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This webpage updated 14 October 2014. These webpages will remain under construction for a long period.

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Merchants logo gif - 9347 BytesMerchants and Bankers
From 1775-1800

Trade - an international perspective

This Merchants and Bankers Listings website is years old and is now (from 2009) undergoing a marked identity change. Its timeline material on economic history (for 1560-1930) is being moved to a website managed by Ken Cozens and Dan Byrnes, The Merchant Networks Project. This will empty many of this website's pages which have always been in series. In due course, Merchants and Bankers Listings will carry information from the Crusades on the early development of what became “capitalism” in Europe to 1560 or so. As well as a conglomeration of data on modern developments, mostly on modern/technical industry, computing, and for the future, today's climate change problems. The editor's view is that in the context of climate change, the views of Merchants and Bankers (and Economists), the keepers of matters economic, are due for a considerable shake-up. If this website can encourage the shake-up, and help inform it reliably, well and good. -Ed

Please use the table on the main page of this website for navigating this Merchants and Bankers website.

It is hoped that this web page will be of assistance to family historians in the UK, the US and Australasia, by way of providing contexts for further research.

The Merchant Networks Project
Merchant Networks Project logo by Lou Farina

The history websites on this domain now have a companion website on a new domain, at Merchant Networks Project produced by Dan Byrnes and Ken Cozens (of London).

This website (it is hoped) will become a major exercise in economic and maritime history, with some attention to Sydney, Australia.

Reference item: John L. McMullan, The Canting Crew: London's Criminal Underworld, 1550-1700. New Brunswick, 1984.

Follows here a list of English ship managers operating 1717-1775, shipping convicts to America: With a list of merchants shipping convicts to Australia from 1786-1788, to 1867: The two lists will enable completion of any research on the English use of convict transportation in the period covered...
Please note: This collected list has never appeared in any printed book to date, and did not appear on the Internet before 16-6-2002 - Dan Byrnes.
1717: Francis March, London:
1718 Jonathan Forward, London;
1720 members of the Lux family, Darby, John, and Francis (probably London before becoming colonials, (later linked to Jonathan Forward's operations) and in 1750, William Lux;
1721-1722, Jonathan Forward Sydenham of London;
1722, ? Cheston;
1731, various men named Reed, to 1771;
1737, Joseph Weld in Dublin;
1739, Andrew Reid, London, with James and Andrew Armour, London, and John Stewart of London;
1740++, Moses Israel Fonseca, London;
1740, Samuel Sedgley, Bristol;
1740, James Gildart, Liverpool;
1744, John Langley, Ireland;
1745, Reid and Armour, London;
1745, Sydenham and Hodgson, London;
1747, William Cookson of Hull;
1749, Jonathan Forward Sydenham a nephew of Jonathan Forward above;
1749, Stewart and Armour, London;
1750, Andrew Reid, London;
1750, Samuel Sedgely and Co of Bristol; John Stewart and (Duncan) Campbell, London (JS&C);
1758, Sedgely and Co (Hillhouse and Randolph), Bristol;
1759, Stewart and Armour, London;
1760, Sedgely and Hillhouse of Bristol;
1763, Andrew Reid retired;
1764, John Stewart and Duncan Campbell, London;
1766, Patrick Colquhuon, Glasgow; 1766, Sedgely and Co. at Bristol replaced by William Randolph, William Stevenson and James Cheston, Bristol;
1767, Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, Bristol? with a colonial agent Cheston;
1768, Jonathan Forward Sydenham, London or nearby counties;
1769, Dixon and Littledale, Whitehaven;
1769, Sedgely, Bristol; 1769, any ships captain providing necessary securities could transport felons;
1770, James Baird, Glasgow;
1772, John Stewart died, Duncan Campbell carried on alone in London until 1775.

