The Blackheath Connection
Bibliography Part Two - M-Z

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John McCusker, Money and Exchange in Europe and America, 1600-1775: A Handbook.  London, Macmillan, 1978.

John McCusker. Rum and the American Revolution: The Rum Trade and the Balance of Payments of the Thirteen Continental Colonies. New York, Garland Publishing, 1989.

J. W. McCarty, 'The staple approach in Australian economic history',  Business Archives and History, Vol. 4, No. 1, 1964., pp. 1-22.

J. W. McCarty, 'Australia as a region of recent settlement in the nineteenth century', Australian Economic History Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, September 1973., pp. 148-167.

Davis McCaughey, Naomi Perkins and Angus Trumble, Victoria's Colonial Governors, 1839-1900. Melbourne University Press, 1993.

John McDonald and Ralph Shlomowitz, 'Contract prices for the bulk shipping of passengers in sailing vessels, 1816-1984, an overview', International Journal of Maritime History, Vol. 5, No. 1, June 1993., pp. 65-93.

John McDonald and Ralph Shlomowitz, 'The cost of shipping convicts to Australia',  International Journal of Maritime History, 2, No. 2, December 1990., pp. 1-32.

Kenneth Gordon McIntyre, The Rebello Transcripts: Governor Phillip's Portuguese Prelude. London/Adelaide, Souvenir Press/Hutchinson, 1984.

Kenneth Gordon McIntyre, The Secret Discovery of Australia: Portuguese Ventures 250 Years before Capt. Cook. Revised. Sydney, Pan, 1977.

Noel McLachlan, Columbus and Australia: New World Nationalism and the Gulliver Complex.  Melbourne, The History Department, University of Melbourne. ISBN 0 7325 0609 3. 1994.

Gordon McLauchlan, The Passionless People. New Zealand, Cassell, 1976.

Frank McLynn, Crime and Punishment in Eighteenth Century England. London, Routledge, 1989.

John McMahon, (Compiler), Fragments of the Early History of Australia, 1788-1812. Melbourne, 1913.

Arthur McMartin, `Aspects of patronage in Australia, 1786-1836', Public Administration, Vol. 18, No. 4, December, 1959., pp. 326-340.

Arthur McMartin, 'The Payment of officials in early Australia, 1786-1826: an essay in administrative history', Public Administration, Vol. 17, No. 1, March, 1958., pp. 45-80.

John L. McMullan, The Canting Crew: London's Criminal Underworld, 1550-1700. New Brunswick, New Jersey, Rutgers University Press, 1984.

Humphrey McQueen, A New Britannia: An Argument concerning the Social Origins of Australian Radicalism and Nationalism.  Ringwood, Victoria, Penguin, 1978.

Oliver MacDonagh, Inspector-General: Sir Jeremiah Fitzpatrick and the Politics of Social Reform, 1783-1802. London, Croom Helm, 1981.

James D. Mack, Matthew Flinders, 1774-1814. Melbourne, Thomas Nelson, 1966.

George Mackaness, Admiral A. Phillip. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1937.

George Mackaness, Blue Bloods of Botany Bay. Sydney, Collins, 1953.

George Mackaness, `Some Proposals for Establishing Colonies in the South Seas', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 24, Part 5, 1943., pp. 261-280.

George Mackaness, Bibliomania: An Australian Book Collector's Essays. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1965.

George Mackaness, The Life of Vice-Admiral William Bligh, RN, FRS. Two Vols. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1931.

George, Mackaness, (Ed.)., Sir Frederick Chapman, 'Governor Phillip in retirement'. Available in the series of monographs, Australian Historical Monographs , by Mackaness, available from Review Publications, Dubbo, NSW, Australia.

George Mackaness, (Ed.), 'Fresh Light On Bligh: some unpublished correspondence', Australian Historical Monographs, Vol. 5, (New Series). Review Publications, Dubbo, NSW, Australia, 1976 (Reprint).

George Mackaness, (Ed.), 'Some correspondence of Captain William Bligh RN with John and Francis Godolphin Bond, 1776-1811', Australian Historical Monographs. Reissued by Review Publications Pty. Ltd., Dubbo, NSW, Australia. Orig., 1949.

George Mackaness, Lags and Legirons. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1944.

George Mackaness and Karl R. Cramp, A History of the United Grand Lodge of Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of New South Wales.. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1938.

Sibella Macarthur-Onslow, Some Early Records of the Macarthurs of Camden. [Orig. 1914] Sydney, Rigby, 1973.

David L. Mackay, A Place of Exile: The European Settlement of New South Wales. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1985.

David Mackay, In the Wake of Cook: Exploration, Science and Empire, 1780-1801. Wellington, New Zealand, Victoria University Press, 1985.

David L. Mackay, 'In the shadow of Cook: the ambition of Matthew Flinders', pp. 99-111 in John Hardy and Alan Frost, (Eds.), European Voyaging Towards Australia. Canberra, Australian Academy of the Humanities, Occasional Paper No. 8, 1990.

David Mackay, 'Banished to Botany Bay: the fate of the relentless historian', a response', pp. 214-216, to Alan Frost, 'Historians, handling documents, transgressions and transportable offences', Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 25, April 1992-October 1993., pp. 192-213.

Norman MacKenzie, (Ed.) , Secret Societies. London, Aldus Books, 1967.

Piers Mackesy, The War for America, 1775-1783. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1964.

Mackie, The University of Glasgow, 1451-1951. nd

W. A. Mackintosh, 'Economic factors in Canadian history', Canadian Historical Review, Vol. 4, March 1923., pp. 12-25.

W. A. Mackintosh, 'Innis in Canadian economic development', The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 61, No. 3, June 1953, pp. 185-194.

W. A. Mackintosh, 'Some aspects of a pioneer economy', The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, Vol. 2, No. 4, November 1936., pp. 457-463.

David S. Macmillan, 'The Beginning of Scottish Enterprise in Australia: The Contribution of the Commercial Whigs', , Bulletin of the Business Archives Council of Australia, Vol. 2, No. 2, August 1962., pp. 95-105.

Melvin Maddocks, The Seafarers: The Atlantic Crossing. Amsterdam, Time-Life Books, 1981.

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J. H. Maiden, Sir Joseph Banks: The `Father of Australia'. Sydney, Government Printer, London, Kegan Paul, Tench, Trubner and Co. Ltd., 1909.

Gloria L. Main, Tobacco Colony: Life in Early Maryland, 1650-1720. Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1982.

R. H. Major, FSA, Early Voyages to Terra Australis, Now Called Australia: A Collection of Documents, and Extracts from Early Manuscript Maps, Illustrative of the History of Discovery on the Coasts of that Vast Island, from the beginning of the Sixteenth Century to the time of Captain Cook. London, For the Hakluyt Society, No. 25, M.DCC.LIX. First published in 1859.

R. H. Major, (Ed.), Early Voyages to Terra Australis to the Time of Captain Cook as told in Original Documents. Adelaide, Australian Heritage Press, 1963.

William Ray Manning, `The Nootka Sound Controversy', American Historical Association, annual report, 1904. Washington, 1905.

Daniel Pratt Mannix, Black Cargoes: A History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1518-1865. London, Longmans, 1963.

Mike Maguire, Rod Morgan and Robert Reiner, (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1994.

Percy J. Marks, `The history of paper currency in Australia', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 5, Part 3, 1919., pp. 105-151.

Dorothy Marshall, Dr Johnson's London. Sydney, John Wiley And Sons, 1968.

Dorothy Marshall, Industrial England, 1776-1857. London, Routledge, Kegan Paul, 1973.

P. J. Marshall, East India Fortunes: The British in Bengal in the Eighteenth Century. Oxford, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1974. 1976.

