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Note from the Lost Worlds webmaster: This website does tend to give an emphasis to “first-ever” dates as regards any related questions of history of technology in history-in-general. This approach works well enough for Modern (scientific) history but less so for archaic history. In March 2007 the webmaster found a seemingly reliable website on prehistory of India which suggested that by now, many of the “first-ever”dates relating in various literature to Sumeria/Mesopotamia are out of date by now, or misleading. Given that the books consulted for this set of webpages were a little old, even when the pages were originally started, this can probably be applied to information given below on Sumeria. Which in turn might affect some dates for Ancient Egypt. Netsurfers then should regard this as a caution as they explore their topics. - Ed

NB: This has been one of the single highest-hitting pages at www.danbyrnes.com.au/lostworlds and was so for most of 2004-2005 - Ed

0BC: More to come

3BC: Birth of Jesus of Nazareth in about June/July 3BC or slightly earlier. (This is based on a lecture at UNE by Peter Arzt-Grabner, Associate Prof. of Papyrology, University of Salzburg on 18 July 2013. Arzt-Grabner based his datings on the Gospel of Luke plus cross-comparisons made after consultation of non-literary records on papyrus and other data, to find dates contemporaneous with those of Jesus or matters associated with the life of Jesus.)

4BC: About September/October 4BC, Mary becomes pregnant with Jesus. By which time, her relative Elisabeth is about six months pregnant with John (Later, John the Baptist.) Palestine: (This is based on a lecture at UNE by Peter Arzt-Grabner, Associate Prof. of Papyrology, University of Salzburg on 18 July 2013. Arzt-Grabner based his datings on the Gospel of Luke plus cross-comparisons made after consultation of non-literary records on papyrus and other data, to find dates contemporaneous with those of Jesus or matters associated with the life of Jesus.)

4BC Palestine: Before Herod's death, before mid-March/mid-April 4BC, Elisabeth becomes pregnant with John (John the Baptist)) (This is based on a lecture at UNE by Peter Arzt-Grabner, Associate Prof. of Papyrology, University of Salzburg on 18 July 2013. Arzt-Grabner based his datings on the Gospel of Luke plus cross-comparisons made after consultation of non-literary records on papyrus and other data, to find dates contemporaneous with those of Jesus or matters associated with the life of Jesus.)

4BC: Death of Herod. (Palestine). A Wikipedia and other webpages on Herod indicate he is mentioned only in the Gospel of Matthew (Legend of the Massacre of the Innocents after Jesus was born). Herod ruled Judea from 37BC to 4BC. A son of Antipater the Edomite. Herod modified the rulership of Judea from the Levite Hasmoneans (descended from the Maccabees). Herod became a noted builder and tried to Hellenize his territory. Herod was also Governor of Galilee. Unpopular with his Jewish people, as he was only half-Jewish, apart from dim views of this methods, from 37BC, Herod tried to remove all threats to this throne and he later became increasingly paranoid. He did however begin a renovation project for the Temple of Jerusalem, although he also placated the Romans by building temples to Roman gods (Apollo) and even to Baal.

5BC: More to come

6BC: Quirinius, Rome taxes Judea for first time.

6BC: Rome: Subjugation of the Alpine peoples is completed.

c10-7BCE: Birth of Jesus?

8BC: More to come

9BC: Rome: Death of Drusus.

10BC: More to come

12BC: Rome: Invasion of Germany. Death of M. Agrippa.

Circa 14BC: Two Germanic tribes, the Batavians and the Frisians migrate to the Rhine delta, and enter the employ of the Romans. In 14BC-9BC is Roman conquest of Pannonia (bounded north and east by Danube River, near Noricum. Had parts of today's Hungary, Austria, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia/Herzigovina and Slovakia. Cannuntum near today's Vienna was capital of Upper Pannonia).

15BC: Rome: Rome: Subjugation of the Raeti (possibly influenced by the Estruscans, an alpine group of Switzerland/Austria. parts of northern Italy and Germany south of the Danube) and Vindelici (a Celtic people, bounded by the Danube, north of the area of the Raeti).

16BC: Rome: Conquest of Noricum (parts of Austria/Bavaria and Slovenia, northern Italy, Lithuania and Slovenia). Noricum was largely a bloodleds conquest

18BC: Rome: Appearance of Julian Law on Marriage.

20BC: Rome: Agreement reached with Parthia (north-east Iran). Parthia had earlier belonged to the Medes in C7th BC, was overtaken by Alexander the Great. Parthia had seven major tribes and was on "the Silk Road". Parthians are thought to descend exillically from Scythians.

25BC: Rome: Annexation of Galatia. (Bounded to north by Bithnyia and to the east by Paphigonia, south by Cilicia and on west by Phrygia. The highlands of today's Turkey)

30BC: More to come

31BC: Mark Antony's naval force (140 ships) with a squadron of Cleopatra's ships is defeated at Actium by Roman legions under Augustus Caesar (who as Octavian died 14AD is said to be "real founder of Roman Empire, had 260 ships). Actium, today's Preveza, is in the Ionian Sea on a promontory of western Greece. Militarily, this action gave Rome a transition from Republic to Empire.

34BC: More to come

35BC: More to come

36BC: Rome: Defeat of Sextus Pompey. Lepidus deposed. Parthian War.

40BC: Chinese use rotary winnowing machines to aid food supply.

44BC: 15 March: Julius Caesar, viewed as a dictator, is assassinated in Rome by conspirators led by Brutus and Cassius. Mark Antony tries to seize control of Rome. Opposition comes from Cicero.

45BC: More to come

48BC: Burning of the library of Alexandria by Julius Caesar is a myth, in 48BC, as what happened was that a large dockland storage of papyri burned as he laid siege to the city. The real enemies of the library were the Christians of the 4th-5th Centuries AD is one of three legends about the destruction of the famous library.

In 48BC dies Pompey.

48BC: Julius Caesar defeats his brother-in-law and former ally Pompey at the Battle of Pharsallus, thereby becoming absolute ruler of the Roman Empire.

49BC: Julius Caesar "crosses the Rubicon" river. In 49BC-46BC is war between Caesar and the Optimates.

50BC: Invention of world's first reaping machine in Celtic Gaul. Not reinvented till in Nineteenth Century Australia.

52BC-51BC: Rome: Revolt of Vercingetorix.

53BC: Rome: Crassus dies at Carrhae.

54BC Approx: Due to population pressures, Celtic tribe the Helvetti poured out of Switzerland in Caesar's time.

55 BC: Julius Caesar invades Britain.

Julius Caesar's Britain invasion site 'found by archaeologists'

BBC Headlines story on 30-11-2017 by ??

Archaeologists believe they may have uncovered the first evidence of Julius Caesar's invasion of Britain in 54BC, at Pegwell Bay near Margate, just south of the mouth of the Thames River, in Thanet, Kent. The discovery of a defensive ditch and weapons led them to identify Pegwell Bay as the place they believe the Romans landed.
The ditch, in the nearby hamlet of Ebbsfleet, was part of a large fort, the University of Leicester team says. Its location was consistent with clues provided by Caesar's own account of the invasion, the team said.
Caesar's 54BC invasion, which ultimately ended in retreat, came almost 100 years before Claudius's conquest in AD43. The 5m-wide ditch was discovered during an excavation ahead of a new road being built. The university said its shape was very similar to Roman defences found in France. It is thought it formed part of a large fort protecting Caesar's ships on the nearby beach.

Julis Caesar was born into a prestigious patrician family in 100BC, and became one of the key figures in 1st Century BC Roman politics. He formed a political pact, known as the First Triumvirate, with Pompey and Crassus. After successful military campaigns against the Gauls he invaded Britain, where he was eventually forced into retreat. He defeated Pompey in a civil war and declared himself dictator, but was famously assassinated by Brutus, Cassius and other senators in 44BC. His adopted son Octavian became Augustus, the first Roman Emperor.
Pottery found at the site was consistent with the 54BC arrival date and the team also found iron weapons, including a Roman javelin.
Archaeologist Dr Andrew Fitzpatrick said descriptions from Caesar's account of the invasion - which describes him leading a force of about 800 ships, 20,000 soldiers and 2,000 cavalry - suggested it was the correct landing site.
"The presence of cliffs, the existence of a large open bay, and the presence of higher ground nearby, are consistent with the 54BC landing having been in Pegwell Bay," he said. "It's a big force, and you need a big landing place, because simply to land that number of vessels you need a big front. "We think that the location of the site fits very closely with what Julius Caesar gives in a series of clues - he doesn't tell us in detail, but he gives some snippets, and by piecing those snippets together we think it fits very well." Dr Fitzpatrick said the low-lying, coastal nature of the site was "defending the coast rather than looking inland", which led them to believe it could be Caesar's base.
Prof Colin Haselgrove, who led the investigation, said it was likely treaties set up in the wake of Caesar's invasion made it easier for the Romans to conquer parts of Britain almost 100 years later.
He said: "The conquest of south-east England seems to have been rapid, probably because the kings in the region were already allied to Rome. "This was the beginning of the permanent Roman occupation of Britain, which included Wales and some of Scotland and lasted for almost 400 years." The findings will be explored further as part of Digging For Britain, on BBC Four at 21:00 GMT and afterwards on BBC iPlayer.
(Archaeologists believe the fort may have covered an area up to 200 hectares in size. The defensive ditch was about two metres long.)

58BC to 51BC: Julius Caesar enlarges his military reputation by fighting in Gaul. Estimates are that he destroys whole tribes, kills about 400,000 people and enslaves about 400,000.

58BC: Switzerland: First settlers of Switzerland are Celts who are conquered by Romans in 58BC - The Romans withdrew from Switzerland in 401AD, and then Germanic tribes overran the area. In 58BC, Cicero is exiled.

60BC: Rome: Enraged by the Senate, general Pompey joins the triumvirate, (three-man dictatorship), with Crassus and Julius Caesar.

61BC: More to come

62BC: More to come

63BC: Basic Bible date, 63BC: Romans conquer THE PALACE in which Cleopatra probably had her affairs with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony is revealing its secrets afresh.

Cleopatra's ship has (probably) been found in Alexandria's harbour, which suffered a tidal wave in AD35. The ship sank after a collision.

Head of research on this fascinating reclamation project is a French underwater explorer, Franck Goddio. Another researcher is Peter Jones, an Egyptologist with Newcastle University (England). (Reported early 1999)
Item: Cleopatra was the result of six generations of brother-sister marriages. (R. Brasch, How Did Sex Begin?)

Alexandria, Egypt, Retrieval of artefacts from the reign of Cleopatra, prior to establishment of an underwater museum for the city. Australian TV report, 29-10-1998. Note, in 1979, at Alexandria, Egypt, was, of related interest, Research work with psychics and scientists which comprises the book: Stephan A. Schwartz, The Alexandria Project. New York, Delacorte Press/Eleanor Friede, 1983. Israel, 1 and 2 Maccabees.

63BC: Israel is part of the Roman Empire. One of its rulers, Herod, is a native of a non-Judaic area, Idumaea. He "legitimises" himself by marrying a recognised Judaic princess. (Baigent and Leigh, Messianic Legacy) Rome annexes Syria. Death of Mithradates.

64BC: Pompey annexes Syria-Palestine to Rome.

65BC: More to come

66BC: More to come

67BC: More to come

68BC: More to come

69BC: More to come

70 BC: Wolves lair brothel reborn in Pompeii: Pompeii before it was destroyed by a volcano had a large, well-planned and richly decorated brothel, known as the Wolves' Lair (Lupenare). It has just been re-opened to the tourist public after renovations. A two-storey building with explicit wall paintings, it was purpose-built about 70BC, about the time that Spartacus was leading his slave revolt (Third Servile War). A port city, Pompeii had plenty of brothels, but the Lupenare was the only one specially built. (Reported 28 October 2006)

70BC: Rome: Two generals, Crassus and Pompey march on Rome to seize the office of Consul for themselves. Pompey shortly conquers the Near East and organizes it into four provinces.