At Bristol, Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston (SRC) were active till 1776; they made ill-advised and vain attempts to transport felons to North America at the end of the American Revolution. Wisely, Duncan Campbell (1726-1803) did not attempt to resume convict transportation to America.
(The above list does not include names transporting convicts from Ireland.)
See here, Abbot Emerson Smith, Colonists in Bondage: White Servitude and Convict Labour in America, 1607-1776. Gloucester, Massachusetts, University of Carolina Press, 1947. [Peter Smith, 1965]
As a matter of silence-in-history, US historian Bernard Bailyn once wrote - about American reception of English emigrants generally before 1775, (p. 4) there are... "extraordinary facts, key facts, somehow obscured by historians of the empire concentrating on institutions, power rivalries, mercantilism and trade"... "...
See Bernard Bailyn, 'The Peopling of the British Peripheries in the Eighteenth Century', Esso Lecture, 1988. Canberra, Australian Academy of the Humanities, Occasional Paper No. 5, 1988.
Oddly, Bailyn then wrote, (page 19), "I have never found a single reference to a convict in any genealogy or history of an American family, nor, in any other way, does a single one of the 50,000 convicts sent to America appear as such in American history."
In terms of American colonial society (Virginia and Maryland to 1775), the following list of names is interesting: The American correspondents of London-based Duncan Campbell were mostly users of slave labour.
Here is a list of them: Duncan Campbell's correspondents from the index to his business letterbook 1772-1776: including, Allison and Campbell, William Adam, Samuel Athawes, Colonel William Brockenbrough and Austin Brockenbrough, Dr John Brockenbrough, Adam Barnes and Johnson, James Bain, Rev. Mr Beauvoir, James and Robert Buchanan, George Buchanan, Robert Cockerell, Messrs Campbell and Dickson, Colin Currie, Stewart Carmichael, William Dickson, Charles Eyles, Fitzhugh, Fauntleroy, Richard Glascock/Glascook, Benj and Charles Grimes, Henderson and Glassford, Rhodam Kenner, Abraham Lopez and Son, James Millar Jamaica, Daniel Muse, Hudson Muse, Hugh McLean, Joshua Newall, George Noble, Francis Randall, Major Henry Ridgely, Adam Shipley, William Snydebottom, Richard Stringer, Alexr Spiers and Co., Spiers, Finch and Co., Dr. Sherwin, William and Edward Telfair, Tayloe and Thornton, Charles Worthington, Cooper and Telfair.
Any lists given above of convict-transporting ship managers given for North America, then Australia, are the mainstay-names for England's long-use of convict transportation from 1718 to 1867.
For more detailed information on these merchant names as chapters arise, see Dan Byrnes' website on convict transportation from England, 1718-1810: The Blackheath Connection at: http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/blackheath/

- Dan Byrnes (otherwise indicated in these pages as -Editor) Merchants logo gif - 9347 Bytes

Note: You will find even greater detail than is given here, for specific periods in American - English - Australian history, with regard to merchants, traders, bankers and financiers, as part of the website, The Blackheath Connection... Blackheath Connection website logo gif - 8235 Bytes

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Dan Byrnes, Unit 3, %1 Dumaresq Street, Armidale NSW 2350 Australia.

This Merchants and Bankers Listings website is still a work-in-progress

Stop Press For late entries

Capt Micajah Gardner, in ship Hero, from Nantucket, in 1808, owners notnamed, is to Sydney then Peru and Chile, (presumably whaling), see HRA 1 (9):47 see Dunbabin, 1950; However, on 4 July 2005 arrives an email from Chris Maxworthy of Sdney who has been working on a book on US families Jacob, and Gardner: “Dear Dan, Can I offer a suggestion re some of your content On page “Merchants9a” there is a reference to Micajah Gardner being the master of the Hero of 1808. This is not correct. The Hero was commanded by Barnabas Gardner, a former Nantucket whaleman, who was employed by John and William Jacob. The ship was British-registered, and was not a whaler, but was smuggling contraband goods, mainly fabrics, into the Spanish colonies. The Thomas Dunbabin article of 1950, and restated in Cumpston's Register of Shipping Arrivals and Departures, was wrong. In fact, Tom Dunbabin corrected the item in the following issue of American Neptune. The Hero sailed from Port Jackson in September 1808 and was captured on the coast of Chile by the Spanish corsair “La Flecha” on 28 January 1809. I have acquired the above information in the process of compiling my book on Jacobs and Gardner. I will be in London next month, at which stage I hope to put some more flesh on the bones. Cheers, Chris Maxworthy.