P. J. Marshall, 'Private trade in the Indian Ocean before 1800', pp. 276-300, in Ashin Das Gupta and M. N. Pearson, India and the Indian Ocean, 1500-1800. Calcutta, Oxford University Press, 1987.

P. J. Marshall, 'British expansion in India in the eighteenth century: a historical revision', History, Vol. 60, 1975., pp. 28-43.

P. J. Marshall, `The Personal Fortune of Warren Hastings', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. XVII, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 1965-1965., pp. 284-300.

A. W. Martin, 'Australia and the Hartz "fragment" thesis', Australian Economic History Review, Vol. 13, No. 2, September 1973., pp. 131-147.

Frederick Martin, The History of Lloyd's and of Marine Insurance in Great Britain. London, Macmillan, 1876.

Ged Martin, 'The Founding of New South Wales', pp. 37-51 in Pamela Statham, (Ed.), The Origin of Australia's Capital Cities. Sydney, Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Ged Martin, `Economic motives behind the founding of Botany Bay', Australian Economic History Review, Vol. 16, No. 2, September 1976., pp. 128-143.

Ged Martin, (Ed.), The Founding of Australia: The Argument about Australia's Origins. Sydney, Hale and Iremonger, 1978.

Ged Martin, `Convict transportation to Newfoundland in 1789', Academiensis, (University of New Brunswick, Canada), Vol. 5, 1975., pp. 84-99.

Ged Martin, `The foundation of Botany Bay, 1778-1790: a re-appraisal', pp. 44-74 in Ronald Hyam and Ged Martin, Re-Appraisals in Imperial History. London, Macmillan, 1975.

Ged Martin, 'A London newspaper on the founding of Botany Bay, August, 1786-May 1787', pp. 169-184 in Ged Martin, (Ed.), The Founding of Australia: The Argument about Australia's Origins. Sydney, Hale and Iremonger, 1978.

Philip Mason, The Men Who Ruled India. London, Guild Publishing, 1985.

Charles Massey, The Australian Merino. Melbourne, Viking O'Neil, 1990.

Cyril Matheson, The Life of Henry Dundas, First Viscount Melville, 1742-1811. London, Constable, 1933.

David Mattingley, Matthew Flinders and George Bass. Oxford University Press, 1961.

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H. E. Maude, Of Islands and Men: Studies in Pacific History. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1968.

H. E. Maude, 'In Search of a Home: from the mutiny to Pitcairn Island (1789-1790)', Journal of the Polynesian Society, Vol. 67, 1956., pp. 104-131.

John Maxwell, HMS Bounty. London, Jonathan Cape, 1977.

Ernest R. May and James C. Thomson Jr., (Eds.), American-East Asian Relations: A Survey. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1972.

Ernest R. May and John K. Fairbank, America's China Trade in Historical Perspective: The Chinese and American Performance. Published by The Committee on American-East Asian Relations of the Dept. of History, in collaboration with the Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, London, Harvard University Press, 1986.

John Mayo, 'Rich in Hope, The Chilean grain trade and the Australian gold rushes', The Great Circle, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1990., pp. 42-58.

M. P. Mayo, The Life and Letters of Colonel William Light. Adelaide, F. W. Preece, 1937.

Walter H. Mayo, The Trinity House London: Past and Present. London, Smith Elder and Co., 1905.

Hilary P. Mead, Trinity House: Its Unique Record from the Days of Henry VIII. London, Sampson Lowe, Marston, nd.

Lewis Melville, The South Sea Bubble. New York, Burt Franklins, 1921.

John Meredith and Rex Whalan, Frank the Poet: The Life and Works of Francis McNamara. Melbourne, Red Rooster, 1979.

Priscilla Metcalf, The Park Town Estate and the Battersea Tangle: a peculiar piece of Victorian London property development and its background. London, London Topographical Society, Publication No. 121, 1978.

Ronald L. Meek, Quesnay's Tableau Economique. London, Macmillan, 1972.

Ranald C. Michie, The City of London: Continuity and Change, 1850-1990. Basingstoke, Hampshire, Macmillan, 1992.

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Arthur P. Middleton, Tobacco Coast. Newport, 1953.

George Miller, 'Robert Farquhar in the Malay Archipelago', Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 51, Part 2, 1978., pp. 123-138.

Roger Millis, Waterloo Creek: The Australia Day Massacre of 1838: George Gipps and the British Conquest of New South Wales. Ringwood, Victoria, McPhee Gribble, 1992.

Roger Millis, City on the Peel: A History of Tamworth and District, 1818-1976. Sydney, A. H. and A. W. Reed, 1980.

A. J. F. Mills, History of the Gordon Riots in London in 1780. London, 1883.

R. C. Mills, The Colonisation of Australia (1829-1842): The Wakefield Experiment in Empire Building. London, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1915.

Alexander Taylor Milne, Correspondence of Jeremy Bentham. In Volumes] London, Athlone Press, 1981.

W. F. Minchinton, (Ed.), Politics and the Port of Bristol in the Eighteenth Century: Petitions of the Society of Merchant Venturers, 1698-1803. Bristol, Printed for the Bristol Record Society, 1963.

G. E. Mingay, Georgian London. London, Batsford, 1975.

Sidney W. Mintz, Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. New York, Viking, 1985.

Bankey Bihari Misra, The Central Administration of the East India Company, 1773-1834. Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1959.

Ann M. Mitchell, 'Dr. Frederick Watson and Historical Records of Australia', Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 20, No. 79, October 1982., pp. 171-197.

John Molony, The Penguin Bicentennial History of Australia: The Story of 200 Years. Ringwood, Victoria, Viking, 1987.

R. H. Montague, 'The Men of the New South Wales Corps: a comparison?', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 62, Part 4, March 1977., pp. 217-233.

H. S. Montgomerie, William Bligh of the `Bounty' in Fact and Fable. London, Williams and Norgate Ltd., 1937.

W. H. Moreland, From Akbar to Aurangzeb. London, 1923.

Alan Moorehead, The Fatal Impact: An Account of the Invasion of the South Pacific, 1767-1840. Middlesex, England, Penguin, 1976.

Cardinal Moran, The Catholics of Ireland under the Penal Laws in the Eighteenth Century. London, Catholic Truth Society, 1899.

Kenneth Morgan, 'The Organisation of the Convict Trade to Maryland: Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, 1768-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 42, No. 2, April 1985., pp. 201-227.

Kenneth Morgan, Bristol and the Atlantic Trade in the Eighteenth Century, Cambridge University Press, 1993.

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W. T. Morgan, 'The South Sea Company and the Canadian Expedition in the reign of Queen Anne', Hispanic American Review, Vol. 8, 1928.

W. P. Morrell, Britain in the Pacific Islands. London, Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1960.

John Morison, The Fathers and Founders of the London Missionary Society. Two Vols. London, Fisher Son and Co., nd.

Samuel Eliot Morison, The Oxford History of the American People. London, Oxford University Press, 1965.

Richard B. Morris, 'The durable significance of the treaty of 1783', pp. 238-241 in Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert, Peace and the Peacemakers: The Treaty of 1783. Charlottesville, Virginia. United States Capitol Historical Society. 1986.

Richard B. Morris, The Peacemakers: The Great Powers and American Independence. New York, Harper and Row, 1965.

H. B. Morse, 'The Provision of Funds for the East India Company's trade at Canton during the eighteenth century', Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Part 2, April 1922., pp. 227-254. [Microfilm 950.05, Dixson Library, UNE]

A. L. Morton and George Tate, The British Labour Movement, 1770-1920. London, Lawrence and Wishart, 1956.

Frederic Morton, The Rothschilds: A Family Portrait. Ringwood, Victoria, Australia, Penguin, 1964.