71BC: More to come

72BC: More to come

73BC-71BC: Gladiator Spartacus leads slave revolt against Rome. Later, 6000 rebel slaves were crucified on the Appian Way. Spartacus was from Thrace and was executed in 71BC, he may have been from the Maedi tribe. The name Spartacus has associations with south west Bulgaria or the Black Sea area. Several of his compatriots were from Gaul.

74BC-63BC: Rome: Third Mithradatic War.

75BC: Rome: Bythnia becomes a Roman province. The northwest of Asia Manor. Capital was Nicomedia. This area united with Pontus. Or, from the Sea of Marmara to Nicae in eastern Turkey. Part of the area about today's Istanbul, or earlier, Constantinople.

76BC: More to come

77BC: More to come

78BC: More to come

80BC: More to come

81BC: More to come

82BC-81BC: Rome: Sulla is dictator.

83BC: Rome: Sulla returns to Italy.

84BC: More to come

85BC: More to come

86BC: More to come

87BC: More to come

86BC: More to come

87BC: Rome: Marian revolt at Rome. In 87BC-86BC is siege of Athens and Peiraeus.

88BC: Rome: Massacre of Italians in Asia. Mithradates invades Greece.

89BC-85BC: Rome: First Mithradatic War.

90BC: Rome: Time of Julian Law.

90BC-88BC: Rome: Italian or Marsic War.

91BC: To 82BC: Civil wars in Italy.

92BC: More to come

93BC: More to come

94BC: More to come

95BC: More to come

96BC: More to come

97BC: More to come

98BC: More to come

99BC: More to come

Circa 100BC??: A recent issue of Archaeology, the magazine of the Archaeological Institute of America, carried an article by Dr Zahi Hawass on a cemetery find near Cairo which has archaeologists excited about Roman Egypt.
At an oasis 370km south-west of Cairo is a Roman-period cemetery which may yield up to 10,000 mummies. Some 105 mummies have already been found, some in family groups, some with elaborate masks, or waistcoats covered in gold. The site is Bahariya Oasis.
Dr Hawass is director of the excavations and Egypt's under-secretary of state for the Giza monuments. (The site remains under guard.) (Reported 28 August 1999)

To 100BC: Japan: Mongolian immigrants utilise bronzeware and engage in rice-growing.

100BC: Chinese by now use silk-weaving machines.

100BC: China invades North Vietnam, where original settlers are from Indonesia.

100BC: The 2100-year-old Treasure of Bactria, may be under threat due to the troubles in Afghanistan of the year 2001, art experts warn. The treasure is held in a concrete-walled vault under the presidential palace in Kabul and may be "melted down" by the Taliban. The treasure consists of 20,000 or more items including gold statues, necklaces and ornaments, adorned plaques, winged goddesses, fantastic beasts, other jewellery.
The treasure, dating back to 100BC(?) was excavated in 1978 from a royal burial site (for nomadic royalty) at Tillya-tepe in northern Afghanistan by a Soviet team during Soviet occupation. The treasure was officially sighted and noted in 1993 to dispel rumours it had been or would be interfered with or sold. Russian professor excavating the treasure was Victor Sarianidi (who with one "single find, changed art history". ). An expert commenting on Afghan art and cultural history is Carla Grissman, of Society for the Preservation of Afghanistan's Cultural Heritage. (Reported 7 November 2001) Bactria was "the flat part of modern western Afghanistan", the area between the Hindu Kush in the Himalayas down to the ancient Oxus River (Amu Darya whihc runs into the Aral Sea). Had a notable Bronze Age Culture of Central Asia, regarded today as part of the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex. Said to be the home of Indo-Iranian tribes who moved west into Iran. Capital was Balkh/Bactra. Not really worked on in modern times till 1976 by the Russian Viktor Sariandini.

100BC: Greek women wear bras, but outside their clothing.

100BC-1AD, to 600AD, Possible dates for creation of Nazca Lines of Peru. (Date from Hancock and Faiia, p. 267). As popularized by Erik von Daniken.

100BC-1AD, approx, Date for mysterious culture of Teotihuacan, about 35km from the modern Mexico City. (Date from Hancock/Faiia).

101BC: Rome: Cimbri defeated at Vercellae.

102BC: Roman general Marius defeats German tribes (first time they are named in history), the Teutons and the Cimbri. (Teutones defeated at Aquae Sextiae.

104BC-100BC: Rome: Slave War in Sicily. Time of Domitian Law from 104BC.

105BC: Rome: Province of Gallia Narbonenis is organized. Gaul, or south-eastern France, the area of Provence/Languedoc.

110BC: More to come

111BC-105BC: Rome: Jugurthine War.

BC116-27, Roman scientist Varro seems to have an intuition concerning the existence (as near swamps) of invisible-but-disease-inducing bacteria.

120BC: Downfall of the Hittite Empire, perhaps due to Phrygian invaders. (McNeill)

124BC-87BC: The Silk Road route to China opened by Mithradates I, of the Parthians, east of the Caspian Sea, who arrived by say 250BC. The Parthians had good mounted archers. Overthrown by the Sassanians in AD225. Parthians originally nomadic, much interchange of religious ideas, with Zoroastrianism, Gnosticism, Mazda worship, Mithras. Had sway over Palmyra and Nemrut Dag. Some Parthian remains are found at Nippur.

125BC: By now the Greeks are aware of the monsoon of the Indian Ocean. (Item from text by Paul Lunde, in magazine Saudi Aramco World, The Indian Ocean and Global Trade, issue July/August 2005)

129BC: Rome: Province of Asia is organized.

130BC: More to come

133BC: Rome: Tribune Tiberius Gracchus attempts land reform in Italy for small land-holders. Senate opposes his ideas. His brother Gaius tries more reforms such as subsidized grain prices for poor folk in 123BC, provoking a crisis of government. In 133BC, the Kingdom of Pergamon is willed to Rome.

135BC: More to come

136BC-132BC: Rome: Slave War in Sicily.

140BC: More to come

141BC: Israel: Jewish revolt led by Judas Maccabeus, ousting the Greeks in Israel. Later the Maccabean Dynasty is overthrown by Rome.

143-133BC: Rome: Numantine War.

145BC: More to come

146BC: Rome conquers Greece.

146BC: Rome: Third Punic War: Rome destroys Carthage. Revolt of the Achaeans. Sack of Corinth. Dissolution of the Achaean Confederacy.

146BC: Rome (with feeling whipped up by Cato the Elder) defeats Carthage and ruins the soil of the area for agriculture by salting it.

147BC: Rome: War with Virithus in Spain.

148BC: Macedon becomes a Roman province.

149BC-146BC: Rome: Third Punic War with Carthage.

149BC-148BC: Rome: Fourth Macedonian War.

150BC: (Bloom, p. 228), has Essenes beginning about 150BC in Israel.

About 150BC: Greece's culture ministry reports that Greek archaeologists on the Island of Chios have found the skull of a Second Century BC man who had survived a skull operation. He died when in his 50s, and his skull had an artificial 1.62cm hole, a case of trepanation, an operation to relieve pressure on the brain. Trepanned skulls have been found from as long ago as 3000BC, but it is still uncertain just what the operation was designed to achieve, medically. (Reported 5 September 2003)

155BC: More to come.

c160BC: First mention in Hebrew literature of resurrection, eternal life.

By 165BC: Egypt has lost all Imperial possessions in Asia.

167BC: Maccabees resist persecutions of Antiochus.

170BC: Antioch IV of Syria desecrates the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem.

171BC-167BC: Rome: Third Macedonian War.

175BC: More to come

177BC: Egypt: Ramses III defeats the bothersome Sea Peoples. (Mellersh)

180BC: More to come

185BC: More to come

186BC: Rome: Dissolution of the Bacchanalian societies.

Demetrius is King of Bactria 190BC-160BC.

Circa 190BC: Mycenaeans, Greek-speaking warriors from the north take over farmers of Southern Greece and build great stone fortresses.

190BC: Rome: Battle of Magnesia.

191BC: Rome: Antiochus is defeated at Thermopylae.

192BC-189BC: Rome: War with Antiochus the Great of the Aetolians.

195BC: More to come

196BC: Rome: Flamininus proclaims "the freedom of the Hellenes".

197BC: Rome organizes provinces of Hither and Farther Spain. Hither was "nearer Spain". Area of today's Cartagena, or Catalonia and Valencia. Further Spain was south.

218-200BC: Romans occupy Iberia (Spain).

200BC: And later. Early Buddhist caves in use in India.

c200BC: Ben Sira writes Ecclesiasticus. (First mention of "Eve's sin")

200BC: Alexandria, Egypt: A cultured city with 500,000 population, with world's first lighthouse, a university, library with 500,000 manuscripts/books, multi-decked shipping, theatres, temples with automatic sliding doors, and engineers working with a simple steam engine. (Notes from: Peter James and Nick Thorpe, Ancient Inventions. London, Michael O'Mara Books Ltd., Ballantine 1996.)

200BC: Tribal Celts sent their own priests of the Goddess to the great sacred festival of Cybele in Anatolia. R. Miles see other note re Mithras and Cybele cults, linked.

About 200BC: Jaynes has writing of books of Old Testament. About 200BC: Aramaic language except for religious texts replaced cuneiform, Somewhat later, the American Mayans; in such areas, today, local prophets (with the aid of peyote) lay face down and hallucinate voices. Birth of Christ, Jaynes view is that the attempted reform of Judaism by Christ can be construed as a necessarily new religion for conscious men rather than bicameral men: behaviour to arise from within subjectivity rather than be carved from without by the Mosaic Law; Christ seen by some as "the word [of the gods] made flesh". By now, scepticism erodes the work of the Delphic Oracle. About AD400-1000, Jaynes has the Mexican Mochicas, bicamerals, building huge pyramids for their gods. AD1000-to 1300 came the bicameral Americans near Lake Titicaca, later the Chimu.

Mathematics in China, 200BC-0BC: approx, Researchers in China, Karine Chemia and Guo Schuchun, in a newsletter published about March , 1999, by National Centre for Scientific Research, Beijing, report (from an old manuscript, Nine Chapters on Mathematical Procedures), that Chinese mathematicians probably preceded Greeks, as by about 200BC they were considering algorithms (of the kind used in modern computers), and irrational root numbers.

200BC-196BC: Rome: Second Macedonian War.

201BC: Rome: Annexation of Carthaginian Spain.

202BC: China: First Han Dynasty is 202-209BC (See McNeill)

202BC: Roman general Scipio Africanus beats Carthaginians at Zama in North Africa. *This way may have cost Rome some 300,000 men.

204BC: Rome: Scipio invades Africa.

205BC: Rome: Peace between Rome and Philip of Macedon.

206BC: China: The Han Dynasty seizes power - a triumph for the system of Confucianism.

210BC: Rome: P. Cornelius Scipio is Roman commander in Spain.

211BC: Hannibal is only one mile outside Rome but cannot take the city. In 211BC, Rome recovers Syracuse and Capua. Roman disasters in Spain, Roman alliance with the Aetolians.

214BC: Rome: Revolt of Syracuse.

215BC: Alliance of Hannibal and Philip V of Macedon. First Macedonian War.

216BC: Rome: Cannae. Revolt of Capua.

218-202BC: Rome/Iberia: Second Punic War: Rome expels Carthaginians from Spain and then subdues the Iberian tribes, (tho what of the Basques?). Spain later gave to Rome the emperors Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius and Theodosius the Great.