Paul Gardner see re a P. Gardner with whaler/sealer Favorite (1835-1836) from Nantucket, Capt Jonathan Paddock, for owners P. Gardner and D. Whitney, to Sydney and then NZ and Penantipodes and Canton; P. Gardner is owner in 1804 for sealer/trader Rose, of Nantucket, Capt James Carey, to Sydney, Dampier Straits south of Tasmania, thence Canton, (note re R. Caldwell, Nantucket), see HRA 1 (5), pp. 120-122; R. F. Gardner, William B. Gardner, S. Genn, Alexander Gibbs, Alfred Gibbs, Gibbs and Jenney, R. Gibbs, Asa R. Gibson, Peleg W. Gifford, W. Gifford, B. Clover, Joseph R. Gorman, Charles Grant, G. W. Gray, W. H. Gray, Greaves, James M. Green, D. R. Greene, Samuel Greene, Grinnell and Child, Stephen Grinnell, James Gwinn (sic), in 5-6/05, 2-3/06 is captain of whaler Anne from New Bedford, for owner William Rotch, Sydney and Norfolk Island, whaling, China and England and in 9-11/1808 Gwinn on same ship whaling for B. Rotch and in 1812 also similar by New Zealand; Henry Gyzelaar (sic), John S. Hall/Hale, Palmer Hall, Worthing Hall, L. J. Hamblin, George W. Hamley, ? Hamlin, ? Hamsted, Ichabod Handy, William Handy, E. Harding, Ephriam Harding, John Harris, L. Harris, S. W. Harris, Hartwell, Fosdick Dennis Haskell, J. C. Haskell, Hathaway and Luce, G. Hathaway, Jabez S. Hathaway, J. S. Hathaway, Richard Hathaway, Stephen Hathaway, T. S. Hathaway, Havens and Smith, P. P. Hawes, S. Hawes, Shubael Hawes, Nathan B. Heath, Isaac Hedge, ? Henchman, ? Henderson, ? Hensley, G. Hillman, W. Hirst and Co., Isaac Hodge, C. Hoffman, E. B. Hooper, S. B. Horton, B. B. Howard, N. & G. Howell, A. H. Howland, Howland and Hussey;
E. T. Howland, E. W. Howland, Ezra T. Howland, G. Howland, I. Howland, J. and J. Howland, Jabez J. Howland, Jacob Howland, Thomas Howland, Tim J. Howland, William L. Hudson, Charles Huntingdon, S. & B. Huntting (sic), S. F. Hurd, Hussey and Co., Charles W. Hussey, F. Hussey, Isaac B. Hussey, T. Hussey and Co., William Hussey, Ingallis and Lucas, Benjamin Jackson, Rudolphus W. Jackson, Stephen Jarvis, Scott Jenks, Jenney and Tripp, Gilbert H. Jenney, Isaac M. Jenney, W. Jenney, Jones and Co., E. C. Jones, J. H. Jones, J. L. Joslin, Henry Kable (an Australian), Randall Kelley, ? Kempton, Randall Kelley, Kenworthy and Co., Kenworthy and Lord, Edward A. King, D. A. Kingsland, T. Knowles, S. R. Knox, Lemuel Kollock, George W. Lamson, Benjamin Lathrop, Lawrence and Co., Lawrence B., J. Lawrence, G. T. Lawton, Learned and Stoddard, Alexandre Lecorre, L. Little, A. K. Long, Simeon Lord (an Australian), ? Lovett, Thomas D. Lucas, ? Luce, Aaron Luce and Co., S. C. Luce, ? Ludlow, I. Ludlow, Lunt and Titcomb, ? Lyons, James McCall, McGaa, Allen and Co., D. McKenzie, ? McKinstry, ? McLane, ? McLeave, Robert McLeave, T. and P. Macy, ? Magee; Capt Francis Mallaby in 8-9/1796 is on trader Grand Turk from Boston or Salem, supercargo being Meggee, to Sydney then Canton, see Churchward 1948, and in June-July 1794, Capt. Benjamin Page is on trader Halcyon, from Providence, for owners B. page, W. Megee and others, to Sydney thence Canton, see Churchward 1948; C. Mallory, G. B. Manchester, Andrew Mather, Edmund Maxfield, James Mayhew, ? Meeneitzhagen, ? Megee (sic), W. Megee, William F. Megee;