Louis Morton, Robert Carter of Nomini Hall: A Virginia Tobacco Planter of the Eighteenth Century. Charlottesville, Virginia, University Press of Virginia/Dominion Books, 1945.

J. Forbes Munro, '"The gilt of illusion": the Mackinnon group's entry into Queensland shipping, 1880-1895', International Journal of Maritime History, 3, No. 2, December 1991., pp. 1-37.

J. Forbes-Munro, 'Clydeside, the Indian Ocean and the City: The Mackinnon investment group, 1847-1893', Institute of Commonwealth Studies, Collected Seminar Papers, Vol. 2. No. 36, [City and Empire], pp. 1-10.

Mui Hoh-cheung and Lorna M. Mui, 'William Pitt and the Enforcement of the Commutation Act, 1784-1788', English Historical Review, Vol. 76, No. 300., July 1961., pp. 447-465.


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Mui Hoh-Cheung and Lorna M. Mui, 'The Commutation Act and the tea trade in Britain, 1784-1793', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 16, No. 2, December 1963., pp. 234-253.


Mui Hoh-cheung and Lorna M. Mui, `Smuggling and British Tea Trade before 1784', American Historical Review, Vol. LXXIV, No. 1, October 1968., pp. 41-73.


Mui Hoh-Cheung and Lorna M. Mui, 'Trends in eighteenth century smuggling' reconsidered'Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 28, No. 1, Feb 1975., pp. 28-43.


Ramkrishna Mukherjee, The Rise and Fall of the East India Company: A Sociological Appraisal. Bombay, Popular Prakashan, 1973. [Also, New York, 1974]

C. W. Mun, The Scottish Provincial Banking Companies, 1747-1864. Edinburgh, Donald, c.1981.

Dian H. Murray, Pirates of the South China Coast, 1790-1810., Stanford, California,  1987.

Lewis Namier, England in the Age of the American Revolution. London, Macmillan. Edition 2., 1961.

Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1754-1790. [Two Vols.] London, Parliament Trust of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1964.

Robert C. Nash, 'The English and Scottish tobacco trades in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries: legal and illegal trade', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 35, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 1982., pp. 354-372.

David Neal, 'Free society, penal colony, slave society, prison?', Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 22, No. 89, October 1987., pp. 497-518.

Anne Needham, (pamphlet), The Women transported on the 1790 Neptune: work in progress. Self-published, PO Box 60, Dural NSW 2158, Australia. nd

R. R. Nelson, The Home Office, 1782-1801. Durham, North Carolina, Duke University Press, 1969.

Curtis P. Nettels, Money Supply of the American Colonies before 1720. Madison, Wisconsin,  University of Wisconsin Press, 1934./ Clifton, USA, A. M. Kelley, 1973.

C. E. T. Newman, The Spirit of Wharf House: Campbell Enterprise from Calcutta to Canberra, 1788-1936. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1961.

Arthur Percival Newton, (Ed.), The European Nations in the West Indies, 1493-1688. London, Black, 1933.

Arthur Percival Newton, The Colonising Activities of the English Puritans: The Last Phase of the Elizabethan Struggle with Spain. New Haven, Connecticut, 1914. (Reissued, Port Washington, New York, 1966)

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W. Nichol, 'Ideology and the convict system in New South Wales, 1788-1820', Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 22, Nos. 86-89, April 1986., pp. 1-20.

Stephen Nicholas, et al, Convict Workers: Britain, Ireland and New South Wales. Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Mary Nicholls, (Ed.), Diary of the Rev. Robert Knopwood, 1803-1838. Sandy Bay, Tasmania,  Tasmanian Historical Research Association, 1977.

I. Nish, 'An East India Merchant house [Kirkman Finlay] in the China Trade in the 1830s'Bulletin of the Business Archives Councils, Vol. 1, No. 6, May 1956., pp. 1-10.

J. M. Norris, 'The Policy of the British Cabinet in the Nootka Crisis', English Historical Review, Vol. 70, October 1955., pp. 562-580.

Arthur Nussbaum, A History of the Dollar. New York, Columbia University Press, 1957.

Eris O'Brien, The Foundation of Australia, 1786-1800: A Study in English Criminal Practice and Penal Colonization in the Eighteenth Century. London, Sheed and Ward, 1937. Sydney, (Second edition, Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1950).

Eris O'Brien, 'The Coming of the British to Australia, 1770-1821', pp. 19-31 in Australia, edited by C. Hartley-Grattan. Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1947.

Ellis P. Oberholtzer, Robert Morris, Patriot and Financier. 1903.

Patrick O'Farrell, The Irish in Australia. Kensington, Australia, New South Wales University Press, 1993.

Adele Ogden, `The Californians in Spain's Pacific otter trade, 1775-1795', Pacific History Review, Vols. 1-4, 1932., pp. 424-444.

C. K. Ogden, (Ed.), Jeremy Bentham: The Theory of Legislation. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1931. 1950.

Wilfrid Oldham, Britain's Convicts to the Colonies. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1990. [This title is a slightly modified version of Wilfrid Oldham, The Administration of the System of Transportation of British Convicts, 1763-1793. Ph.D thesis. London University. 1933]

Douglas Oliver, Return to Tahiti: Bligh's Second Breadfruit Voyage. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1988.

Alison Olson, 'The London Mercantile Lobby and the Coming of the American Revolution', Journal of American History, Vol. 69, No. 1, June 1982., pp. 21-41.

Alison Olson, 'The Board of Trade and London-American interest groups in the eighteenth century', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth Studies, 8, January 1980., pp. 33-50.

Alison Olson, Making the Empire Work: London and American Interest Groups, 1690-1790. London, Harvard University Press, 1992.

Alison Olson, 'Coffee House Lobbying', History Today, Vol. 41, January 1991., pp. 35-41.

Alison Olson, 'The Virginia Merchants of London: A Study in Eighteenth Century Interest Group Politics', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 40, July 1983., pp. 363-388.

Alison Olson and Richard Maxwell Brown, (Eds.), Anglo-American Political Relations, 1675-1775. New Brunswick, NJ., 1970.

J. Oppenheimer, `Captain William Richards', Chapter 5 in G. Connah, M. Rowland, J. Oppenheimer, Captain Richards' House at Winterbourne: A Study in Historical Archaeology. Armidale, Australia. Dept. Of Prehistory & Archaeology, University Of New England. 1978.

Peter O'Shaughnessy, (Ed.), A Rum Story: The Adventures of Joseph Holt, Thirteen Years in New South Wales (1800-1812). Sydney, Kangaroo Press, 1988.

D. J. Owen, The Port of London: Yesterday and Today. London, Port of London Authority, 1927.

Hugh J. Owen, From Merioneth to Botany Bay. Bala, Wales, R. Evans And Sons, 1952.

Richard Pares, Merchants and Planters.  Cambridge at the University Press, Published for the Economic History Review, 1960.

Richard Pares, Yankees and Creoles: The Trade between North America and the West Indies before the American Revolution. London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1956.

Richard Pares, 'The London Sugar Market, 1740-1769', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 9, 1956-1957., pp. 254-270.

Richard Pares, A West-India Fortune. London, Longman Green and Co., 1950.


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Alan and Veronica Palmer, Who's Who in Shakespeare's England. Brighton, Sussex, Harvester Press Ltd., 1981.

J. G. Palmer, Biographical Sketches of Loyalists of the American Revolution. London/Westport, Meckler Books, 1984.

Sarah Palmer, Politics, Shipping and the Repeal of the Navigation Laws.. Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1990.

James G. Parker, 'Scottish Enterprise in India, 1750-1914', pp. 191-219 in R. A. Cage, (Ed.), The Scots Abroad: Labour, Capital, Enterprise, 1750-1914. London, Croom Helm, 1985.

