[73] Alexandra Hasluck, Portrait with Background: A Life of Georgiana Molloy. [Orig., 1955] Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1979.

[74] George is noticed in Catalogue of the Australian Historical Exhibition, 1-26 Feb., 1938. Australia's 150th Anniversary Celebrations Council. 1938. Copy Dixson Library, UNE. The West Australian settler arriving 1829, a stock manager, George Mangles was a cousin of Ellen Mangles, wife of Sir James Stirling. George left WA in 1833-34 to begin a shipping service. Pamela Statham, (Compiler), Dictionary of Western Australians, 1829-1914. Two Vols. Vol. 1, Early Settlers, 1829-1850. Nedlands, Western Australia, University of Western Australia, August, 1979.

[75] Frank J. A. Broeze, 'British intercontinental shipping and Australia, 1813-1850', Journal of Transport History, New Series, Vol. 4, 1977-1978., pp. 189-207., p. 199 notes that the establishment of Western Australia under the governorship of James Mangles' son-in-law, James Stirling, signified "strong renewal" of Mangles' operations to Australia. The financial involvement of both Mangles and Stirling in the early colony was "undoubtedly considerable", says Broeze. The London firm known as C & F. E. Mangles started in 1834, and with the return of Stirling to his naval post, they liquidated their business to Western Australia  in 1845 and used Asian ports at Java, Mauritius, Batavia, Launceston, Singapore, and China. Broeze says that the Mangles pattern of  shipping operations is clear, despite the scantiness of relevant information.

[76] On the matter of Thomas Shelton's Accounts for making contracts for transportation being audited, see Byrnes, `The Blackheath Connection', Addendum 1. The next such contracts were made out by Shelton's nephew, John Clark. The Accounts of John Clark (Clerk of The Peace) relating to convict transportation, 13 July 1829 - Dec 1840, CLRO Shelf No. 209C. The dates covered by this volume are virtually identical with those of the 12 volumes of: List of Convicts on Board Ships ... To Australia, 13 July 1829 - Nov 27, 1840, CLRO Shelf No 209D. It seems likely that John Clark was responsible for both sets of records.

[77] Clay, Norman, p. 6. Bickel, Elizabeth Macarthur, table, p. 1, has her name as Emily.

[78] On some land transactions in NSW arising from family money here, and also involving W. S. Davidson, see Bickel, Elizabeth Macarthur, pp. 175ff.

[79] Burke's Landed Gentry for Holland-Martin of Overbury and Norman of Bromley Common.

[80] Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Onslow. Mowle, Genealogy, for Macarthur.

[81] Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 49. Stenton, British Parliamentarians, Vol. 1, p. 225.

[82] ADB for Macqueen. His banker affiliations were indicated by 1835 in Sydney Gazette.

[83] Paxton, Cockerell, Traill and Co. are an often-mentioned firm, but surprisingly little is known about them. Banker Sir Charles Cockerell, Bart1, East India trader, was born in 1755, parents unknown. He married as first wife, Mary Tryphoena Blunt, and secondly, by 1808, Harriet Rushout.  He went to India in 1776, then aged only eleven. He became an MP, a director of Globe Insurance Co., an honorary member of the Board of Control for India, a senior of Paxton, Cockerell and Traill. J. M. R. Cameron, Ambition's Fire: The Agricultural Colonization of Pre-Convict Western Australia. Nedlands, Western Australia, University of Western Australia Press, 1981. Which has many citations listed on colonization for various parts of Empire in the period, of the more intellectually respectable kind, and some other articles of interest including: J. M. R. Cameron, 'Traders, government officials and the occupation of Melville Island in 1824'The Great Circle, Vol. 7, No. 2, October 1985., pp. 88-99., here, p. 89. Stenton, British Parliamentarians, Vol. 1, p. 51. Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 67. GEC, Peerage, Coventry, p. 475. There was later one John Cockerell (perhaps a son of Sir Charles by his first marriage?) who by 1843 was part of John Cockerell and Co. of Austin Friars, London, who had as agent in Sydney, Robert Campbell. J. Ginswick, `Early Australian Capital Formation, 1836-1850, a case study, the Australian Gaslight Company', Bulletin of the Business Archives Council of Australia, Vol. 1, No. 6, May 1956, pp. 22-49.