Joseph Merrihew, Thomas Mickell, ? Middleton, G. Miller/Milliar, Charles Millett, J. H. Millett; Miner, Lawrence and Co.; B. Minturn in 4-7/1811 is owner for trader ship Milwood, from Philadelphia, Capt. Elihu Smith, to Sydney then to Fiji and China, see HRA 1 (7), p. 432. ;
Mitchell with initials, A., C., J., O., and in 7-11/1805 and 7-8-1806, Capt Benjamin Worth is on whaler Brothers from Nantucket, for O. Mitchell, Sydney and New Zealand ;
? Moore, Israel Morey, C. W. Morgan, Benjamin Morrell, E. P. Mosher, Edward Mosher, William H. Mosher, Charles D. Mugford, E. Mulford, Munro and Co., Robert Murray, Charles Myrick, Neal and Co., J. Neal, Alexander Newcombe, George Newell, ? Nickles, Howes Norris, Richard Norton, Joseph P. Nye, T. and A. R. Nye; Capt. David Ockington, in 5-6/1800 has schooner/sealer Belle Sauvage/Savage from Boston for Jones and Co., to Sydney then Rhode Island, see HRA 1(2): 572 ;
J. B. Osgood, Jonathan Paddock;
Capt Martin Page is on trader/sealer from Providence, Hope, for owners Brown and Francis, to Sydney thence Canton, see Churchward 1948;
R. A. Palmer, Avery F. Parker, Elijah Parker, F. Parker, J. A. Parker; Capt Thomas Patrickson (probably Australian), for owner Capt Thomas Patrickson is on brig trader Philadelphia, to Sydney, then Norfolk Island, China, see HRA 1 (9), p. 47 and Churchward 1948; William H. Payne, Joseph Peabody; Capt Nathaniel Pearce in Sept. 1799 is on trader Resource, from Providence, for owners J. Corlis, Wm. F. Megee and others, to Sydney then China, see Churchward 1948; George Pell, Jabez J. Pell, Pendleton and Trumbull, B. J. Pendleton;
; Isaac Percival, ? Perit (sic), Perkins and Smith, D. Perry, D. R. Perry, Jireh Perry;
; Isaac Percival, ? Perit (sic), Perkins and Smith, D. Perry, D. R. Perry, Jireh Perry; Capt James Perry in 1/1801 is captain on trader Follensbe from Newport, for Vernon and Co., to Sydney, thence China;
A. Pickers;
Job Pierce, L. Pierce, Thomas Pierce, Philip Payne Pinel, T. P. Pingree, H. Pittner, William Plaskett, Plympton and Co., Pope and Morgan, Ansel B. Pope, G. Porter and Co., Post and Sherry, F. Post, Francis Post, Oliver Potter, Loring Potter, William Pounditch, C. Prentiss, ? Proctor, ? Ramsdell, ? Rand, Randall and Haskell, I and W. P. Haskell, J. and W. P. Haskell, William Raven (Anglo-Australian), Edward S. Ray, Nathaniel Ray, Richard Ray, B. Read (sic), Thomas Reid, Owen Reynard, William Richardson as master has brig trader Active, from Salem, owned by Jas Cooke, to Hobart, Sydney, Fiji, Canton, Manila in 12/10 and 2/11; William P. Richardson, Freeman Richmond, I. B. Richmond as owner in 2/42 and 7-8/42 has whaler Addison Capt Thos. West from New Bedford, Hobart, , B. Ricketson, T. Riddell, Abimileck (sic) Riggs, Cadwallader Ringgold, A. Robeson, Rodman and Co., S. Rodman, W. R. Rodman;
Augustus D. Rogers, Rogers Brothers, John B. Rogers, Joseph Rogers, B. Rotch, T. Rotch; William Rotch;