R. A. C. Parker, `Coke of Norfolk and the Agrarian Revolution', in Economic History Review, Series 2, viii (1955-1956)., pp. 156-166.

C. Northcote Parkinson, (Ed.), The Trade Winds: A Study of British Overseas Trade during the French Wars, 1793-1815. London, Allen and Unwin, 1948.

Ann Parry, (Ed.), The Admirals Fremantle. London, Chatto and Windus, 1971.

J. H. Parry, The Age of Reconnaissance. New York, Mentor/New American Library, 1963.

J. H. Parry, The Discovery of South America. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1979.

J. H. Parry, Trade and Dominion: European Overseas Empires in the Eighteenth Century.  London, Cardinal, 1974.

Ronald Parsons, Migrant Ships for South Australia, 1836-1860. Gumeracha, South Australia, Gould Books, 1988.

Ronald Parsons, Southern Passages: A Maritime History of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia, Wakefield Press, 1986.

T. G. Parsons, 'Courts Martial: the Savoy military prison and the New South Wales Corps'Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 63, Part 4, 1978., pp. 248-262.

T. G. Parsons, 'Governor Macquarie and the assignment of skilled convicts in New South Wales'Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 58, Part 2, 1973., pp. 84-88.

T. G. Parsons, 'Public money and private enterprise: the administration of the New South Wales Commissariat, 1813-1820', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 60, Part 1, 1975., pp. 1-11.

T. G. Parsons, 'The development of early colonial capitalism: some thoughts on Connell and Irving's class structure in Australian history', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 68, Part 2, September 1982., pp. 155-159.

Orlando Patterson, The Sociology of Slavery: An Analysis of the Origins, Development and  Structure of Negro Slave Society in Jamaica. London, Granada, 1967.

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George Pattison, `Shipping and the East India Docks, 1802-1338', The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 49, No. 3, August 1963., pp. 209-212.

James Bishop Peabody, The Founding Fathers: John Adams, a biography in his own words.  New York, Newsweek, 1973.

Michael Pearson, 'Shore-based whaling at Two Fold Bay: one hundred years of enterprise'Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 71, Part 1, June 1985., pp. 3-27.

M. N. Pearson, 'Brokers in western Indian port cities: their role in servicing foreign merchants', Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1988., pp. 455-472.

Frederick Pedler, The Lion and the Unicorn: A History of the Origin of the United Africa Company, 1787-1931. London, Heinemann, 1974.

Lillian M. Penson, The Colonial Agents of the British West Indies: A Study in Colonial Administration mainly in the Eighteenth Century. Orig. 1924. London, Frank Cass and Co., reprint 1971.

Pennie A. Pemberton, Pure Merinos and others: the "shipping lists" of the Australian Agricultural Company. Canberra, Australian National University Archives of Business and Labour, 1986.

W. Baring Pemberton, Lord North. London, 1938.

N. M. Penzer, Paul Storr: The Last of Two Goldsmiths. 1954.

Merrill D. Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New nation: A Biography. London, Oxford University Press, 1970.

Merrill D. Peterson, 'Thomas Jefferson and Commercial Policy, 1783-1793', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 22, October 1965., pp. 584-610.

William Petersen, Malthus. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1979.

C. H. Philips, The East India Company, 1784-1834. Manchester University Press, 1940. 1961.

David Philips, `A New Engine of Power and Authority: The Institutionalization of Law-Enforcement in England, 1780-1830', pp. 155-189 in V. A. C. Gatrell, Bruce Lenman and Geoffrey Parker, (Eds.), Crime and the Law: The Social History of Crime in Western Europe since 1500. London, Europa, 1980.

Derek Phillips, 'Developments under Macquarie', pp. 24-50 in James Griffin, (Ed.), Essays in Economic History of Australia. Milton, Queensland. Jacaranda, 1970.

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Jim Phillips, 'A successor of the Moguls: the Nawbab of the Carnatic and the East India Company, 1763-1785', International Historical Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, August 1985., pp. 364-389.

Jim Phillips, 'Private profit and Imperialism in eighteenth century Southern India: the Tanjore revenue dispute, 1775-1777', South Asia, New Series, Vol. 9, No. 2, December 1986., pp. 1ff.

Douglas Pike, Paradise of Dissent: South Australia, 1829-1857. London, Longmans Green, 1957.

Virginia B. Platt and David Curtis Skaggs, (Eds.), Of Mother Country and Plantations: Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Conference in Early American History. Bowling Green, Ohio, 1971.

Mitchell Platts, Illustrated History of Golf. London, Bison Books, 1988.

Giles Playfair, The Punitive Obsession. London, Victor Gollancz, 1971.

J. H. Plumb, The First Four Georges. Glasgow, Fontana/Collins, 1976.

John Pollock, Wilberforce. London, Constable, 1977.

Frances Pollon, Shopkeepers and Shoppers: A Social History of Retailing in New South Wales from 1788. Sydney, Retail Traders Association of New South Wales, 1989.

Richard Pomfret, 'The staple theory as an approach to Canadian and Australian economic development'Australian Economic History Review, Vol. 2, September 1981., pp. 133-146.

Bernard Pool, 'Navy contracts in the last years of the Navy Board, 1780-1832', The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 50, No. 3, August 1964., pp. 161-176.

Roy Porter, `"Under the Influence," Mesmerism in England', History Today, Vol. 35, Oct. 1985., pp. 22ff.

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James Pope-Hennessy, A Study of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1441-1807. London, Wiedenfeld and Nicholson, 1967.

Jocelyn Powell and Lorraine Banks, (Eds.), Hawkesbury River History: Governor Phillip, exploration and early settlement. Wiseman's Ferry, NSW, Australia, Dharug and Lower Hawkesbury Historical Society, 1990.

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Nicholas Tarling, 'Pirates and convicts: British interest in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the mid-nineteenth century', Chapter 10 of Nicholas Tarling, Imperial Britain in South-East Asia. Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press, 1975. Chapter 3, 'The Prince of Merchants and the Lion City' [On John Palmer, the "Prince of Merchants"].

D. J. M. Tate, The Making of Modern South-East Asia. Vol. 2. The Western Impact: Economic and Social Change. Kuala Lumpur, Oxford University Press, 1971-1979.

Thad W. Tate, 'The Coming of the Revolution in Virginia: Britain's challenge to Virginia's ruling class, 1763-1776', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 19, July 1962., pp. 323-343.

Thad W. Tate and David L. Ammerman, (Eds.), The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century: Essays on Anglo-American Society. New York, Norton, 1979.

R. H. Tawney, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism: A Historical Study. Ringwood, Victoria, Pelican, 1966.

E. G. R. Taylor, Tudor Geography, 1485-1583. London, Methuen, 1930.

R. Teale, (Ed.), Colonial Eve: Sources on Women in Australia, 1788-1914. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1978.

Lord Teignmouth and Charles G. Harper, The Smugglers. Vol. 1. [Orig. 1923] Yorkshire, England, EP Publishing, 1973.

Richard B. Tennant, The American Cigarette Industry. Yale University Press, 1950.

Leila Thomas, 'The Establishment of New South Wales in 1788', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 2, Part 2, 1925., pp. 67-83.

P. J. Thomas, Mercantilism and East India Trade. London, Frank Cass and Co., 1963. (Orig., 1926.)

Robert Paul Thomas, 'The sugar colonies of old empire: profit or loss for Great Britain?', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 21, 1968., pp. 30-45.

Edward Thompson and G. T. Garratt, Rise and Fulfilment of British Rule in India. Allahabad, Central Book Depot, 1969.

E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class. Ringwood, Australia, Penguin, 1968.