[84] Pemberton, The London Connection, pp. 158-159, p. 350. Here, the Larpent genealogy is as interesting as it is unclear. MP Sir George Gerard de Hochpied Larpent, of a Huguenot refugee family, was of Cockerell and Co, chairman of the East India and China Association, and a deputy-chairman of St Katherine Dock Co., and a director of Royal Exchange Assurance Co. His relative Albert Larpent became a director of the India General Steam Navigation Company established in 1844. Broeze, 'The cost of distance: shipping and the early Australian economy, 1788-1850', p. 597, Note 2, Le Couteur lists for the AACo, to 1825. Stenton, British Parliamentarians, Vol. 1, p. 227.

[85] Significantly, as Pemberton found, the East India Agency Houses developed from the 1780s as agency or commission houses for East India Company servants, civil or military. Their principals   later moved into banking, insurance, ship owning, freight and general merchandise, and managing [indigo] plantations or saltpetre works. (As noted earlier, John Prinsep was a pioneer of indigo production in India .) Their operations ended overlapped in London, Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Canton, the US, Cape of Good Hope, and New South Wales. Till 1819 these houses had tended to work alone, but in 1819 they formed the East India Trade Committee, and between 1819-1824 this committee was led by G. G. de Hochpied Larpent; several other Australian Agricultural Company shareholders were members also, and they desired recognition by Britain of the new free port of Singapore. The Dutch had protested this. Pemberton, The London Connection, pp. 58-59. S. B. Singh, European Agency Houses in Bengal, 1783-1883. Calcutta, Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, 1966.

[86] Leonard Harris, London General Shipowners Society, 1811-1961. Some  members of this organisation of interest from 1811 or later included: John William Buckle, George Lyall, G. Palmer, G. F. Young, O. Wigram, William Tindall, J. Chapman, H. Blanchard, Henry Buckle, R. Barry, A. Ridley, J. B. Chapman, Duncan Dunbar.  

[87] The origins of any need to resolve "the battle of the Red Book and the Green book" at Lloyd's of London  are outlined in my `Blackheath Connection', Note 119. Charles Wright and Ernest Fayle, A History of Lloyd's. London, Macmillan, 1957., p. 305. Broeze, Brooks, pp. 124ff, discusses assisted emigration to Australia: since 1822 John Marshall had been involved in passenger shipping; in 1830 he became a passenger broker, linked especially to Joseph Somes.

[88] Significantly, as Pemberton found, the East India Agency Houses developed from the 1780s as agency or commission houses for East India Company servants, civil or military. Their principals   later moved into banking, insurance, ship owning, freight and general merchandise, and managing [indigo] plantations or saltpetre works. (As noted earlier, John Prinsep was a pioneer of indigo production in India .) Their operations ended overlapped in London, Calcutta, Madras, Bombay, Canton, the US, Cape of Good Hope, and New South Wales. Till 1819 these houses had tended to work alone, but in 1819 they formed the East India Trade Committee, and between 1819-1824 this committee was led by G. G. de Hochpied Larpent; several other Australian Agricultural Company shareholders were members also, and they desired recognition by Britain of the new free port of Singapore. The Dutch had protested this. Pemberton, The London Connection, pp. 58-59. S. B. Singh, European Agency Houses in Bengal, 1783-1883. Calcutta, Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, 1966.

[89] Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 49. Stenton, British Parliamentarians, Vol. 1, p. 225.

[90] ADB for Macqueen. His banker affiliations were indicated by 1835 in Sydney Gazette.

[91] Paxton, Cockerell, Traill and Co. are an often-mentioned firm, but surprisingly little is known about them. Banker Sir Charles Cockerell, Bart 1, East India trader, was born in 1755, parents unknown. He married as first wife, Mary Tryphoena Blunt, and secondly, by 1808, Harriet Rushout. He went to India in 1776, then aged only eleven, and became an MP, a director of Globe Insurance Co., an honorary member of the Board of Control for India, a senior of Paxton, Cockerell and Traill. J. M. R.  Cameron, `Melville Island', p. 89. Stenton, British Parliamentarians, Vol. 1, p. 51.  Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 67. GEC, Peerage, Coventry, p. 475. There was later one John Cockerell (perhaps a son of Sir Charles by his first marriage?) who by 1843 was part of John Cockerell and Co. of Austin Friars, London, who had as agent in Sydney, Robert Campbell. J. Ginswick, `Early Australian Capital Formation, 1836-1850, a case study, the Australian Gaslight Company', Bulletin of the Business Archives Council of Australia, Vol. 1, No. 6, May 1956, pp. 22-49.