218BC: Hannibal (with elephants) crosses the Pyrenees and invades Italy, but is recalled to defend Carthage from Rome in 203BC. Question: where did Hannibal obtain his elephants?
The nearest we have come to seeing an answer to this is from a book written about elephant-handling experiences in Burma. Williams writes: In 218BC, Hannibal's army initially consisted of 90,000 foot, 12,000 horse and 37 elephants, shrinking after the Alps crossing to 20,000 foot, six thousand horse and an unknown loss of elephants. Why did he want elephants anyway? To surprise and terrify his enemy?Psychological warfare? Also, trained elephants could carry wooden towers capable of holding 32 archers or soldiers. But probably, to use their foreheads as rams to batter down the gates of walled areas, as was usual in India, where elephants were often used in warfare. Williams cannot see Hannibal's elephants as being African. The Carthaginians were not Africans (Negroes) and had little interest in the deep African hinterlands which were home to elephants - quite apart from the work of breaking-in elephants. But as maritime traders, they may have had access to a supply of elephants from India or further east? Perhaps, they might have been what were much later referred to as Portuguese East African elephants, which have been photographed being used in harness. The African pygmy elephant (a distinct species) never stands taller than seven feet high. Larger African elephants are badly-built for dragging work. Williams estimates that 37 elephants would carry no more than 40,000 pounds weight. If Hannibal's elephants were Indian, they possibly came young and domesticated from India to Iraq and had been marched overland, possibly to Tyre, to be reshipped to Carthage, or overland through Egypt and Cyrenaica. Williams opts for the psychological warfare argument.
(Lt-Col. J. H. Williams, Elephant Bill. London, The Reprint Society, London, 1950/1951. (Memoirs of an Englishman working in the Burmese teak timber industry, and a fascinating book.)

220BC: More to come

By 221BC: China is united under one emperor.

221BC-210BC: China: Shih Huang Ti, first emperor of China, has tomb near Xian. Containing the famous "army" of eight-thousand terra-cotta warriors discovered in the 1970s. This tomb contains mercury rivers, a model of the empire, and the tomb door could not be opened due to "magnetic forces" from skilfully-applied lodestone. (Source: James/Thorpe)

220BC: Appointment in Rome of "first public physician", a Greek, Archagathus, who used the knife and cauterizing iron. Patients called him "the butcher". The Graeco-Roman god of healing was Asclepius. By around 200BC: the Chinese also set up a widespread system of public health, with doctors paid by central government, first in major cities, than nationally. By AD493. the national university at Lo-yang had professors of medicine. Such medical schools were set up in Baghdad in AD931 and Salerno, Italy, by AD1140.

220BC-219BC: Rome: Second Illyrian War.

221BC: Carthaginian commander Hannibal appears in Spain.

224BC-222BC: Rome: Conquest of Boii and Insubres.

225BC: Rome: Gauls are defeated at Telamon.

226BC: Rome makes treaty with Hasdrubal.

227BC: Rome organizes provinces of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica.

227BC: Colossus of Rhodes comes down in an earthquake.

229BC: Hasdrubal succeeds Hamilcar in Spain.

229BC-228BC: Rome: First Illyrian War.

230BC: Carthaginians found Barcelona as a port - (Barcio, said to be inspired by the Barca family).

232BC: Rome: Colonization of Ager Gallicus.

235BC: Oops, a rethink. We find by January 2018 that Assoc. Prof. Josephine Quinn, in Ancient History at Oxford University, UK, now disputes our information on the Phoenicians. Did they exist? Etc. Were they merely a figment of imagination, a creation of the historically-recent movement to create nation-states? Were Phoenicians really a political identity, not a personal one. See Josephine Quinn, In Search of the Phoenicians. Princeton University Press, 2017.

240BC approx: Carthaginian/Phoenician mariner PYTHEAS sails from Marseilles on a little-known voyage of discovery to the Arctic Circle ("seas thick as jelly" due to ice, though no one believed Pytheas, "a land where the sun revolved horizontally"). When he returned home he wrote a book, The Ocean, no copies of which survived. He was possibly seeking supplies of amber and tin (tin from Cornwall for bronze-making?) He sailed past the eastern Pyrenees, past "Southern Gaul", the Ampurias of Spain/Iberia, to a Greek colony of Spain, out the Straits of Gibraltar, by Cadiz, Portugal, then North, discovering that Iberia is a peninsula, France/Gaul, at 50 miles per day, past the mouth of the Loire River, Brittany, the westernmost part of France, probably to Cornwall's tin mines (hundreds of them), past Kent, to Land's End, Cornwall, north through the Irish sea, but not to Ireland itself. Past the Orkneys and Shetlands, the Faeroe Islands, to Iceland/Thule, across and into the Arctic Circle, the isle of Sanland, off the coast of Denmark, back to Britain, and home, over 7000 miles.
J. H. Parry, (Consultant), Reader's Digest Discovery: The World's Great Explorers: Their Triumphs and Tragedies. Sydney, Reader's Digest, 1978.

235BC: More to come

237BC: Rome: Hamilcar of Carthage is in Spain.

240BC: More to come

241BC: Sicily is ceded to Rome. Between 241BC and 238BC is revolt of Carthaginian mercenaries for Rome, and Sardinia and Corsica are ceded to Rome.

1050-250BC: A markedly colder world climate, generally. (View of HR Lyon, Vikings in Britain, p. 20.)

245BC: More to come

c250BC: Israel: First synagogues; Pentateuch translated into Greek.

c250BC: Israel: Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes.

c250BC: Israel: first synagogues; Pentateuch translated into Greek

250BC-350AD: Rome: Appearance of Graeco-Roman Philosophy.

250BC: Roman naval disaster at Drepana.

Circa 250BC: India: Buddhism's leaders decide to send missionaries to its own empire of India, to Hellenistic kingdoms to its north-west, to Ceylon in the south.

250BC: Approx: A Greek doctor, Erasistratus, invents catheters for use in genito-urinary disorders, including kidney-stone blockage problems.

In C3rdBC, Archimedes invents the screw, for raising water.

256BC-255BC: Roman invasion of Africa.

260BC: Rome: Naval victory at Mylae.

261BC: Early in C3rd BC: "An emperor with a conscience". Early in 3rdCentury BC, most of northern and central India is under one empire, the Mauryan, after Chandragupta Maurya - who founded it in India in 322BC after retreat of Alexander the Great, and in 261BC, Ashoka, the 3rd emperor of Mauryan Dynasty, set out to conquer east of India, the state of Orissa, he said himself, a hundred thousand people were deported, a hundred thousand killed, many times this number died. Later the emperor was struck with remorse, and in some years converted to Buddhism, he renounced wars as a means of conquest, he banned animal killings for sacrifice, and provided medical services. Recommended obedience to parents, a standard of justice for all. He had a paternalistic idea of kingship, but sects did remain in conflict, this Buddhist experiment failed to last beyond his reign.
See Reader's Digest, History of Man: The Last Two Million Years. Sydney, The Reader's Digest Association, 1973-1974., p. 160.

263BC: Alliance of Rome and Syracuse.

264BC: Outbreak of war between Rome and the African merchant empire of Carthage for control of Sicily. (First Punic War). This war lasts 23 years. Rome wins and Carthage becomes Roman colony.

265BC: More to come

Circa 270BC: World's first keyboard instrument, "a water organ", as invented by Ctesibius, an inventor of Alexandria. He worked on water pumps, water clocks, and mechanical novelties. (Source: James/Thorpe).

Circa 270BC: Ptolemy II asks Greek architect Sostratus of Cnidos to build the world's first lighthouse on the eastern end of island of Pharos, which became one of the seven wonders of the Ancient World. (Source, James/Thorpe). This lighthouse was 350 feet high.

270BC: After Pythagoras died, his successor was a woman named Theano. Also, "The last great scientist of antiquity was a woman; a mathematician, astronomer and physicist named Hypatia. She lived in Alexandria around AD400. The earliest woman scientist so far identified by Caroline Herzenberg of the Agronne National laboratory, is Merit Ptah, a chief physician in Egypt about 270BC. See New Scientist, February 1987.
Re looting of treasures of antiquity in Iraq in 2003, items under threat or thought lost include: a solid gold Sumerian harp from 3360BC, 2000-year-old ceramic jars and urns, a 5000-year-old alabaster Uruk vase, a bust of an Akkadian king dated about 2300BC, "the ram in the thicket", a statue of a deity from 2600BC; tablets with Hammurabi's legal code, one of the world's earliest legal documents, a sculpted head of a Sumerian woman, priceless copies of The Koran, fitting and furniture from 9th-Century palaces, mathematics texts that reveal a knowledge of Pythagorean geometry 1500 years before Pythagoras. A 2300BC image of the God Abu and his consort, cuneiform tablets, and 100,000-year-old stone tools from the Kirkuk area.

275BC: Rome: Battle of Beneventum.

278BC: Pyrrhus invades Sicily.

279BC: Rome: Alliance with Carthage. Battle of Asculum.

280BC: Rome: Battle of Heraclia.

285BC: Rome: Occupation of the Ager Gallicus. Defeat of Gauls and Estruscans at Lake Vadimo.

287-269BC: Greece: The physicist Strato works at Athens on philosophy and experiments. His work is lost, but he may have proved that air is a "substance", and may have worked on gases, air pressure and pneumatics. Strato tutored the future Ptolemy II in Alexandria. Ptolemy II (285-246BC). He builds Pharos lighthouse, and re-digs ancient Suez Canal. (Source: James/Thorpe).

287-212BC: Archimedes, greatest engineer of the ancient world.

290BC: Issue of the first Roman coins.

295BC: More to come

298BC-290BC: Rome: War with the Samnites, Estruscans and Gauls.

10,000BC-300BC: Japan: Joomon Culture: (Joo means 'rope or cord'; Mon means 'figure'.) Many Joomon-doki (rope-figured pottery) were produced. Including Doguu figurines.
This item is from a website History Lecture Note timeline on Japanese history by Mineharu Nakayama.

Circa 300BC: Russia: Arriving to Russia are the Samartians, who supplant the Scythians.

300BC estimated: Before the Nazca Lines?: Archaeologists have discovered a group of figures scraped into the hills of the southern coastline of Peru, which seem to predate the origins of Peru´s famous Nazca Lines. About 50 giant figures had been etched into the earth within about 145 sqm, near today´s city of Palpa, perhaps by the Pacacas Culture people between 600BC-100BC (?). Their purpose was not mentioned in a Guardian report based on an original from Peruvian newspaper El Comercio. (Reported world press, 1 March 2005)

300BC and earlier: Japan: Among the earliest people of japan are the Ainu, white-skinned, who spread south from the northern island of Japan and into the north of the main island. They use crude pottery and stone tools till 300BC.
See Reader's Digest, History of Man: The Last Two Million Years. Sydney, The Reader's Digest Association, 1973-1974., p. 181.

c300BC: Greece: Oldest known copies of Homeric poems.

300BC: Main Old Testament text organised by about 300BC.

300BC: Artificial limbs, At Capua in Central Italy, use of a well-modelled artificial leg, made of wood. Also C30BC: a woman in Kazakhstan in Central Asia has an artificial foot, replacing an amputation. But by C2000BC in Egypt was a mummy of an already dead 14-year-old girl who had been given artificial legs of wood, and feet modelled of mud and reed.

309BC-308BC: Rome: War with the Estruscans.

310BC: Syracuse invades North Africa.

312-263BC: In Mesopotamia, the Seleucid Era, when learning is re-fertilized by Greek sciences.

312BC: And, first century BC, Nomadic Nabataen Arabs create the city of Petra, now regarded as "the jewel in the Jordanian archaeological crown". In Dean Burgon's nineteenth century poem, it is a "rose red city half as old as time"; now an urban centre with priceless architecture. The city is being studied closely by February 2000 with funds supported by the Jordanian royal family. Jordan's archaeological heritage includes prehistoric structures in basalt desert, Bronze Age mounds in the Jordan Valley, hill forts in Moab, Roman forts, towns and churches, Islamic desert palaces, Crusader castles on rocky outcrops (such as Wu'eira), Ottoman caravanserais. Overlooking Petra is Jabal Haroun, Pharaoh's Mountain. There is Wadi Musa, near where Moses is said to have struck a rock with his staff to provide water for his followers. In 312BC, eleven years after Alexander the Great died, one of his generals attacked Petra, but failed, so the Nabataeans kept their independence. In 636AD the armies of Islam took Petra. American archaeologists are now excavating the Temple of the Winged Lions. Entry to Petra is well-protected, via the Siq, a path nearly 2km long, with 50km cliffs stretching above, and rarely more than four metres wide. Petra was discovered in 1812 by Swiss explorer Johann Burckhardt. Two British naval officers followed him, in 1818. (Reported February 2000 in Australia)

322BC: Dies in 322BC, Demosthenes.