F. M. L. Thompson, `Life after Death: How Successful Nineteenth-century Businessmen disposed of their Fortunes', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 43, No. 1, 1990., pp. 40-61.

George Thompson, `Slavery and Famine: Punishments for Sedition, or An Account of the Miseries and Starvation of Botany Bay, by George Thompson, who sailed in the Royal Admiral May 1792 with some Preliminary Remarks by George Dyer, BA. Edited by George Mackaness, Sydney, Australian Historical Monographs, Vol. XXXI, New Series, (Orig. 1947).

Tommy R. Thompson, `Personal indebtedness and the American Revolution in Maryland'Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 73, 1978., pp. 13-29.

Robert Polk Thomson, 'The Tobacco Export of the Upper James River Naval District, 1773-1775'William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 18, July 1961., pp 393-407.

Algar Labouchere Thorold, The Life of Henry Labouchere. London, Constable, 1913.

G. R. Tipping, The Official Account Through Governor Philip's Letters to Lord Sydney. Self published, Garry Tipping, 1988.

Clifford Tolchard, The Humble Adventurer, The Life and Times of James Ruse, Convict and Farmer. Melbourne, Landsdowne Press, 1965.

W. M. Torrens, Empire in Asia - How We Came By It: A Book of Confessions. London, Trubner and Co., 1872.

Michelgugliembo Torri, 'In the deep blue sea: Surat and its merchant class during the dyarchic era (1759-1800)', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 14, Nos. 3ff., pp. 267-299.

Michelguglielmo Torri, 'Trapped inside the colonial order: the Hindu bankers of Surat and their business world during the second half of the eighteenth century', Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1991., pp. 367-401.

Norma Townsend, `Masters and men and the Myall Creek massacre', The Push From The Bush,  No. 20, April 1985., pp. 4-32.

N. L. Tranter, Population and Society, 1750-1940: Contrasts in Population Growth. London, Longman, 1985.

Clive Trebilcock, Phoenix Assurance and the Development of British Insurance. Vol. 1, 1782-1870. London, Cambridge University Press, 1985.

George Otto Trevelyan, The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay. Vol. 1, London, Longmans Green and Co., 1878.

Capt. Lionel J. Trotter, The Life of Warren Hastings. London, J. M. Dent, 1925.

Barbara Tuchman, The March of Folly: From Troy to Vietnam. London, Abacus, 1985.

Barbara Tuchman, The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution. Maine, USA, Thorndike Press, 1988.

C. M. Turnbull, (Ed.), and L. A. Mills, 'British Malaya, 1824-1867, (with an introductory essay on European influence in the Malay Peninsula, 1511-1786', by D. K. Bassett), Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 33, Part 3, No. 191, 1960. Part 2 is concerned with Penang, 1786-1830, pp. 35-39; Part 5, 'The civil service in the Straits Settlements, 1786-1867', pp. 99-117; Part 9, 'The Malayan policy of the East India Company, 1786-1867', pp. 203-218; and see pp. 26-27 on Francis Light, later of Adelaide, South Australia.

C. M. Turnbull, The Straits Settlements, 1826-1867: Indian Presidency to Crown Colony. London, Athlone Press, 1972.

 C. M. Turnbull, `Convicts in the Straits Settlements, 1826-1867', Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 43, Part 1, No. 217, July 1970., pp. 87-103.

J. W. Turner, 'The entry of the Australian Agricultural Company into the New South Wales coal industry', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 58, Part 4, 1973., pp. 233-246.

David Underdown, Somerset in the Civil War and Interregnum. Newton Abbot, 1973.

M. Uren, Land Looking West: The Story of James Stirling in Western Australia. London, Oxford University Press, 1964.

Ton Vermeulen, `The Dutch Entry into the East Indies', pp. 33-46 in John Hardy and Alan Frost, (Eds.), European Voyaging Towards Australia. Canberra, Australian Academy of the Humanities, Occasional Paper No. 8, 1990.

Alan Valentine, Lord North. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1967.

Claude M. Van Tynne, The Causes of the War of Independence: being the first volume of a history of the founding of the American Republic. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1922.

Pierre Vilar, A History of Gold and Money, 1450-1920. London, Verso, 1991.

Simon P. Ville, English Shipowning during the Industrial Revolution: Michael Henley and Son, London Shipowners, 1770-1830. Manchester University Press, 1987.

Simon Ville, `Wages, prices and profitability in the shipping industry during the Napoleonic Wars: a case study', Journal of Transport History, Series 3, Vol. 2, No. 1, March 1981., pp. 39-52.

Simon Ville, 'The deployment of English merchant shipping: Michael and Joseph Henley of  Wapping, ship owners, 1775-1830', Journal of Transport History , Vol. 5, No. 2, September 1984., pp. 16-33.

Simon Ville, 'The Growth of Specialization in English shipowning, 1750-1850', Economic History Review, Vol. 46, No. 41, 1993., pp. 702-722.

W. T. Vincent, The Records of the Woolwich District. Two Vols. London, nd.

Susanna De Vries-Evans, Pioneer Women: Pioneer Land: Yesterday's Tall Poppies. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1987., pp. 165ff.

Henry R. Wagner, `Creation of Rights of Sovereignty through Symbolic Acts', Pacific Historical Review, Dec. 1938., pp. 297-326.

Jan Walker, Jondaryan Station: The Relationship between Pastoral Capital and Pastoral Labour, 1840-1890.  St Lucia, University of Queensland Press, 1988.

R. B. Walker, Old New England - A History of the Northern Tablelands of NSW 1818-1900. Sydney, Sydney University Press, 1966.

Immanuel Wallenstein, 'The Great Expansion: the incorporation of vast new zones into the capitalist world economy (1750-1850)', Studies in History, New Series, Vol. 4, Nos. 1&2, January-December 1988., pp. 85-156.

Dorothy Walsh, The Admiral's Wife: Mrs Philip Parker King - A Selection of Letters,  1817-1856. Melbourne, Hawthorn Press, 1967.

Joseph M. Walsh, Tea: Its History and Mystery. Philadelphia, Coates and Co.,, 1892.

Lorena S. Walsh, 'Servitude and Opportunity in Charles County, Maryland', pp. 111-13 in Aubrey C. Land, Lois Green Carr, Edward C. Papenfuse, (Eds.), Law, Society and Politics in Early Maryland. London, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977.

James Walvin, English Urban Life, 1776-1851. London, Hutchinson, 1984.


James Walvin, Black Ivory: A History of British Slavery. London, Harper Collins, 1992.

Bill Wannan, Early Colonial Scandals: The Turbulent Times of Samuel Marsden. Melbourne, Landsdowne, 1972.

Jonathan Wantrup, 'The Voyage of the First Fleet', in Des Crowley, (Ed.), The Great South Land, La Trobe Library Journal, Vol. 2, Part 41, 1988., pp. 30-35.

Eliot Warburton, Memoirs of Prince Rupert and the Cavaliers including their private correspondence. Three Vols. London, Richard Bentley, MDCCCXLIX.

John Manning Ward, James Macarthur, Colonial Conservative, 1798-1867. Sydney, Sydney University Press, 1981.

J. R. Ward, 'The profitability of sugar planting in the British West Indies, 1650-1834', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 31, No. 1, February 1978., pp. 197-213.

Russel Ward, The Australian Legend. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1958.

Albert James Howard Warner, 'The Coromandel', pp. 35-66 in Russell Mackenzie Warner (Ed.), Over-Halling the Colony: George Hall, Pioneer. Sydney, Australian Documents Library, 1990.

Russell Mackenzie Warner (Ed.), Over-Halling the Colony: George Hall, Pioneer. Sydney, Australian Documents Library, 1990.