[92] Pemberton, The London Connection, pp. 158-159, p. 350. Here, the Larpent genealogy is as interesting as it is unclear. MP Sir George Gerard de Hochpied Larpent, of a Huguenot refugee family, was of Cockerell and Co, chairman of the East India and China Association, a deputy-chairman of St Katherine Dock Co., and a director of Royal Exchange Assurance Co. His relative, Albert Larpent became a director of the India General Steam Navigation Company established in 1844. Broeze, 'The cost of distance: shipping and the early Australian economy, 1788-1850', p. 597, Note 2, Le Couteur lists for the AACo, to 1825. Stenton, British Parliamentarians, Vol. 1, p. 227.

[93] Pemberton, The London Collection, pp. 45-49.

[94] John Abel Smith (1801-1879), first chairman of the AA Co. He was on the 1834 London committee for female emigration. His ancestors in Nottingham had been pro-Cromwell and were later rewarded. He was of 37 Chester Square, London. His family bank, Smiths, Payne and Smiths, originated before the Sulivan/Clive furore in the East India Company; in 1758, Payne being John Payne, outgoing chairman of the East India Company. Smith was "a considerable personality", and acquired land on a vast scale, MP for Hertfordshire 1835-1847. As a friend of Lionel Rothschild, he helped Rothschild to sit in Parliament. Smith's  temperament in the view of his family was unsuited to the family bank. "He dissipated much of a considerable patrimony on the fringes of empire", in the east, in the Antipodes, in railway and colonial development. He had interests in Aust and NZ, he was a founder partner in Smith, (Hollingworth and Charles) Magniac and Co., East India and China merchants, the forerunners of Matheson and Co., the London agents of Jardine Matheson and Co. of Hong Kong. Earlier a chief partner in Smiths from 1834-1845, he opted to leave Smiths, to stay with Magniac, and end ruined for unclear reasons. Broeze, `Imperial Axis' in Push from the Bush. W. E. Cheong, Mandarins and Merchants: Jardine Matheson and Co: A China Agency of the Early Nineteenth Century. London, Curzon Press, (Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies, Monograph Series, No. 26), 1979., p. 243 and p. 258, Note 20. To make other connections, see S. B. Singh, European Agency Houses, variously, and on the similar topics, Michael Greenberg, British Trade and the Opening of China, 1800-1842. Cambridge University Press, 1951. Broeze, Brooks, pp. 32ff. Cassis in City Bankers sees him die in 1871. He is listed in Adams, Fatal Necessity, regarding the NZ Co. Maggie Keswick, (Ed.), The Thistle and the Jade: A Celebration of 150 years of Jardine Matheson and Co. Sydney, Octopus Books Ltd., 1982.,  pp. 24ff. Leighton-Boyce, Smiths the Bankers, p. 272. Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 389. Stenton, British Parliamentarians, Vol. 1, pp. 352-353.

[95] William Freshfield was solicitor to the Bank of England. The first AA Co. bankers were Smith, Payne and Smith, the solicitors were Freshfields. Both firms were prominent in joint-stock activity of the time; as given in Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 17, p. 182. Banker Dudley Robert Jardines Smith (1830-1897), of the same family. He once worked in the east and there developed scruples about handling opium-linked money. When he returned to England he refused to touch money tainted by opium trading. Such remarks are made of few bankers of his day. Cassis, City Bankers, pp. 239-241. GEC, Peerage, Ducie, p. 447.

[96] John Booker, Traveller's Money. London, Alan Sutton Publishing Ltd., 1994. On Sir Robert Herries' earlier days, see [Sir] Robert Herries... Jacob M. Price, (Ed.), `Directions for the conduct of a merchant's counting house, 1776', Business History, No. 3, Vol. 28, July 1986., pp. 134-150.

[97] John F. Atchison, Port Stephens and Goonoo Goonoo - A Review of the early period of the Australian Agricultural Company. Ph.D. Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra, 1973. Pennie A. Pemberton, The London Connection: The Formation and Early Years of the Australian Agricultural Company. Ph.D. thesis. Canberra, Australian National University, 1991.

[98] George Sugden Le Couteur, Colonial Investment Adventure, 1824-1855: a comparative study of the establishment and early investment experiences in New South Wales, Tasmania and Canada, of four British companies. Ph.D. thesis, Sydney University, 1978.

[99] Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 60, p. 346.

[100] Pemberton, The London Collection, pp. 45-49.

[101] See Charles P. Kindleberger, A Financial History of Western Europe. London, George Allen and Unwin, 1984., p. 80; citing Norman Baker on war contractors; the bankers Smith Payne Smith retained an excise sub-commission until 1841; Abel Smith II like ten London and three other country bankers, was a contractor to the British government during the  American Revolution, providing victuals for 60,000 troops in America. (See Baker, 1971, pp. 218, 335-226.) Smith was already well-connected at the time, with two sons MPs in Parliament.  Kindleberger, p. 80, notes Henry Thornton Jr., son of the author of Paper Currency, was a partner of Pole, Thornton and Co.