C3rdBC: First mathematician to calculate the correct circumference of the earth (at 24,902 miles) is Eratosthenes.

325BC: More to come

326BC: Rome: Second Samnite War.

326BC: During campaigns of Alexander the Great, use of iron-armoured elephants. (A very expensive tactic, and prefiguring the tank). (Source: James and Thorpe).

327BC: Alexander the Great is repulsed from India by founder of Indian Maurya Dynasty, Chandragupta (c.322-298BC).

327BC: Alexander the Great enters India. After his death the north-west of India is harassed by invaders from Central Asia, Greeks from Bactria, Parthians from Iran, Kushans from north of the Hindu Kush mountains, who ruled India till circa 250AD. They welcomed Buddhism as it did not distinguish between practitioners and converts to a religion. Other forces at this time forced Buddhism's leaders to give Buddha a face, to render their belief system less abstract. Buddhist India trades with Rome, the Indonesian islands, and mainland south-east Asia.
See Reader's Digest, History of Man: The Last Two Million Years. Sydney, The Reader's Digest Association, 1973-1974.

330 BC: Alexander the Great introduces opium to the people of Persia and India.
From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth Simon and Schuster, Ltd., 1996. e-mail info@opioids.com

About 330BC: Alexander the Great causes downfall of the Achaemenid Empire, with capture of Persepolis and defeat of Darius III. Alexander the Great founded Alexandria in Egypt in 332BC. The empire is divided amongst Alexander's generals. Seleucus took Persia, Ptolemy too Egypt and began a dynasty. Descendants of Antigonus established themselves in Macedonia. Greeks "swarm" into Egypt, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Persia, and Bactria (from where the later invaded India) creating 275 known colonies.

331BC: Alexander founds Alexandria with central library.

331BC Alexander the Great of Macedonia defeats Persians at Gaugamela. (Gerrit P. Judd)

331BC: Alexander the Great conquers Babylon, where he died in 323BC. Babylon then fell into ruin. In 331BC Alexander defeats Darius III of Persia at Gaugamela. Darius flees and is killed by his own men, and then Alexander enters Babylon. There he catches malaria and later dies.

332BC: Alexander conquers Persia.

332BC: Alexander conquers Persia.

332BC-30BC: Ptolemaic Period, Egypt.

332BC: Alexandria, Egypt, is founded by Alexander the Great after his conquest of Egypt. He died in 323BC. (Source: James/Thorpe).

333BC: Greeks conquer Israel.

334BC-BC330BC: Hellenized Macedonians and Greeks destroy the Persian Empire. In 334, Alexander suppresses a revolt in Thrace, then with 35,000 troops from Macedon and Greece embarks on his world conquest.

334BC: Philosopher Aristotle returns to Athens and founds his school, The Lyceum, teaching till he dies in 322BC.

336: Murder of Philip of Macedonia, the father of Alexander the Great.
Gerrit P. Judd, A History of Civilization. London, Macmillan, 1966.

338BC: The 300-strong homosexual Sacred Band of Thebes is an infantry formation composed of pairs of Spartan male lovers. Annihilated by Philip II of Macedon at Battle of Chaerona.

338: Philip of Macedon conquers Greek city-states in Battle of Chaerona, ending Greek experiments with "democracy". He developed the military use of the phalanx, with foot soldiers standing six-eight deep use shields and long lances.

340BC More to come

343BC: Rome: First Samnite War.

345BC: More to come

c350BC: Israel: Writing of Book of Job; Jonah?

350BC: Foundation of earliest Chinese city, Liang-ch'eng chen. (Financial Times World Desk Reference)

350BC: Insurance: Marine Insurance in various forms by now is known to the mariners of Ancient Greece. But we find that the ideas behind marine insurance might go back to the island of Rhodes as early as 900BC, at least, that's the date we find re marine insurances and Rhodian Laws from a recent PhD thesis on the topic of insurance. (More to come on this topic.)

C4th BC: Celts pour into Italy from the North and sack Rome, Julius Caesar later wrecked Gaul, at the time the heartland of the Celtic World. (See by early 2002 a new book by a French academic on population compositions of Gaul of these and later times.)

355BC: More to come

360BC: More to come

365BC: More to come

369BC: Temple of Artemis at Messene, Greek city at s/w Peloponnese.

370BC: More to come

375BC: More to come

In 377BC-353BC: Mausolos is satrap of Caria in southwestern Asia Minor .

380BC: More to come

385BC: the Celts sack Rome, move into Yugoslavia, Danube countries, then into Greece, where they sacked Delphi in 279BC. Many of them went across into Asia Minor, and became the Galatians of New Testament times. Many Celts swamped by the Germans coming south in the 1st centuries BC and AD or were absorbed into the Roman Empire.. After the 500sBC: Celts restless, Iron Age developments unsettle them. One of their highly-valued commodities was salt. About 500BC: collapse of their long-distance trade with Mediterranean, collapse of their chieftain system, disruption and internecine war, so they moved south and east. Their men fought naked and cut off heads of their victims.

370BC: Was Atlantis at Santorini in the eastern Mediterranean or in Sardinia, or somewhere north-west of The Pillars of Hercules/Straits of Gibraltar? TV documentary broadcast on 11-1-2018 by SBS Australia.

373BC approx: Helike: The Real Atlantis?: Documentary: Helike - The Real Atlantis produced by Zoe Heron. The loss of the city Helike in 373BC, inspired the myth noted by Plato of the sinking of Atlantis? Helike's secrets been remained hidden near its location, on the Gulf of Corinth, 150m west of Athens, though no one is sure exactly where it was.
It was however in an active earthquake zone, but due to a small band of scientists etc., old Roman texts record a great Greek city here, Helike. It thrived 2500 years ago, and worshipped Poseidon, god of earthquakes and the sea. There came an earthquake at night, with most people at home in houses, and, great tragedy, a massive tsunami swept away all survivors. Plato not so long later wrote the legend of "Atlantis", the only city said to disappear without trace in one night.
A coin from Helike features Poseidon on one side, a trident and dolphins on the other, rare evidence of the existence of Helike, it has so far eluded those searching for it.
Once, Prof. Harold Egerton looked for it, he the inventor of slow-motion filming; the first to use strobe lights for photography and one of the first to use sonar to examine a sea floor. Egerton tried to find Helike, which texts said lay 7km east to the sea from Agion (which still exists).
Did Helike have gold and valuables? Using his sonar-imaging equipment, Egerton spent nine years combing likely spots, in water depths of 140 feet, finding "pockmarks" in straight lines, 0.5km in length; were these streets or foundations? The Greek govt. brought in a drill rig to seek man-made artefacts. Drilling went on for 24x7 for two weeks, but found only mud and gravel and "a strange natural rock formation".
Egerton failed and 15 years went by, till along came a "local" Greek woman, now an archaeologist, and her team... Dora Katsonopolou, with a different approach and some clues from ancient texts, and as assisted by US physicist, Steven Soter.

Helike was 2km from sea, so how could it be swept into the sea? A clue is a Greek word for "submerged in a pond" - "poros". Might it not be the sea, but a site on or near an inland stretch of seawater, eg, a lagoon? So the city is flooded where it stands, and not swept into the sea, but simply drowned?
Ian Stewart, an earthquake expert is consulted. There is a local geological fault which makes ground sink; the local plain can drop a metre at one time if an earthquake hits, and in 373 BC was a large-scale earthquake, of the kind presenting the problem of liquefaction, (photographed only once before during a 1964 earthquake in Japan, where water and soil from beneath was forced up to erupt, weakening soil so buildings sink). So Helike probably dropped a few metres, allowing in the sea. All that would be left would be a "poros", a calm lagoon.
This theory however presents a problem - is Helike still hidden under a lagoon? Where is the lagoon now, as the local plain is now solid land. An old bridge is found; the river is now 300-400 metres away from it, the river has moved about 1m per year, leaving the bridge unused; this is caused by sedimentations which would presumably cover any remains. So Helike is now underground.
In 1991, Dora set out to look for an underground location, with an unusual idea, covering selected areas with small drilled holes, trying to find a strike. As the plain is many square miles, for two years, nothing is found. It seems, basic clues were not in the plain, but high up on the hills, where a local archaeologist had found some ruins long before. Can anything be found from "the hills above Helike?" If so, the lost city might be right beneath?
Once in the hills was an oracle-cave with legends concerning the locals of Helike making offerings to Heracles. A reference point to Helike given its distance from Agion, 5.5 km west of the Heracles cave, but this gives one point only where Helike had been - right in middle of today's plain. Soon, something was found, sign one of ancient remains, pottery fragments, yet undated. Use of a magnetometer is called in, to check small variations in the earth's magnetic field, and the finding is of a "building", with some walls.
Then the researchers are distracted by an earthquake; large chunks of land slipped into sea, there were clear signs of liquefaction on the land. Then they found an old public building, probably Roman, as a Roman town had been built near the old site of Helike - and some old classical Greek black-glaze pottery.
Feeling closer to "something", researchers use a digger to sink trenches all around the Roman building and 3m down find tops of ancient walls, plus more classical Greek pottery. This pottery is hard to date, it has no shininess of surface and more evidence is needed, and any proof of the building has been submerged by sea-water. Mud samples are sent to an expert in microscopic water animals found in soils, and we find this building has once been submerged by sea. Newspaper article appear on all this. More digs are made in 2001, finding walls from three more buildings.
Then trouble starts, as when the fragments are put together, the pottery seems to be Bronze Age, 2000 years before Helike, so what is found is not Helike but a proper prehistoric city. But 40m away from one trench are more Roman ruins, and now no doubt, a small piece of pottery with black glaze, from the proper time of Helike. More trenching is done, and 3m down is found a wall, perhaps part of a house, set north-south, 55cm wide and 45cm wide. Then are found two examples of classical Greek artefacts, a small clay head, a "domestic idol", and in a building being excavated is found a beautiful silver coin dated just before the disaster, bearing a head of Apollo and a flying dove, in "mint condition".
But still more evidence is needed, of the area once being submerged, and this appears as relevant tiny sea animals, as from a salt-water lagoon, etc. It all seems to fit, though many years of work remain ahead - the rest of old-Helike should be between the current trenches and the hills in from the sea.
TV documentary produced by Zoe Heron, screened on 15 March 2003 on SBS TV Australia) . Otherwise, Lost Worlds latest information is that Atlantis was "off the coast of Cuba" -

375BC More to come

380BC: More to come

384BC: Aristotle lives 384BC-322BC.

385BC: More to come

386BC: Rome invaded and sacked by the Gauls.

387BC: Greece: Philosopher Plato opens his academy and teaches there till he dies in 347BC.

390BC: Gauls invade Rome. Battle of the Allia.

398BC: Ezra delivers law of Moses (Pentateuch?).

Circa 400BC: Climate change: (From a website) A moderate climate amelioration followed near the dawn of the Roman Empire, before a return to cooler climates during the second half of the first millennia A.D. (the Dark Ages).

c400BC: Israel: Various traditions combined into Genesis.

400BC: Approx: Koreans with organised agriculture and Iron Age military technology invade the Japanese Islands. Displacement of Joomon people of the older Ice Age Civilization, and these "Koreans", as The Yayoi, give formation to present-day Japan.
For more, see a website from Tony Smith at [broken lins?]: http://www.innerx.net/personal/tsmith/Hist.html

Circa 400BC: Decline or obliteration of a little-known "pseudo-Jewish" group, a remnant of the Atenist cult of Akhenaten on the Isle of Elephantine on the Nile (the Island of Yeb), according to Feather. There is archaeological evidence that this group existed before 800BC, and that the island still has remains of monuments to Amenhotep III (father of Akhenaten by Tiyi) and Akhenaten (who married Nefertiti). (Robert Feather, The Copper Scroll Decoded)

400BC: Greece: Archytas, a scientist from Tarentum, southern Sicily, possibly the greatest engineer before Archimedes, invented "a glider", a dove made of wood. Legends of the flight of heavier-than-air objects may have influenced legend-makers in India? (Source: James/Thorpe).