Richard Waterhouse, A New World Gentry: The Making of a Merchant and Planter Class in South Carolina, 1670-1770. New York, Garland Publishing Inc., 1989.

T. T. Waterman, The Mansions of Virginia, 1707-1776. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1946.

John Watney, Clive of India. Saxon House, Hants, England, D. C. Heath Ltd., 1974.

Ian Bruce Watson, Foundation for Empire: English Private Trade in India, 1659-1760. New Delhi, Vikas Publishing House, 1980.

Ian B. Watson, `The Establishment of English Commerce in North-Western India in the Early Seventeenth Century', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 13, No. 3, 1976., pp. 375-391.

J. H. Watson, `J. M. Matra, `Father of Australia'', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. X, iii, 1924., pp. 152ff.

J. Steven Watson, The Reign of George III, 1760-1815. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1960.

John Watson, The Scot of the Eighteenth Century: His Religion and His Life. Falcroft Library Editions, 1976.

Ellis Archer Wasson, 'The House of Commons, 1660-1945: parliamentary families and the political elite', English Historical Review, Vol. CVI, July 1991., pp. 635-651.

Phillip Weate and Caroline Graham, Captain William Bligh: An Illustrated History. Sydney, Hamlyn, 1972.

Sidney and Beatrice Webb, English Local Government: English Prisons Under Local Government. [Orig. 1922] London, Frank Cass and Co. Ltd., 1963.

Elizabeth Webby, 'Reactions to the Myall Creek Massacre', The Push From The Bush, No. 8, December 1980., pp. 1-13.

Anthony Webster, `The Political Economy of Trade Liberalization: the East India Company Charter Act of 1813', Economic History Review, Series 2, XL, 3, 1990., pp. 404-419.

Margaret Weidenhofer, The Convict Years: Transportation and the Penal System, 1788-1868. Melbourne, Landsdowne, 1973.

Lucy Werkmeister, A Newspaper History of England 1792-93. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1967.

Andrew Wells, Constructing Capitalism: An Economic History of Eastern Australia, 1788-1901. Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 1989.

Roy A. Wells, Freemasonry in London from 1785. Shepparton, Middlesex, Lewis Masonic, 1984.

Thomas Welsby, Early Moreton Bay. [Reprinted] Sydney, Rigby, 1977.

J. T. Wertenbaker, Virginia Under The Stuarts, 1607-1688. 1914.

Thomas J. Wertenbaker, The Shaping of Colonial Virginia. [Orig. 1910] New York, Russell and Russell, 1958.

Susan Westbury, `Slaves of Colonial Virginia: Where They Came From', William and Mary Quarterly , Series 3, Vol. XLII, No. 2, April, 1985, pp. 228-237.

R. B. Westerfield, Middlemen in English Business: 1660-1760. Newhaven, Connecticut, 1915. [Reprinted, Newton Abbot, 1968].

Lally Weymouth, Thomas Jefferson: The Man His World His Influence. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1973.

John West, The History of Tasmania: with copious information respecting the colonies of New South Wales Victoria South Australia &c. (Re-edited by A. G. L. Shaw). Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1971.

Ben Whitaker, The Police in Society. London, Eyre Methuen, 1979.

Judy White, The White Family of Belltrees: 150 Years in the Hunter Valley. Sydney, The Seven Press, 1981.

Leonard D. White, The Jeffersonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1801-1829. New York, Macmillan, 1959.

Anne Whiteman, J. S. Bromley and P. G. M. Dickson (Eds.), Statesmen, Scholars and Merchants: Essays in Eighteenth Century History presented to Dame Lucy Sutherland. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1973.

G. F. Whitwell, `Charles and Reginald Bright', pp. 137-159 in R. T. Appleyard and C. B. Schedvin, (Eds.), Australian Financiers: Biographical Essays. South Melbourne, Macmillan, 1988.     

Esme Wingfield-Stratford, The Lords of Cobham Hall. London, Cassell, 1959.

Elizabeth Windschuttle, Women, Class and History: Feminist Perspectives on Australia, 1788-1978. Melbourne, Fontana/Collins, 1980.

Elizabeth Windschuttle, '"Feeding the poor and sapping their strength": the public role of ruling-class women in eastern Australia, 1788-1850', pp. 53-80 in Elizabeth Windschuttle, Women, Class and History: Feminist Perspectives on Australia, 1788-1978. Melbourne, Fontana/Collins, 1980.

Thomas S. Willan, The Muscovy Merchants of 1555. Manchester University Press, 1953.

Thomas S. Willan, The Early History of the Russia Company, 1553-1603. Manchester University Press, 1956.

Thomas S. Willan, Studies in Elizabethan Foreign Trade. Manchester University Press. 1959.

Basil Williams, The Whig Supremacy, 1714-1760. Oxford, Oxford University Press at the Clarendon Press, 1952.

David Alan Williams, `Anglo-Virginia Politics, 1690-1735', in Alison Olson and Richard Maxwell Brown, (Eds.), Anglo-American Political Relations, 1675-1775. New Brunswick, NJ., 1970.

David L. Williams, 'Bulk passenger freight rates, 1750-1870', pp. 43-61 in Lewis R. Fischer and Helge W. Nordvik, (Eds.), Shipping and Trade, 1750-1950: Essays in International Maritime Economic History. Pontefract, West Yorkshire, Lofthouse, 1990.

E. N. Williams, Life in Georgian England. London, Batsford Ltd., 1963.

Eric Williams, From Columbus to Castro: The History of the Caribbean, 1492-1969. London, Andre Deutsch, 1970.

Francis Williams, Dangerous Estate: The Anatomy of Newspapers. Arrow, London, 1959.

John Williams, A Narrative of Missionary Enterprises in the South Sea Islands. London, London Missionary Society, John Snow, Paternoster Row, 1838.

Neville Williams, Elizabeth I: Queen of England. London, Sphere, 1971.

N. Williams, 'England's Tobacco Trade in the Reign of Charles I', Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 65, 1957.

William Appleman Williams, Thomas McCormick, Lloyd Gardner, Walter LaFeber, (Eds. and Commentators), America in Vietnam: A Documentary History. New York, W. W. Norton and Co., 1989. [the introduction only]

James A. Williamson, Maritime Enterprise, 1485-1558. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1913.

James A. Williamson, The Age of Drake. London, Adam and Charles Black, 1938.

James A. Williamson, The English Channel: A History. New York, World Publishing Co., 1959.

Clennel Wilkinson, William Dampier. London, John Lane, 1929.

G. T. Wilkinson, The Newgate Calendar, Book One. London, Panther Books (Abridgement),  1962.

Charles Wilson, Anglo-Dutch Commerce and Finance in the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge University Press, 1941. 1966.

Edwin Wilson and Tom Richmond, 'The saga of Peter Hibbs', pp. 85-98, Chapter 6, in Jocelyn Powell and Lorraine Banks, (Eds.), Hawkesbury River History: Governor Philip, exploration and early settlement. Wiseman's Ferry, NSW, Australia, Dharug and Lower Hawkesbury Historical Society, 1990.

Gwendoline Wilson, Murray of Yarralumla. London, Oxford University Press, 1968.

Justin Winsor, Narrative and Critical History of America. VII. Boston and New York, 1888.

Alfred C. Wood, A History of the Levant Company. London, Frank Cass, 1964.

F. L. W. Wood, `Jeremy Bentham versus New South Wales', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 14, Part, 4, 1933., pp. 329-351.

G. A. Wood, The Discovery of Australia. London, Macmillan, 1922.

Gordon S. Wood, 'Rhetoric and reality in the American Revolution', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 23, No. 4, January 1966., pp. 27-32.