? Royce, Ruggles and Co., Edward Russell, W. T. Russell, Moses Sampson, John D. Sampson, F. S. Sanford, Isaac J. Sanford, Peleg Sanford, Squire Sanford, Jonathan P. Saunders, E. Sawin, John Sawyer, Benjamin C. Sayer, A. H. Seabury, P. G. Seabury, John Searle, P. Sears, J. H. Shaw, Abner D. Shearman, D. S. Shearman, Humphrey Shearman, James S. Shearman, John W. Shearman, Humphrey A. Shockley, William J. Shockley; In 1804-1805, for notnamed owners, ship Herald, of Salem, Capt Zachary Silsbee, to Tasmania, see Langdon, 1971; ? Silver; Bezer (sic) Simmons, Henry Simons, ? Sissons, Ezra Smalley, Austin Smith, B. Smith, Elihu Smith, Eliphalet Smith, Francis S. Smith, George W. Smith, J. Smith; Capt Jacob Smith is for owner William Handy and Jacob Smith in 10/1798 for trader Semiramis, from Newport, to China, see Churchward 1948; John S. Smith, Owen Folger Smith, Roger G. Smith; Seth Smith is captain in 12/07 for owner John Dorr, of Amethyst sealer from Salem Boston to Sydney and fishing, see HRA 1 (6): 319-319; Thomas H. Smith, Veranus Smith, John M. Sowle (sic), Thomas Spencer, W. Spooner, John H. Stackpole, G. and M. Starbuck, Levi Starbuck, Reuben Starbuck, Simeon Starbuck, S. Sterling, ? Stetson, E. J. Stetson, Peleg Stetson, Herman N. Stewart, G. Stillman; Stone, Silsbee, Picknam and Allen, W. H. Stowell, Benjamin K. Studley, G. and N. Sturtevant, ? Sumner; Swain and Co. in 12/01 - 3/02 have trader/schooner Caroline from Boston Capt S. Tuckerman, to Sydney to New Bedford; Obed Swain, Oliver C. Swain, ? Sweeney, A. Swift, Swift and Allen, E. Swift, Hallett Swift, John Swift, T. Swift, C. S. Taber, Charles S. Taber, Frederick C. Taber, George Taber, G. H. Taber, H. Taber, Jacob Taber, John S. Taber, Stephen Taber, J. R. Taliman, W. Tate, W. Taylor, Charles T. Terry, I. F. Terry, Phineas Terry, Thomas and Dow, J. D. Thompson, Christopher Thornton as master has Abigail trader from Rhode Island, Sydney-Manila-Canton in 2/96, , J. R. Thornton, Silas Tinkham, Asa S. Tobey (sic), George Tobey, John Tobey, M. S. F. Tobey, Isaac B. Tompkins, William H. Topham, James Townsend; Josh Townsend, and in 1803 we find a schooner/sealer Independence, from New York, (Kangaroo Islands near South Australia?) Capt O. F. Smith with ? Wilkinson and J. Townsend, for Fanning and Co., to Kangaroo Island, King George Sound, Bass Strait, Sydney, and same in 1804 and 1805, to Norfolk Island, lost Penantipodes, see Fanning, 1924; Henry Trapp, L. C. Tripp; ? Trotter, is Captain of snow/trader, Susan, from Providence, owners notnamed, to Sydney thence Canton, see HRA 1 (9), p. 47. ; J. F. Trumbull, A. Tucker, C. R. Tucker, J. Tucker, S. Tuckerman, James R. Turner, ? Tweedie, G. B. Upton, Charles A. Veeder, Vernon and Co., William Vickery, John H. Wady, B. Wallace, Otis Webb, Edward Weeks, William Weeks;
In November 1803, Lawrence and Co are owners for sealer/trader Wertha Ann of New York, Capt Gibbs West, Sydney then China, see HRA 1 (4), p. 427; Isaiah West, Leonard West, Thomas West, ? Westfall, N. Weston, Richard Wheatland, J. R. Wheaton, W. Wheeler, Alexander Whelden, Whinstrop and Co.;
Capt. Coffin Whippey in 9/1807 is on whaler Grand Sachem from Newbury, for owner B. Rotch, to Sydney thence Fishery, see HRA 1 (6), pp. 618-619;
D. Whitney, I. Whittemore, F. R. Whitwell, Wiggins and Parsons, James Wilcocks, Wilcox and Richmond, C. Wilcox, Joseph Wilcox, Preserved Wilcox, T. Wilcox, Charles Wilkes, Williams and Barnes, Williams and Haven, Charles Williams, C. P. Williams, J. B. Williams, T. W. Williams; Willings and Co. in 1801 from Philadelphia send trader Missouri, Capt. William Vickery, to Sydney and China, see HRA 1 (3), pp. 128-130; B. W. Winslow, E. Winslow, ? Winters, D. Wood, Daniel Woodbury, Warren Woodward, T. Woolden, Benjamin Worth, Jared Worth, G. Writhington, C. Wyer, Obed Wyer, Youngs (sic) -