Died Corca 400BC: Death of Thucydides.

About 400BC: The Chinese invent the crossbow, use casting in bronze. Celts migrate into the Po Valley, Italy.

By 400BC: Jaynes sees no more bicameral prophecy in Israel - "the nabiim [voice-hearers] shall be ashamed everyone of his visions", and some parents are adjured to kill their nabiim children on the spot. (that is, kill out the genes which "encourage" the [hallucinatory] voices).

400BC: Warrior's fighting methods and gear become more sophisticated, spears a little lighter, etc.

Dates for 404BC-359BC for king Artaxerxes II of Persia.

431-404BC: Greece: Peloponnesian Wars.

405BC: More to come

406BC: Barbarian tribes sweep across the Rhine frontier of the Romans and overwhelm. The Netherlands falls to the Franks, later built up by Charlemagne. On his death the area went to the Duchy of Lorraine, then the counts of Holland/Hainault.

Died circa 425BC: Death of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, "father of history".

410BC: More to come

415BC: More to come

420BC: More to come

423BC: Evidence (literary), re use of lenses to light fires. Therefore, magnifying glasses. (Source: James/Thorpe).

425BC: More to come

430BC: Plague of Athens, as described by Thucydides. Death toll never ascertained, but the plague marks the end of the ascendancy of Athens. The disease possibly came from Africa.

431BC: Greece: Peloponnesian War, 431BC-404BC:

Before 430BC: Anaximander of Miletus - Greek view of the world as spherical, before 430BC. Greeks invented notion of latitude and longitude, and marked the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn by C4thBC.

432BC and earlier: The latest in astrological fashions: The wizards of early Europe really did wear tall hats, but not the floppy cloth kind. Some German archaeologists and historians now say they wore hats of gold intricately embellished with astrological symbols to help them predict movements of the sun/stars. At least, the researchers have found various "strange yet beautiful cone-shaped objects" at Bronze Age sites, which are not parts of suits of armour, nor ceremonial vases, or caps for wooden posts at "sacred sites". Such hats might even have been worn by "priest-kings", or "Lords of Time".
Berlin Museum (and its director, Wilfrid Menghin), have been examining for example a 3000-year-old, 75cm high Bronze Age cone discovered in Switzerland in 1995, which has 1739 symbols inscribed on it. The symbols describe a code explaining sun and moon years, similar to the "Metonic cycle" discovered by the Greek astronomer Meton in 432BC, about 500 years after the cone was made. The symbols actually describe also a logarithmic table enabling sun and star movements to be pre-calculated. (Reported from The Telegraph, London, by 23 March 2002)

435BC: Rome: Censorship established.

440BC: Appearance of the Kurgan people (in the Middle East/Sumeria?), (social use of great burial mounds), from the Russian steppes. The Kurgan swept through Europe in waves, with domesticated horse and disc-wheeled transport. (Gardner, Genesis, p. 64)

445BC: Israel: Nehemiah's mission rebuilds Jerusalem's walls.

447BC-432BC: Athens, the temple to Athena at the Acropolis. Its Elgin marbles long later taken to London.

By 450BC: Piraeus, harbour town for Athens, established by now, and fortified, linked to Athens by long walls ensuring safety.

450BC: Hungary: In the middle of the fifth century B.C., the ancestors of the Hungarian people joined the Onogur tribes of Bulgar-Turkic origin and lived with them along the northern shore of the Black Sea.
No written sources on the early history of the Hungarian people have come down to us. Consequently, the material for study must be sought in the evidence of language, archaeology, ethnography and anthropology. Comparative linguistics provides the main field of research for what is known as Hungarian prehistory, for it demonstrates that the Hungarian language, judging by its vocabulary and structural peculiarities, belongs to the Finno-Ugrian group of the Uralic languages, more precisely, to its Ugrian branch. It has not been possible to determine whether the original home of the Uralian prehistoric peoples was in Europe or Asia. It is believed, however, that the common homeland of the Ob-Ugrians and the ancient Hungarians (the Magyars) was along the central Volga. The ancestors of the Hungarians were for the most part fishermen and hunters, but it is probable that they were acquainted with animal husbandry, the tanning of leather, pottery, and the carving of wood and bone.

450BC: Gortyn a city on Crete, has laws predating 540BC useful for studying pre-Hellenic Greek.

450BC: Herodotus ("the father of History") visits Babylon and finds that prostitution is a sacred duty for all its female citizens, once in their life, to have sex in the temple of Aphrodite with a stranger. (The goddess Mylitta, (Aphrodite). Such prostitution aided temple finances and later aided the development of banks.

450BC: Rome: Foundation of plebeian Tribunate.

455BC to 403BC: Nippur, sacred city of Sumerians, south Mesopotamia, between Rivers Tigris and Euphrates. Kassites well documented. Temple of Enlil plus ziggaraut. Early temples to goddess Inanna.

460BC-380BC: Lifetime of Hippocrates, the philosopher of medicine, "the father of Western medicine", who lived on the Aegean Island of Kos and managed a school there.

Circa 460 BC: Hippocrates, "the father of medicine", dismisses the magical attributes of opium but acknowledges its usefulness as a narcotic and styptic in treating internal diseases, diseases of women and epidemics.
From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth Simon and Schuster, Ltd., 1996. e-mail info@opioids.com

465BC: More to come

470BC: The senate of Carthage orders an expedition under navigator Hanno to sail west to found new trading colonies. Sailing are 30,000 men and women colonists in 60 galleys. West through Straits of Gibraltar, building of settlements on the coast of Morocco, and round the hump of Africa south to the Senegal River. See Reader's Digest, History of Man: The Last Two Million Years. Sydney, The Reader's Digest Association, 1973-1974.

475BC-221BC: China reveals more secrets: Almost 500 artefacts 2000 years old or older have been found in the Hubei province of Central China, lifted from a tomb in Zaoyang City. The artefacts date from Chu State of the Warring States Period, 475BC-221BC. Among the finds are 33 carriages and 72 horses as traditionally buried with the dead, plus chimes, tripods, bronze ritual vessels and cauldrons. One rectangular bronze jar covered in dragons is known to have been used exclusively by aristocrats. Recently also in China, at Luoyang City, a set of 397 ancient tombs and 18 horse pits has been found, dating to the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770BC-256BC). (Reported 24 December 2002)

479BC: Death of Confucius.

480BC: The Persians destroy Athens.

480BC: Xerxes as successor of Darius and with assistance including from Phoenicians intends to invade Greece, to be fought by Spartans, but Xerxes prevails and sacks Athens, though Greeks ruined his fleet. Further battles ensued, Xerxes losing

Philosopher Zeno's life: 480BC-430BC.

In 480BC: The Persians returned, overland, intending to annex all Greece, but finally the Greek turned the Persians out. Athenians, now democratic, and naval, set out to free Greeks on Asia from the Persians, and found a good rent roll, but Sparta challenged this and its dominion later challenged by Thebes. The Macedonians gained ascendancy in Greece, producing Alexander the Great, who invaded Persia. Corinth was Apollonian by about 540BC. Corinth had the sanctuary of Poseidon. Hippocrates (460BC?-357BC?), doctor of medicine in a rational school, not based on religious mysteries, came from the Aegean island of Cos. Ptolemies in Egypt used it as a naval base.

483BC-479BC: Jewish period of Esther. (Packer)

483BC or after: Greece, Themistoceles arranges for an expansion of the Athenian fleet.

485BC: More to come

486BC: Building in China of The Great Canal under the Wu Dynasty. From 584AD it is extended to stretch some 1800km. In all about 3 million of its 6 million workforce died building it.

490BC-479BC: Persian wars.

490BC: The Persians crossed the Aegean to punish Athens and others for helping Asiatic Greeks in a revolt. Eretrian people are deported to Mesopotamia, the Athenians defeat the Persians on the plain of Marathon.

493BC-486BC: Alliance of Rome and the Latins.

In 493-479BC: Persian Wars involve the Greeks.

Sophocles is 495BC-406BC.

499BC: Greek city-state of Miletus leads a revolt of Ionian city-states against Persian overlords. Persians stamp out this revolt in five years. By 492BC, Darius was ready to punish such Greeks, by invasion, but a storm wrecked half his fleet and the invasion was cancelled. By 490, Darius tried by land to invade Greece, who defeated him at Battle of Marathon. Darius later defeated by Egyptians.

3000BC to 500BC: Ending of period of "Early Mythopoeic Thought".

France: A major ancient burial site with about 40 tombs for adults, dating to Fifth Century BC has been discovered, next to a river near village of Vasseny, in northern region of Aisne. (Reported 1 March 2003)

500BC approx: China's mysterious Ba kingdom resurfaces: Circa 1AD and earlier: China's Ba Kings ruled Sichuan, Hunan and parts of Southern China before mysteriously disappearing about two thousand years ago. Now, a new Ba site has been uncovered by researchers from Sichuan Archaeology Institute, perhaps the most important yet. It is a spectacular tomb about 2500 years old, probably belonging to a ruler of the Ba Kingdom. Found have been more than 500 bronze objects - spears, swords, blades, tomahawks, ceremonial objects - plus the skeletons of two women and a man, probably human sacrifices from a king's entourage. Some 31 tombs have been found in an area nearby their location, about Luo Jiaba. The origins, social structure and culture of the Ba people remains largely unknown. The artefacts predate by 200 years the celebrated "entombed warriors" at Xi'ian in Shanxi province.
(Reported The Australian, 1 July 2003)

500BC: East Africa/Ethiopia: Early inhabitants of Axum, possibly are mixed of Asian and Negro origin, are joined about 500BC by settlers from Southern Arabia, with influence of Judaism. Hence legend of Queen of Sheba, or Queen of Sabaea, an ancient kingdom of Southern Arabia, whose people migrated across Red Sea to Ethiopia.
See Reader's Digest, History of Man: The Last Two Million Years. Sydney, The Reader's Digest Association, 1973-1974., pp. 206ff.

By 500BC: Mostly won for "civilization" are Southern India, Central and Southern China, almost all the coastlines of the Mediterranean and the Black seas.

About 500BC: Mysteries of the Amazon Basin. Thriving communities of prehistoric people where the rivers Negro and Solomues meet to form the Amazon River? It's been thought for a century that no kind of civilization existed in the area, but this is now being challenged. It seems the earth of the area known as terra preta do indio (Portuguese) supported pre-Columbian people quite well about 2500 years ago, according to a Brazilian archaeologist, Eduardo Neves. There is evidence of giant plazas, bridges, roads, defensive ditches, and large, sedentary populations. There is a “secret, modified soil” that farmers in the area still prize highly, which can be found at up to 60 sites. This “modified soil” is scattered across millions of hectares in rainforest, and is often packed with potsherds and other evidence of human habitation, not just tribal societies but “complex chiefdoms”. Another researcher involved with the area for ten years now is James Petersen, archaeologist from University of Vermont. (Reported from Boston Globe, 8 January 2005)

Circa 500BC: Russia: Arriving to Russia are the Scythians, nomadic horse warriors.

By 500BC: Early inhabitants of Axum, possibly are mixed of Asian and Negro origin, are joined about 500BC by settlers from Southern Arabia, with influence of Judaism. Hence legend of Queen of Sheba, or Queen of Sabaea, an ancient kingdom of Southern Arabia, whose people migrated across Red Sea to Ethiopia.

500BC: Claimed use in Tara, Ireland, by Fisher Kings, of Celtic cauldrons in religious life, a symbolic ancestor of the Grail, as in The Arthurian Grail Legend. An associated belief is that the situation of the king might affect fertility of the earth. (According to a documentary broadcast on Australian ABC TV on 21-3-1999).

By 500BC: Iron has replaced bronze for weapons through most of Europe. About 500BC: some small tool traditions of Eskimos in West Newfoundland, eg 40 house pits with rectangular floors, below ground level. About 500BC: the Celts first come to notice in Mediterranean, barbarian peoples, lived to north of Mediterranean. Not a unified people, but with similar materials, beliefs and language. France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Spain and Portugal, Britain, Ireland, later spread south and east.