W. Allan Wood, Dawn In The Valley: The Story of Settlement in the Hunter Valley to 1833.  Sydney, Wentworth Books, 1972.

Phillip Woodruff, The Men Who Ruled India: The Founders. London, Jonathan Cape, 1954.

Frank Worsley, The Romance of Lloyd's. London, Hutchinson, 1932.

Charles Wright and Ernest Fayle, A History of Lloyd's. London, Macmillan, 1957.

Conrad E. Wright,  Merchants and Mandarins: New York and the Early China Trade. New York, New York Historical Society, 1984.

Esmond Wright, `Benedict Arnold and The Loyalists', History Today, Vol. 36, Oct. 1986., pp. 29-35.

Esmond Wright, (Ed.), The Fire of Liberty. London, Hamish Hamilton, 1984.

Louis B. Wright, The First Gentlemen of Virginia: Intellectual Qualities of the Early Colonial Ruling Class. San Marino, California, 1940.

Philip Wright, Monumental  Inscriptions of Jamaica, (Winchester). nd

George Wycherley, Buccaneers of the Pacific: of the bold English buccaneers, pirate privateers & gentleman adventurers, who sailed in peril through the stormy straits or pierced the isthmus jungle, to vex the king of Spain in the South Seas & the Western Pacific, plundering his cities & coasts & preying on his silver fleets & his golden galleons. London, John Long, 1929. (Found in the Bateson collection of maritime history in the library of  the Australian National Maritime Museum, Sydney.)

A. T. Yarwood, Walers: Australian Horses Abroad. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press, 1989.

A. T. Yarwood, 'The "Indian Business": an outline of the origins of horse exports from Australia to India, 1834-1847', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 73, Part 1, June 1987., pp. 41-57.

A. T. Yarwood, Samuel Marsden: "The Great Survivor". Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1977.

Maxine Young, 'The British administration of New South Wales, 1786-1812', pp. 23-41., in J. J. Eddy and J. R. Nethercote, From Colony to Coloniser: Studies in Australian Administrative History. Sydney, Hale and Iremonger, 1987.

Philip Ziegler, The Sixth Great Power: Barings, 1762-1929. London, Collins, 1988.


Ends this Bibliography

Bibliographical Essay: by Dan Byrnes


Note: This essay was written before 1996, when it became easier to consult genealogical websites on the Internet.

This bibliographical essay, also concerned with genealogy, helps form a bridge to various aspects of my research over 22 years. This research became rather complicated, since the study of eighteenth and nineteenth century merchants, in a context of world-trade-of-the-day, remains in a state of pre-computerised infancy. I mention computerised information since in particular, when the computerised IGI is consulted, it becomes noticeable that the family names of the convict contractors under notice here (1786-1867) can be found quite commonly in London parishes... so common, that unless information drawn from the IGI can be suitably annotated (and often it cannot be), individuals with those names, men or women, could be so easily confused with individuals or families under notice here as to provide a dangerous situation. (This situation has not changed with the computerised version of the IGI available on the Internet.)


      Otherwise, with the use of bibliographies on CD-ROM, it is easy to derive entirely fresh compilations of information - independently of the tastes of other researchers - by making a bulk download of listed items strictly in terms of persons' names, ship names, place names, or dates. Many new angles for research can be discerned by use of this simple tactic, partly since omissions made by earlier researchers can quickly become more obvious once lists made from a variety of sources are compared.


      The computerisation of the IGI, which will be constantly updated, which easily enables the helpful, bulk downloading of possibly useful information, requires the historian to face the fact that the genealogies of noted merchants have not yet been suitably separated from the family histories of other, non-notable people of the same name. The usually useful distinctions made between notables and non-notables tend to an unfortunate blurriness, ironically in a context of what is, technically, continual information update!


     This situation may be due to technological innovation, but it presents problems which have not yet been technically formulated in relation to the arts of researching and writing history. Even if they have not used computerised information on individuals and their backgrounds, most historians commenting on business history in the context of British Imperial History (1620-1914) - writing since 1900 to the present - now recognize that in the English speaking world, family linkages were vital to the management of business firms large and small. (A significant historical change in that situation in business and economic life has been registered with Alfred D. Chandler, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. London, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1978).


      From about 1740, notably with Barings, this applies especially to the histories of English banking firms/families which saw members enjoying an elevation to the peerage. There is no reason for the historian to avoid considering genealogical matters which may be of interest or relevance, or which can aid explanation, or refine information on matters which seem causative; and this outlook is common with discussions of the British aristocracy (although some historians regard such information as useful only as an "undercurrent").


     Modern computerisation of genealogical information, however, raises historiographical problems which remain theoretical, if not widely recognised as actual. For example, with lesser notables, and in an Australian connection, Semmler's biography of the poet A. B. (Banjo) Paterson claims that poet's family had some ancestry with the William Paterson who co-founded the Bank of England in the 1690s. Semmler advances no genealogical proof of this. It may or may not prove interesting to find the facts here, but I suspect from my own computerisation of genealogical information on less than 65,000 individuals from 1550 to 1925, that research on these Paterson linkages, alone, would throw up for inspection other names (seen in the context of trading, banking or financial circles, and probably heavily Scottish in character) which would be of some relevance to the foregoing discussions.


     Apart from that conjecture, it does seem from much recent historical research that a majority of business histories in the English-speaking world (at least to 1840) are to some extent inseparable from family histories. In that case, one can adopt a fresh approach and search histories on abstract matters (politics, trade) in order to find detail on individuals, which can be then inserted into family histories, which family histories can then be recompiled, and re-inserted into more abstract treatments of historical topics. This is one approach I have used in my research.


     Here, a welcome historiographical shift seems to be taking place in regard of British Imperial History. A splendid and probably pioneering article with a useful genealogical approach is Jacob M. Price, `One Family's Empire: The Russell-Lee-Clerk Connection in Maryland, Britain and India, 1707-1857', Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 72. 1977., pp. 165-225. This article treats an extended family resident in both American colonies, and London, which was damaged financially and otherwise by the American Revolution. This family regrouped, and then benefited from careers made in India, or in trade with India. This sort of group response fits many historians' by-now typical remarks about Britain's "swing to the East" after the American Revolution.


     A list of notable English families engaged in India (or shipping to India) from the 1790s would include descendants of Duncan Campbell the hulks overseer (After 1786, Campbell (probably) bought for his son John a ship, Valentine, which had earlier been present at the official establishment of Penang in 1786). Alexander Dalrymple the hydrographer of the East India Company. The brother of the Bounty mutineer, Fletcher Christian. Capt. James Wilson of the first London Missionary Society missionary ship, Duff. Lord Cornwallis (who lost the American War of Independence). David Scott senior and junior. The career in Malaya of the father, Francis, of Col. William Light of Adelaide, South Australia, should not be forgotten. Prinsep, the convict contractor.

The name Darvall is seen in India, Darvall becoming a link in the family chain of the Australian bush poet, A. B. Banjo Paterson. Families descended from Alderman John Shakespear of London (noted in J. Shakespear, John Shakespear of Shadwell and his descendants 1619-1931. Self published. Newcastle. 1931... These Shakespears became linked to the family of the novelist, William Makepeace Thackeray, whose father was in India). Some Thackerays are noted in the descendants of the writer Virginia Woolf (nee Stephen - ADB entry for James Stephen, 1771-1833). Virginia's mother was named Julia Prinsep Jackson - but it remains difficult to suggest how the name Prinsep arises there. John Palmer, father of John Palmer who worked in the commissary of NSW, whose sister Sophia married Robert Campbell of the Wharf, Sydney. (Robert Campbell's brother John was in India). Henry Lancelot Bigge (1806-1844), listed in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage under Selby-Bigge, in a genealogy also listing Commissioner J. T. Bigge. Members of the family of the historian Thomas Babington Macaulay, who himself spent time in India. The novelist Emily Eden (1797-1869), daughter of William Eden Lord Aukland...