From a ghenealogy website we find - 1811, The Rapid, lost, had 330,000 Spanish dollars aboard. Capt. Henry Dorr (From a US website on Dorr family) He had a ship The Rapid, a three-masted wooden schooner of 367 tons, built in 1807 and registered at Boston, Capt Herny Dorr of The Rapid was one of the syndicate owning her. She wrecked at Ningaloo Reef near Point Cloates on the north-west Western Australian coast on the night of 7 January, 1811. She had left Boston for Canton, with a mixed cargo including 330,000 Spanish dollars. The Rapid went to pieces the day after her wrecking. (This wreck has been assessed by West Australian marine archaeologists and the site vacuumed. No salvage fortune in Spanish dollars was found.)

Ends the list

1810: W. E. Burghard DuBois, The Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America. New York, 1898. *

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1799: As Napoleon by November 1799 has seized government and seems to have inspired a regeneration of France, he has to deal with the Austrian emperor. The national treasury of France holds only 67,000 francs. Napoleon's reaction, as usual, is extortion. He demands huge sums of money from merchants in Paris, Lyons, Marseilles, Bordeaux. Also, he extorts more millions from Dutch, Italians and Swiss at bayonet point. He demands 8-9 million francs from the Portuguese, to cover the costs of invading Italy. By March 1800, Napoleon extorted a further 10-12 million francs from the citizens and officials of Amsterdam. Just months later, he extorts more money from the Dutch, plus the use of thousands of Dutch troops for a war effort against Austria. By mid-1800, Napoleon summons the twelve most powerful merchants of Paris for extra millions for paying and supplying the French army. This is followed by demands on the twelve most important merchants of Lyons and Marseilles, but this still does not provide enough money, so Napoleon has to resort to demanding money from private individuals, including wealthy finanicer Ouvrard, for up to 62 million francs. Napoleon also refuses to return 24 million francs he had "borrowed" from banker Collot, who had helped to finance the coup of 18 Brumaire. Napoleon had Collot thrown out of his house. Much of this was kept secret from the public. War on Austria then proceeded. (See Alan Schom, Napoleon Bonaparte, p. 298-299.)

1792: Item: The New York Stock Exchange begins life under a buttonwood tree on Wall Street. (From Robert Dalton, New York correspondent for The Australian newspaper, 18 December 2003 in a story on Calpers, the largest US public pension fund accusing "the world's most prestigious stock exchange" of profiting from fraud on the trading floor".)

More to come - a large item for comment arises for 1755 with wreck of EICo ship Dodington, Capt. James Samson q.v., see list of notables who might have died under Sir Charles Buchanan q.v., extraordinary re virtual history, what might have been?

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