500BC-AD400, Meroe, south of the Mediterranean on east bank of river Nile, now Sudan, originally Egyptianized but became African in character. Temple to Amun, walled royal city, ironworkers left slag heaps, ironworking may have spread into sub-Saharan Africa from Carthage rather than Meroe, and may have traded as far as India.

By about 500BC: views of "psyche" and the invention of the soul, and Hades, an underworld as its destination. 6th BC: Pythagoras flourishes. About 500 BC: Jaynes has noos and psyche coalescing into yet another, renewed and more sensitive vision of humankind's internal nature. About 500-200BC: Jaynes claims there are American bicameral-type kingdoms, the Olmecs at La Venta about 500 BC: basically Mexico. By 500-400BC: Jaynes has the Delphic Oracle working, but strangely enough, often siding with invaders.
(Note: Word "Olmec" means "those who live in the land of rubber".)

500BC: or, 5thC BC: Peloponnesian Wars in Greece. improvements in fortifications. Height of Greek art. Much trade with East and the Aegean Islands. Greek defense against the Persians, eg, Battle of Marathon. Athens feared the growing power of the Persian kingdoms. Much of Athens had to be rebuilt.

About 500BC: the Estruscans, a pre-Roman people of central Italy, challenge the Romans for leadership of parts north of Rome. They are a collection of confederate cities. Their language is an old Mediterranean substratum "but not deciphered". They had once cremated but then buried their dead. Estruscans had cultural unity by 700BC. Tombs in shape of houses. Temples are of wood. Art influenced by the Greeks. Masks used for the dead.

509BC: A temple to Jupiter built in Rome. In 509BC, Rome becomes a republic, according to tradition.

509BC: The Romans free themselves of Estruscan overlordship and begin to expand.

509BC: Italy: Rome expels "Estruscan kings" and sets up a republic. First consuls appointed. Dedication of the Capitoline Temple.

510BC: More to come

In 512BC: Darius invades Scythia to fight "a difficult European campaign".

c520BC: Israel: Leviticus? Dietary strictures confer special identity.

521BC: By now, Persian emperor Darius has directed the exploration of Indian Ocean between the Indus River and the Red Sea. Six years after Darius died, Carthaginians sent an expedition down the coast of West Africa, legendarily led by Carthaginian admiral Hanno with 60 galleys and 30,000 colonists. A number of trading stations were established including Agadir which survived till today. This expedition may have gotten as far as Mount Kakulima in Guinea, known as Theon Ochema in Greek, or, The Chariot of the Gods. (Item from text by Paul Lunde, in magazine Saudi Aramco World, The Indian Ocean and Global Trade, issue July/August 2005)

521BC, China develops first known production of cast-iron, first written reference to it in China.

By 522BC: Zoroaster has formulated his doctrines, before Darius comes to power. (From McNeill)

About 525BC: Pythagoras abandons his native Samos and settles in Southern Italy at Croton. At some point, Pythagoras and his students decide that the world is round. They use a measurement named stadia (precise length unknown), and find the circumference of the earth is about 45,000km, about 11 per cent larger than we now know. From this deduction flows the idea that the Southern Hemisphere must have land masses to balance the known lands of the Northern Hemisphere.

525BC: Egypt falls to Persia.

525BC: Egypt is invaded by Cambyses, and made a satrapy of Persia. Yoke not thrown off before 404BC. Not until 332BC did Alexander the Great restore Egypt's independence.

525 BC: The Persians conquer Cyprus, which had evidence of prehistoric settlement. It was variously under Phoenician, Assyrian, Egyptian domination. After 525BC the Ptolemys of Egypt had it.

530BC: Death of Cyrus the Great on his eastern frontier.

536BC: Israel, Second temple begun at Jerusalem. (Packer).

538BC: Ezra for basic Bible date, Persian conquer, Temple rebuilt, exiles returned.

535BC, Construction on Isle of Samos, of oldest-known tunnel still in use, first for water transfer, now used for pedestrian way between Greece and Turkey.

535BCVELIKOVSKY date: First Jews de-exiled from Babylon and return from Babylon. Edict of Cyrus.

538BCVELIKOVSKY date: Cyrus conquers Babylon.

538BC: Cyrus of Persia conquers city of Babylon and lets Hebrews return to Jerusalem. Cyrus adds to his empire, Mesopotamia, Media to the south of the Caspian Sea, much of Asia Minor. He is succeeded by his son Cambyses, who occupies Egypt. Later the Persian Empire is ruled by Darius who is succeeded by his son Xerxes. (Gerrit P. Judd)

539BC: Babylon falls to Cyrus and the Persians, and Cyrus decrees all refugees return to their homelands. This frees the Jews, who return to Israel their homeland.

539BC: Cyrus of Persia restores Temple in Jerusalem.

540BC: More to come

6th Century BC: Original people of the Iberian Peninsula are subdued by the Carthaginians.

551BC, Birth in China of Confucius.

c550BC: Israel: Parts of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers; the Ten Commandments are fixed.

About 550BC: A Latin poem by Avienus based on an earlier Greek original narrates how a sea captain from Marseilles (France, or Gaul) tried to sail down the West Coast of Africa. He reached either the Senegal River or The Gambia River and thought it was the Nile. (The Portuguese made a similar mistake some 2000 years later.) (Item from text by Paul Lunde, in magazine Saudi Aramco World, The Indian Ocean and Global Trade, issue July/August 2005)

About 550BC: Emerges in Persia, Cyrus the Persian from Western Iran, soon overran much of the Middle East. His son Cambyses conquers Egypt in 525BC.

c550BC: Old Testament writing: Parts of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers; 10 commandments are fixed.

550BC: Increasing trade makes King Croesus of Lydia "as rich as..."

By 550BC: On Samos, an Aegean Island, placement of a large temple to Hera and her sanctuary.

Circa 550BC: Hungary: Prehistoric survey: Circa 5500BC: Hungary: In the middle of the first millennium B.C., the ancestors of the Hungarians migrated from the lands they had shared in common with the other Ugrian peoples and moved south. Here they came under the influence of the Bulgar-Turkic pastoral tribes, with a resulting change in their manner of life: their primary occupation as mounted nomads was transformed into herding, and they lived in a tribal society. In the course of their migrations, they came into contact with different nomadic empires which formed with amazing speed on the steppes only to later collapse with the same dramatic suddenness.

555BC-539BC: Dates for Nabonidus the last king of Babylon before Persian conquest. (McNeill)

555BC-539BC: Nabonidus - Nebuchadnezzar was followed by Nabu-nai'id, (Nabonidus) in 555-539BC: an enigmatic fellow interested in history and religion, who spent 10 years in Arabia and left Babylon in care of his son Belshazarr. Babylon in 539BC is captured by King Cyrus II.

560BC: Temple begun for Zeus at Syracuse on Sicily.

c560BC: Israel: Compilation of historical narrative, Deuteronomy to 2 Kings.

560-527BC, In Athens, Greece, the Tyranny of Pisastrus. About 560BC: Tyrant Peisistratus in Attica has policy of giving state loans to farmers who plant their land with grapes or olives.

561BC, Birth of Buddha, as from the Upanishads.

568BC: Nebuchadnezzar invades Egypt. (Packer)

570BC: More to come

572BC: Dates for Buddha's death are various, 572BC and 477BC, depending on dating system. Note: Buddha as an atheist. (McNeill emphasises this.) Note that one Mahavira is founder or reformer of the Jain religion, a contemporary of Buddha. There is a tradition that Gautama's aristocratic clan was attacked and destroyed by a king. Did Buddha die 485BC?

585BC: (According to Velikovsky) Jews are exiled to Babylon. Jerusalem destroyed.

585BC-250BC: Greece: Rise of Ancient Greek Philosophy:

585BC: Israel: Appearance of The Prophet Jeremiah.

Circa 585BC: Date for Thales, regarded as traditional founder of Greek philosophy. He supposedly learned geometry in Egypt. McNeill sees his chief beliefs (eg, importance of water as basic element) as with Babylonian influences.

586: Nebuchadnezzar sacks Jerusalem and exiles Hebrews.

586BC: Fall of Judah and the Exile of the Jewish people. (Packer)

586BC: Ezekiel in exile learns that Jerusalem has fallen. (Packer)

586BC: The Jewish Ark of the Covenant disappeared when Nebuchadnezzar razed Jerusalem this year. (Packer)

587BC: Basic Bible date, Southern Israel Kingdom, conquered, Babylonian Exile

587BC: Israel: Fall of Temple, Exile.

587BC: Israel: Fall of Temple, Exile.

590BC: Delphi, a primitive shrine to Ge, the Earth Goddess, south flank of Mount Parnassus, 1900 feet high, home of the Delphic oracle, granted protection by 590BC. Oracle belonged to Apollo, the oracle in 480BC wrongly cast a Persian victory over Greece, had a sanctuary for Apollo. Corinth most interested in Delphi by 650BC. Temple for Athena near Apollo's.

597BC: the fall of Jerusalem. (Packer)

597: Nebuchadnezzar sacks Jerusalem and exiles Hebrews. (Gerrit P. Judd)

C6thBC: First use of a railway, ie, wheeled carts moving on a grooved carriageway. System fell into disuse by 90AD. The Diolkus of Corinth, could move ships on a "railway" of limestone. The idea was forgotten. From the C14th in Europe, miners pushed ore to the surface on rail carts.

In 1000BC-600BC: forms of Greek military organisation are unclear. By 600BC, use of cavalry.

600BC, Use in Mexico of an independent invention of writing.

600BC: There are about 600,000 words in the Old Testament. (The New Testament will have about 180,000 words.)

Circa 600BC: Beginning of a Greek colony at Marseilles (Massilia), southern France.

600BC: Italy: Twelve Estruscan cities attain great wealth and sea power.

Approx. 600BC: Pharaoh Necho of Egypt orders Phoenician mariners to try to circumnavigate Africa. They are successful after a three-year voyage, reporting it is all surrounded by sea except where it joins Asia.

600BC: Vedic canon of religious writing forms by about 600BC. Note: Vedic warfare involves charioteers.

600BC: Phoenicians are supposed to have circumnavigated Africa. Egypt Pharaoh Necho II supposed to have commissioned Phoenicians to do this. Necho II also attempted to link Nile with Red Sea by a canal and he and his successor (Apries or Hophra in the Bible) interfered with Palestine (See Ezekiel and Jeremiah), 600-500BC: the Vix cultures in Celtic areas in Burgundy, Marnians in Champagne, Germany and Bohemia, Austria and its salt mines, and disruption (with finely worked weapons) until 200BC. From 300BC: the Romans tried to exterminate the Celts, and Celts were left only in Scotland and Ireland. and by then, Rome had also downed the Punic Empire, in West Mediterranean, based on the Phoenician powers, Carthage and the Greek states., and Macedonia in the Third Punic War. and halting the move south of the Germans at Danube and the Rhine.

600BC: The mother of Buddha is said to have dreamed before her son's birth that he had entered her womb in the shape of a white elephant. (R. Brasch, How Did Sex Begin?)

600BC: Naples founded by Greek settlers. Conquered by Rome in 327 BC.

Mithras as in a dictionary. of Mythology, Mithraism a battle between forces of light and darkness, good and evil, each with their "staff officers", Mithras is the upper air, associated with truth and the oath, Light is Ahura Mazda, whose first creation was a wild bull, Mithras born from a rock, Mithras wrestles a bull and carries it to a cave, bull escapes, Mithras follows it with his dog and pulls its head back, thrusts in a dagger, and blood flows from its throat, from the blood flows life, dog and snake and scorpion lap up the blood, only men joined cult of Mithras, but relations with the cult of Cybele, seven grades of initiation, the lower servitors being the raven, the bridegroom and soldier, the upper servitors the Lion, Persian and Courier of the Sun, seventh grade is the Father, initiation by real or symbolic tests of endurance, a "grave" for ritual death and resurrection, the idea being about rebirth, an initiate naked and blindfolded, daily observances, gathering in underground chapels called caves, communion rite commemorates farewell banquet of Mithras and the sun, communion wine and "hot cross buns", soul shakes off impurities given by the seven planets, eg Venus is lust, by moral striving and revealed knowledge, Mithras is the arbiter of the soul's destination after death, , Mithras the bull slayer, an eastern cult, long narrow room, dimly lit, ritual ordeals, popular with Roman armies. Idea that bull's blood spawns all creatures on earth, Mithras plunges knife in neck of bull, and part of the traditional scene is a raven in the sky, a dog that laps the bull's draining blood, and a scorpion that grasps the bull's testicles. Re testicles, these were removed in their scrotum and presented to Artemis, from kills at times en masse. Artemis was mistress of wild nature and a mother goddess, Greeks later sent youngsters to Crete to be sacrificed to the Minotaur, perhaps for ritual cannibalism? Anyway to feed the Minotaur, a cult that Theseus stopped when he faced the Minotaur.