The father of the governor of Western Australia, James Stirling. Capt. George Richardson a friend of the first governor of NSW, Arthur Phillip. William Money had East India Company connections. Members of the Close family listed in L. M. Mowle's genealogies. In NSW, Capt. Austin Forrest who died at Richmond in 1812 (married to Jemima Pitt - ADB entry for Robert Jenkins). From the 1780s, the Larkins family of Blackheath. The Farquhar family which produced the mother of W. S. Davidson. Gabriel Steward (1731-1792), MP and paymaster of marines from 1779 till 1792, the father of W. S. Davidson's second wife Catherine Steward (died 1864), had been 15 years in EICo employ, much of it at St Helena. (Namier/Brooke, History of Parliament, Vol. 2, p. 478; De Falbe, p. 96). What becomes evident is a lack of oversight of the influence of East India Company personnel.


     Price's article splendidly treats two of the three chairman of the little-known British Creditors, William Molleson and James Russell. What Price apparently failed to realise was that a third chairman of the British Creditors, Duncan Campbell, who had become the overseer of the Thames prison hulks, had descendants who demonstrated exactly the same response - many found careers in India. And this becomes important.


     Here I should say that in 1992-1993, I was provided a grant by the Literature Board of the Australia Council in order to complete research for a biography of Duncan Campbell, and I read Price's article while thus engaged. Meanwhile, I completed work on Duncan  Campbell's complicated family history (which can be linked to the tempestuous career of a governor of early Australia, William Bligh).


     Using this grant enabled research which helps explain why this bibliography is so extensive. One's respect for Price's work is undiminished, but the fact that Price overlooked Campbell, who as hulks overseer remains deeply embedded in treatments of the first convict transportations to Australia, begins to speak eloquently about a series of silences in history-writing which is sustained by nothing else than the way historians regard their topic boundaries - with too little regard for people whose careers happened to embody what becomes the stuff of history.


     It seems, from the points of view of US, English and Australian historians, that the histories of the prosecution and of the aftermaths of the American Revolution, and a subsequent British settling of Australia, are forever to be quarantined from one another - at the considerable expense of overlooking relevant family histories as well as the complaints of the British Creditors.


     With the post-revolutionary history of the United States, however, it becomes evident from some treatments [such as Charles F. Hobson, `The recovery of British debts in the Federal Circuit Court of Virginia, 1790-1797', Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 92, 2, 1984., pp. 176-200.], that the complaints of the British Creditors provided some stimulus to the quicker development of a federally-and-internationally responsible US legal system, which is surely a more abstract topic, that should not be under-rated as such!


     If this is so, then the three chairmen of the British Creditors have been denied due recognition? (And Patrick Colquhuon as spokesman for the Scottish Creditors could also have played a role). Taking this as a cue, I had also noticed that in her otherwise excellent treatments of Anglo-American merchant politics, 1720-1776, Olson lost sight of Campbell from 1776, which means that one has a problem in interpreting the comphrehensiveness of her work generally, vis-a-vis Price's article noted above. Price, working independently, made progress beyond Olson's, but because he had not read Anglo-Australian penal history, Price missed on Campbell, whose family history if anything would buttress Price's thesis. Ergo, two competent US historians lost sight of some of their quarry at precisely the point where an Australian historian must begin work, and where English historians interested in social/penal history traditionally lose interest, or lack interest, quite as though "Australia' is down-market.


     Here, in historians' surveys of the very birth of the modern world - after the American and French revolutions - something has happened which remains unnoticed, to the detriment of a due notice, in world history, of how Australasia came to world attention - by the settlement of a British convict colony at Sydney in 1788.


     This situation remains objectionable, historiographically, and inspecting it convinces one that here, in the longer run, the preferred-to-be-written histories of particular nation states - the United States, the United Kingdom after the American Revolution, and Australia - can, and should, be heavily criticised on the grounds that they have encouraged the suppression of information which might otherwise have seemed unexceptional - family histories.


     Here, from my own experience already gained with the computerisation of genealogical information, I find that one could raise many divergent issues. Australian, US, and English historians have all overseen a long-studied separation (1718-1776) of the histories of the Anglo-American tobacco trade and convict transportation to North American colonies, which is just one reason that the British Creditors have gone unstudied. Despite the allegedly extensive range of treatments of English expansionism written since 1610, no overview histories of the Anglo-American tobacco trade 1610-1718 or 1718-1776 have ever been produced, qua maritime or trade histories - unless one counts Robert Brenner's new book, Merchants and Revolution, 1993. (If this had happened in the History of Mathematics, Isaac Newton would never have heard of Euclid or Pythagoras, and Albert Einstein would never have heard of Newton!). The career of the "financier of the American Revolution", Robert Morris, has been inspected (there has been a massive loss of original papers), but one finally feels that the record on his career has not been fully accepted by US historians. Morris' career has been under-exploited by English historians, and completely ignored by Australians, despite his initiation of the United States trade with India and China.


     Regarding the post-1783 period, most English and Australian historians have ignored the history of English whaling. Some personalities involved in English whaling from 1770, notably George Hayley, can be connected with the history of the Boston Tea Party. After 1783, if, indeed, Britain did make a "swing to the East" following the American Revolution, the effect of that on family histories - and other histories - has not yet been fully assessed. Due to nationalistic influences in history writing, there is little harmony between US, English and Australians in their treatments of fur-seeking at Nootka Sound, and that entire trade could fruitfully be studied from scratch. If it was restudied, the efforts of Russian fur-seekers could more usefully be addressed as well as the motives for Spanish responses. (If this was done, as in other contexts mentioned here, in any given timeframes, exactly the same population of traders would come under review). Australians have not yet fully assessed the influence of colonists with careers begun in India, who retired to Australia (of whom one can be said to be Caroline Chisholm).


     In short, one can conclude (in a context of a rising popularity for family histories) that if business histories achieve further popularity, any related genealogical work would further suggest that the way Imperial History has been written has to date often ignored family history - and family history is but one way - and not even the best-refined way - of referring to actual human behaviour.


     I suggest that in the context of British Imperial History, if more business histories were written regarding the period 1780 and 1840, many newly-arising implications would finally cohere into new appreciations. I suggest, after accurate genealogical information has been gained, after the fruit of observations such as these have been re-inserted into more abstract histories, historians will find that genealogical information presents implications which prompt a different historical outlook - an outlook which is person-orientated rather than politically or nationalistically orientated.


     For some time in the future, I think, this will become one sort of contribution which computerisation will force on the study of history. Since about the 1960s, historians as book writers have lost the habit of writing informative bibliographical essays. Given my own perhaps unusual attitude to historiography, which has been provoked by findings arising from my interest in computerised historical information, it is broadly in the light of making such a prediction as above that I have presented the bibliography as given above. Computerised sources of information are specified. Books and articles have not been separated, so that it becomes clearer, alphabetically, which writers have pursued their debates, and how far, how closely, in books as well as in articles.


     For what one finds, with business history as a guiding preoccupation, is that if some historians feel little choice but to follow family histories - history from below? -and others have little choice, but to follow more abstract preoccupations, both camps will find that eventually - as with the building of the Sydney Harbour bridge - two wings of activity will have to meet precisely in the middle, or the entire effort will have been wasted.


     With history-writing, close debates often push historians to finally dwell on personalities, careers, family influences, personal destiny. So in the long run, it will be in the area of close debate that the increasing use of computers may change the way history is approached - and possibly also allow historians to develop a more sensitive attitude to human reactions, motivations and behaviour than their discipline has allowed them in the past.



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