[102] John Abel Smith (1801-1879), first chairman of the AA Co. He was on the 1834 London committee for female emigration. His ancestors in Nottingham had been pro-Cromwell and were later rewarded. He was of 37 Chester Square, London. His family bank, Smiths, Payne and Smiths, originated before the Sulivan/Clive furore in the East India Company; in 1758, Payne being John Payne, outgoing chairman of the East India Company. Smith was "a considerable personality", and acquired land on a vast scale, MP for Hertfordshire 1835-1847. As a friend of Lionel Rothschild, he helped Rothschild to sit in Parliament. Smith's  temperament in the view of his family was unsuited to the family bank. "He dissipated much of a considerable patrimony on the fringes of empire", in the east, in the Antipodes, in railway and colonial development. He had interests in Australia and New Zealand, he was a founder partner in Smith, (Hollingworth and Charles) Magniac and Co., East India and China merchants, the forerunners of Matheson and Co., the London agents of Jardine Matheson and Co. of Hong Kong. Earlier a chief partner in Smiths from 1834-1845, he opted to leave Smiths, to stay with Magniac, and end ruined for unclear reasons. (See Frank J. A. Broeze, 'Foundation of fortune: the imperial axis, Flower-Salting-Challis', The Push From the Bush, No. 8, December 1980., pp. 50-74.) W. E. Cheong, Mandarins and Merchants: Jardine Matheson and Co: A China Agency of the Early Nineteenth Century. London, Curzon Press, (Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies, Monograph Series, No. 26), 1979., p. 243 and p. 258, Note 20. To make other connections, see S. B. Singh, European Agency Houses, variously, and on the similar topics, Michael Greenberg, British Trade and the Opening of China, 1800-1842. Cambridge University Press, 1951. Broeze, Brooks, pp. 32ff. Cassis in City Bankers sees him die in 1871. He is listed in Adams, Fatal Necessity, regarding the NZ Co. Maggie Keswick, (Ed.), The Thistle and the Jade: A Celebration of 150 years of Jardine Matheson and Co. Sydney, Octopus Books Ltd., 1982.,  pp. 24ff. Leighton-Boyce, Smiths the Bankers, p. 272. Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 389. Stenton, British Parliamentarians, Vol. 1, pp. 352-353.

[103] William Freshfield was solicitor to the Bank of England. The first AA Co. bankers were Smith, Payne and Smith, the solicitors were Freshfields. Both firms were prominent in joint-stock activity of the time; as given in Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 17, p. 182. Banker Dudley Robert Jardines Smith (1830-1897), of the same family. He once worked in the east and there developed scruples about handling opium-linked money. When he returned to England he refused to touch money tainted by opium trading. Such remarks are made of few bankers of his day. Cassis, City Bankers, pp. 239-241. GEC, Peerage, Ducie, p. 447.

[104] In terms of the remarks made above concerning the class-consciousness of the intermarriages of England's Nineteenth Century banker families, perhaps Walter Stephenson Davidson should be regarded as the first representative of that class to actually set foot on Australian soil. In this light, it appears that Davidson has been underestimated. He walked about Sydney early in his adult life, then went East, then returned to London. He retained a life-long interest in New South Wales' development. But the precise outlines of his financial dealings cannot be yet drawn. He does seem to have been an investor who decided on a long haul.

[105] John Booker, Traveller's Money. London, Alan Sutton Publishing Ltd., 1994. On Sir Robert Herries' earlier days, see [Sir] Robert Herries... Jacob M. Price, (Ed.), `Directions for the conduct of a merchant's counting house, 1776', Business History, No. 3, Vol. 28, July 1986., pp. 134-150.

[106] John F. Atchison, Port Stephens and Goonoo Goonoo - A Review of the early period of the Australian Agricultural Company. Ph.D. Thesis, Australian National University, Canberra, 1973. Pennie A. Pemberton, The London Connection: The Formation and Early Years of the Australian Agricultural Company. Ph.D. thesis. Canberra, Australian National University, 1991.

[107] George Sugden Le Couteur, Colonial Investment Adventure, 1824-1855: a comparative study of the establishment and early investment experiences in New South Wales, Tasmania and Canada, of four British companies. Ph.D. thesis, Sydney University, 1978.

[108] Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 60, p. 346.


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