By 600BC to maybe 550BC: Aeolis in N/w Asia Minor, Lesbos and Tenedos, colonized by the Greeks, and fights between Greece and Persia here.

600BC: Temple to Hera built at Argos.

600BC: At Xanthus, monument to the Greek Harpies, who carried off the souls of the dead.

600BC? Mangalia Romania, Greek influence, some cults of Demeter and Dionysius, say 600BC? At Istrus in Romania was the god called The Great God by the Greeks, Theos Megas. Plus temple of Aphrodite.

600BC: Harran in northern Mesopotamia, mentioned in Hittite, Old Testament and Assyrian texts. Main deity was Sin, the Moon god, and the Chaldean King Nabonidus rebuilt the temple in 6th Century BC. 600BC: first use of coins as a trading medium is attributed to the Lydians of Asia Minor, a bullion in gold and silver, called electrum. Later, each Greek city issued its own coinage. lead taken by Aegina, main trader in Asia Minor.

600BC: A belief exists in China that humanity begins as fleas infesting the pelt of the Great Creator, Phan Ku.

604BC to 562BC: Reign of Nebuchadnezzar, he drove the Egyptians from Syria, captured Jerusalem, deported Jews to Babylonia. Nebuchadnezzar invaded Judah three times, (according to Packer et al). A period of confusion after his death. Nebuchadnezzar was followed by Nabu-nai'id, (Nabonidus) in 555-539BC: an enigmatic fellow interested in history and religion, who spent 10 years in Arabia and left Babylon in care of his son Belshazarr. Babylon in 539BC was captured by King Cyrus II.

McNeill dates Nebuchadnezzar at 604BC-562BC.

605BC: Prophet Daniel and friends are carried to Babylon - later Daniel prophesies for the king. In 605BC: Nebuchadnezzar defeats Egypt at Carchemish. (Packer). Daniel once predicted that the Messiah would redeem his people after 70 sets of 70 weeks/years, from 444BC when Nemiah returned to Jerusalem. (Packer says this fits with the week Jesus was crucified.)

605BC: Nebuchadnezzar defeats Egypt at Carchemish, west bank of Euphrates River, reducing Egypt to a second-rate power. (Gerrit P. Judd)

609BC: Egypt: Pharaoh Necho arrives on the throne of Egypt and undertakes two novel experiment in geography. He constructs a canal linking the Nile and the Red Sea, work which took the lives of 120,000 workers, to promote wider trade. Then he hired Phoenician mariners to try to circumnavigate Africa, the outcome of this was never quite reported. (Item from text by Paul Lunde, in magazine Saudi Aramco World, The Indian Ocean and Global Trade, issue July/August 2005)

610BC: More to come

612BC: Date for downfall of Assyria. (McNeill)

612BC Sappho the writer is born on Greek island of Lesbos.

612BC: Babylonians destroy Nineveh. End of the Assyrian Empire. There then rises a second Babylonian empire called The Chaldeans. (By now, the international language of trade is Aramaic (the language spoken by Jesus). Nebuchadnezzar rebuilds Babylon, which still has city-god Marduk, but also a gate in honour of Ishtar. (Gerrit P. Judd)

612 BC: The Assyrians' city Nineveh falls to the Medes. 621BC: Josiah's reformation of Judaism. (Packer)

612BC: The fall of Nineveh. (Packer)

620BC: More to come

621BC, Athens, with Draco and the first written laws.

622BC: Hilkiah sends "Book of the Law". (Deuteronomy?) to Josiah.

625BC: Nabopolassar overthrows Assyrians. (Packer)

627BC: Jeremiah begins his ministry. (Packer)

630BC-553BC: Persia: Some dates given for appearance of Zarathustra (Zoroaster), founder of Zoroastrianism in Persia.

About 631BC: Greeks from Thera settle at Cyrene. Doric temple to Apollo. Five cities including port of Apollonia, or Pentapolis, later to be controlled by the Egyptian Ptolemies. Later a large temple for Zeus.

640BC: Approx: World's first great national library at Nineveh, built by Assyrian King Assurbanipal as heir to three thousand years of Mesopotamian culture. Scribes translated old Sumerian material into Assyrian. Thus, a systematic study of language. (James/Thorpe)

648BC: Manassah carried to Babylon. (Packer).

650BC: Celtic languages are used in Britain, France, Spain, the Alps, northern Italy, parts of Yugoslavia, even in Central Turkey. (See re the Galatians in the Gospels.) Celts are skilled iron workers till conquered circa 650BC by the Romans. Appearance of kings and stratified society, aristocracy and district chieftains, free farmers, landless men, all the early features of feudalism, as each man has obligations to his superiors or inferiors. Sometimes the Celts are made to move by population pressures, as when the Helvetti poured out of Switzerland in Caesar's time (eg, 54BC), use of some coinage, but more often, barter.
See Reader's Digest, History of Man: The Last Two Million Years. Sydney, The Reader's Digest Association, 1973-1974., p. 45.

650BC: Onwards, Marble is used for sculpture and decoration.

By 650BC: Eleusis in Greece, famous for its mysteries for Demeter and Persephone, sanctuary in use from Bronze Age, but a theatre cut into rock in late 6th century BC. Greek and Roman remains for the sanctuary.

650BC: Olympia, principal sanctuary of Zeus in Greece, and site of Olympic games. Probable origins in Greek Bronze Age. Built up early in Archaic Period.

By 650BC: A temple to Hera. Temple of Zeus dates from 450-500BC. Dodona, site for the Oracle of Zeus, answers in yes and no from rustling of leaves of sacred oak tree, doves in its branches. jangling of bronze cauldrons. Not even a temple till 4th C BC. Perhaps some small temples for Hercules and Diane and Aphrodite, Sanctuary of Zeus is at Olympia, also to Hera, athletics became the Olympics, a statue of Zeus 40 feet high, legendary hero of Zeus was Pelops. had a hippodrome for horse races. 460BC: Temple of Zeus built at Olympia.

650BC: Delos in the Aegean, a small island said to be birthplace of Apollo and Artemis. By 650BC it had a regular festival well attended. An Aegean moneylender is noted. Sanctuary of Apollo, a sanctuary of the bulls, temple to Leto, mother of Apollo and Artemis. Also had a sanctuary of the Syrian gods. In 425BC the Athenians "purified" Delos. Some presence of the Phoenician Goddess, Astarte. Artemis. Goddess par excellence was Aphrodite. Lebanon, greatly given to the God Baal, hence Ba`albek on the Lebanon-Anti Lebanon. but some Greek settlers deemed that site for their sun God, Helios, so, Heliopolis. Baalbeck became site for the Heliopolitan triad of Jupiter-Zeus, Venus-Aphrodite and Mercury-Hermes. Finally a Christian basilica was built on a large temple to Jupiter. A home for syncretism, then. There was also a temple for Bacchus. Palmyra, stop-over between Euphrates and Mediterranean. Baal-based religion. Goddess, Allat.

About 650BC: Avesta is the preachings of Zarathustra, Iranians earlier linked with the Indians. Begins Zoroastrianism.

650BC: Cyrene, halfway between Egypt and Tunisia, on African coast, founded by Greek colonists from Thera. Quite fertile area. By Roman times it is one of the greatest of the African cities.

650-500BC, Celtic tribes from Central Europe move on Northern Italy.

660BC: Japan: The first Emperor of Japan is JIMMU.

660BC: Mythical date for the founding of capital of Japan, (south of modern Kyoto), the great-grandson of the grandson of the Sun Goddess.

663BC: Egypt overthrows its Ethiopian rulers (Packer)

663BC: Egypt, a dynasty at Sais unites Egypt after Kushite and Assyrian occupations.

In 668-625BC: Period of rule of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh.

670BC, Rome, Italy, Temple to Jupiter built, first major bridge built on piles, Pons Sublicius.

677BC: Esarhaddan of Assyria captures Sidon in 677BC (Packer)

680BC: Lydians, 1 mlnm BC: kingdom in west Anatolia, capital Sardis, 680 BC etc. At end of 7th Century BC: they invented minted coinage, kingdom became powerful. Croesus, king, 560-546BC.

By C6thBC: Northern India has republics. Some resemblance to Greek polis, self-sufficient, self-ruling.

690BC: More to come

695BC: More to come

700BC: Touchstone makes uniform coinage possible, starting in Lydia.

700BC; Central Italy, Romans squabble with neighbours, the Sabines.

700BC-500BC: Period when the caste system of India takes hold in cities. (McNeill)

700BC: Pregnancy testing: Midwives in Babylonia had devised a means of testing if a woman is pregnant.

700BC: Lydia issues first coinage in the West.

About 700BC-500BC: the Estruscans, a pre-Roman people of central Italy, challenged the Romans for leadership of parts north of Rome. They were a collection of confederate cities. Their language is an old Mediterranean substratum but not deciphered. Used to cremate but then buried their dead. Estruscans had cultural unity by 700BC. Tombs in shape of houses. Temples were of wood. Art influenced by the Greeks. Use of masks for the dead.

700BC: Midwives in Babylonia have already devised a means of testing if a woman is pregnant.

700BC: Approx: The Estruscans of Italy appear to invent false teeth for eating if not for cosmetic reasons. Bands of gold were used.

700BC: Presumed date for invention of Sumerian Zodiac. (Date from Hancock and Faiia).

From Fourth Millennium to 700BC: Nineveh, on east bank of Tigris, Assyrian Capital now, main shrine to Ishtar. on River Tigris near Nimrud. levels go down to early 4th mlnm BC. Nimrud is the biblical city of Calah. (Friedrich). Destroyed by the Medes in 612.BC. By legend, Nineveh founded by Nimrod, Nimrod a son of Cush, see Cossea, the Kassites in Mesopotamia, Nimrod's cities were Babylon, Erech and Accad in Babylon, and Nineveh and Calah in Assyria. He was a hero-founder of cities/empire that later threatened Israel. Israel prophet Nahum predicted final fall of Nineveh. Noah from near Zebulun warned Nineveh of its great evil. Jonah prophesied Israel's expansion under Jeroboam in 785-745BC. In C8thBC Jonah took a ship to Tarshish, is later cast into sea and swallowed by a large fish or whale.

700BC: Estruscans appear in Italy and Phoenicians at Sicily. 700BC: one of the principal salt mines in Central Europe at Hallstatt, Austrian alps, to about 500BC. Traded with Scandinavia and Italy.

About 700BC: A Persian royal dynasty named after Achaemenes, Cyrus II The Great, Medes, founded Persian Empire, gained control of Babylon and Lydia. Later consolidated under Darius I.

700 to 600 BC: (From Jaynes) in Greece, more subjectivity with the lyrics and elegies, poems set to music and perhaps danced to also; and psyche, more of the invention of the soul. About 650 BC: Jaynes has the Epic of Gilgamesh being written down from earlier stories, later tablets found at Nineveh in the ruins of the temple library of the god Nabu and the palace library of the Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal; this king's father, Esarhaddon, had worshipped Gilgamesh, earlier placed at about 1200 BC by Jaynes. About 650BC: great need for omen texts etc, About 630 BC: Jaynes sees great evidence of need for anti-demon devices at Nineveh. Jaynes in 641-621 BC has Israel's King Josiah discovering the manuscript of Deuteronomy after he had ordered the temple cleansed of remaining vestiges of bicameralism. During the 500s BC: Jaynes has Herodotus, "the father of History", writing his history only after a trip through Mesopotamia, where he may have picked up the very idea of history from the Assyrians (he notes history is impossible without the spatialization of time - a spatialization not known to "bicameral man").

700BC: Nineveh, Assyrian Capital now, main shrine to Ishtar. on River Tigris near Nimrud. levels go down to early 4th mlnm BC. Destroyed by the Medes in 612.BC.

700BC: Longest known Hittite inscription with a Phoenician translation, at Karatepe, neo-Hittites in s/e Anatolia.

By 700BC: Sparta the city of the Lacedaemonians, were crushed by the Thebans in 371BC. Some of its rituals were "repulsive". Temple to Athena. Some note of Artemis.

About 700BC: Date for Temple of Hathor with the Dendera Zodiac (now in the Louvre, Paris). It is thought the Egyptians "imported" the zodiac from Mesopotamia. The Dendera Zodiac was re-discovered in 1799 by Napoleon's General Louis Desaix. Egypt.

700BC: The Greek Argolid rising in power. often in conflict with Sparta, Argos possibly had 50,000 slaves and a free population of 50,000. Sanctuary of Apollo. Alleged tomb of Clytemnestra. A rich sanctuary of Hera.

701BC: Israel: Appearance of The Prophet Isaiah.

701BC: Sennacherib invades Judah. (Packer)

704BC-681BC: the Assyrian King Sennacherib, the third last of his series of rulers. He was finally assassinated by his two sons.

Date to 710BC??? Samothrace, island in n/e Aegean Sea, home of initiation into Great Mysteries, even for slaves; deities were the Great Gods with a dominant female partner. Initiation for male and female, a great benefit was protection against shipwreck.

705BC: More to come

709BC: Cyprus recognised Sargon II of Assyria. They had links with Persians, but when Alexander the Great was besieging Tyre, Cyprus' kings sent him 100 ships.

709BC: Cyprus accepts Assyrian hegemony.

710BC: More to come

715BC: More to come

720BC: More to come

721 BC: A basic Bible date, Israel Northern Kingdom conquered, Assyrian Exile.

722BC: Assyrians take Samaria, capital of Israel, and deported thousands, the so-called Lost Ten Tribes.

c722BC: Israel Assyrians destroy Northern Kingdom (still not monotheistic?)

722BC: Israel falls to Sargon II of Mesopotamia.

722-705BC: McNeill's dates for Sargon II are 722BC-705BC.

723BC: Fall of Israel. (Packer)

725BC-700BC: Foundation of Carthage, North Africa by Phoenicians.

c730BC: Israel: Hesiod's myths of creation.

734BC: Assyrians take Damascus.

735BC: Ahaz (sic) Israelite 735BC to 775BC: king of Judah, son of Johan, and father of Hezekiah.

A PHOENICIAN find has been made off the coast of Israel. Divers have found the oldest Phoenician shipwrecks ever found, sunken in about 500 metres of water. The vessels are dated at about 750-700BC, and were from Tyre sailing either for Egypt or Carthage with cargoes of wine.
(Reported in Australia, 24 June 1999)

739BC: Isaiah begins his ministry. (Packer)

740BC: More to come

745BC-727BC: period for Assyrian king, Tiglath-Pilesar III. (McNeill)

By 750BC: Greeks have colonised Sicily, but conflict with the Carthaginians, per Phoenicians.

c750BC: Israel: J's Eden, Eve, and Adam; Hosea anticipates(?) Appearance of The Ten Commandments by now? (The question has been asked)

750BC-500BC: Greeks, (Dorians) establish new city states as colonies, on coasts of Black Sea, Italy, Sicily, Spain and Southern France. Few records exist about this movement. (Gerrit P. Judd)

750BC approx: Athens is settled, walled, with a palace. Later sacked by the Spartans.

From 750BC to 550BC: Greece colonised Black Sea, Italy, Sicily, Spain and Southern France, Africa. Trade

750BC, The founding of Ischia.

747BC: VELIKOVSKY date, Prophet Isaiah begins to deliver his message, in the days of King Uzziah, in the very day of the devastation caused by nature, changes in the sky, upheavals on earth and sea, quaking of mountains, migrations of entire peoples.

About 750BC: the Greeks come to Sicily and find three peoples in possession there. Some natives were the Elymians, on an isolated mountaintop, 750 metres or 2,460 feet, a mysterious native cult there to Astarte, or the Carthaginian goddess, Tanit, then to the Greek Aphrodite, and possible sacred prostitution. They especially suppressed the native Sicels, putting some into slavery, others into a reservation, Archimedes came from Syracuse. Sicilian tyranny a precursor of monarchy there, much warfare, violence internal and external, massacres and expulsions. Many invasions by Carthaginians and some historians have posited "racial wars", but a book disagrees, as some Greeks called on Carthage for protection from other Greeks. A great armada destroyed in 480BC: and in that year, a massive Persian invasion of Greece, and defeat of Persians in battle of Bay of Salamis. Noted tyrant was Gelon, tyrant of Gela, seized Syracuse in 485BC: became one of the most powerful men in Europe, and in 480BC he had a major victory over the Carthaginians. Led to building of a temple to Athena. possibly another to Apollo. Gelon's brother then the tyrant, and conflict on his death, when democracy grew till 405BC. During the great war between Sparta and Greece, Athens massively invaded Sicily and barely beaten off, then in 410 BC were two Carthaginian invasions. Here, Sicily is defended by tyrant Dionysius, who ceded the western part of Sicily to the Carthaginians, Dionysius died in 367BC: and made war on Carthage and the Estruscans, the model for Plato's evil tyrant, but he had popular support. His son Dionysius II was in much strife, succeeded by Timoleon and then Agathocles, who seized power in Syracuse in 317BC: and took the title of king in about 305 when he returned from a four-year campaign against North Africa. then King Hierio II, then the Romans entered the picture, looting Syracuse in 212BC and from that date began the Roman admiration for Greek works of art. In 264BC the Romans were invited to sort out Sicily and this led to the Punic Wars. Sicily became Rome's first non-Italian possession, grain etc., feeding the Roman army.

750BC and later, important iron age development at Hallstat, Austria, and in Switzerland.

750BC: Israel's king Uzziah struck leprous. (Packer)

750BC: Phoenicians arrive to Tunisia from Palestine, to build Carthage, near present-day Tunis.

750-550BC: Period of Greek colonisation at Ionian cities (Miletus), towns such as Corinth, Chalcis, Eritrea. Then Greek expansions are stopped by Carthage in Africa and and Estruscans in Italy.

753BC, One traditional year for dating founding of Rome by Romulus, who was king 753-715.

754BC Rome, Bronze Age site in 1500BC: and Romans said they began in 754BC. Some Iron Age people by 6th century BC. Temple of Jupiter erected in 509BC.

760BC: More to come

770BC: More to come

In 771BC: Death of Western Chou Dynasty, China. As barbarians sack the capital and kill reigning emperor. The survivor went to Loyang. In 256BC, End of the Chou Dynasty.

776BC: Traditional date for establishment of Olympic Games at Olympia, Greece.

776BC: Greece, institution of Olympic games, with the Stadion, a 192 meter footrace (600 feet).

780BC: Supposed date for origins of Armenian city, Yerevan, now the capital of Armenia. Armenia had held to Persian Zoroastrianism, but from 301AD it converted to Christianity under St. Gregory the Illuminator.

785BC: Date for introduction of heavy cavalry into warfare of Assyria. (McNeill)

790BC: More to come

795BC: Moabite bands invade Israel. (Packer)

800BC-750BC; Iron Age settlement of Palatine Hill, Tiber River, site of future Rome. Custom of cremating the dead.

800BC: Greece: Appearance of Hesiod's Theogony.

Circa 800BC: Phoenicians settle/colonise Cyprus.

800BC: Phoenicians establish a colony at Carthage, near site of today's Tunis.

800BC: Area of Romania has flourishing Bronze Age civilization, destroyed by Scythian invaders, from Southern Russia, then the Scythians are later over-run by the Celtic Dacians of 3rd CthBC. Romans under Trajan conquer the area in 106AD:

Before 800BC: Sargon of Assyria declared he became king because the goddess Ishtar loved him. (Miles). Sargon I, the chief priests of Sumeria composed a hymn praising God, The Exaltation of Inanna, mankind's first known poem. this first God and the first-known priest-poet being female. the god of prehistory was a woman, the Great Mother, her first priest-poet was Enheduanna, daughter of Sargon I. (Miles) In 709BC Cyprus recognised Sargon II of Assyria. They had links with Persians, but when Alexander the Great was besieging Tyre, Cyprus kings sent him 100 ships.

From 800BC: Jungle areas cleared for agriculture in India. (McNeill). Indian history not clear till about 500BC. 600BC: Vedic canon of religious writing forms by about 600BC. Note: Vedic warfare involves charioteers.

800BC: In Middle Europe, the Iron Age begins to destabilise Bronze Age Culture. Iron Age culture is 700-450 BC and then 450-1 BC: Austria and Switzerland.

800BC-500BC: First written records in India of myth of Manu, a sea-flood story (See the later Mahabharata). (Oppenheimer, Eden In The East).

About 9000BC: Chinese begin making pots, sheep are first domesticated in Mesopotamia, wheat harvested in Syria.

800BC: S-W of Guatemala in South America, site of Altar de Sacrificios, southern Maya lowlands, occupied from about 800BC to 1000AD. Has pyramids.

By 800BC: Aramaic has become lingua franca of Near East, the language of the Arameans. Much population transported and resettled by the Assyrians.

800BC: Re Trojan Wars, the bardic poems, Iliad and Odyssey, refer to some technology not known to Homer, as some weapons by then no longer used. So the picture of the poems is of Mycenaean Greece. Note in Iliad: how much close description there is of the wounds of the fallen! Quite striking!

By 800BC: India resumes overseas commerce with Babylonia. Ships sail the Indus and Ganges rivers, possibly went on Indian Ocean to East Africa or Southeast Asia. But no use of coined money in India till C6thBC, when Persians conquer Punjab.

800BC: Israel: No bible texts yet; ritual sacrifice of firstborn (Morlech/Morloch?)

810BC: More to come

820BC: More to come

830BC: More to come

840BC: More to come

841BC: Both King Joran of Israel and King Ahaziah of Judah die. (Packer)

841BC: Jehu begins his reign as a king of Judah. Jehu pays tribute to Shalmaneser III. Tyre pays tribute to Shalmaneser III. (Packer)

848BC: Both Jehoram and his father Jehosophat rule Israel about now. (Packer)

850BC-800BC: Greece: Homer's Iliad and Odyssey.

850BC-900BC: The Greek Iliad came to be written down; and a relatively new word is mermerizein, meaning, to be of two minds about something, to ponder. About 835 BC: Jaynes has King Ahab of Israel round up remaining Hebrew bicamerals, the Nabiim, (schizophrenics?) to listen to them - perhaps many were massacred - later, Elijah is said to have similarly massacred many of them.

Circa 850BC: Assyrians, a mountain people of northern Mesopotamia, invade Syria. Kings follow such as Sargon II, Sennacherib, Esarhaddon. (Gerrit P. Judd)

850BC: Israel: Time of prophets Elijah and Elisha. (Packer)

By 850BC: Samaria is founded, as main north-south trade route through Palestine. Palace of Omri and Ahab.

850BC: More to come

852BC: Joran begins reign as King of Judah. (Packer).

853BC: Battle of Qarqar, between Shalmaneser and a Syrian-Palestine group including Ahab of Judah.

853BC: Battle of Qarqar. (Packer).

853BC: death of King Ahab. (Packer).

853BC: King Ahab and Jehosophat battle the Assyrians. (Packer).

860-800BC, Period of wider Greek colonization.

870BC: Ahab and his wife Jezebel lead Israel into idolatry. (Packer).

874BC: King Ahab begins reign as king of Israel about now. (Packer).

874BC: King Omri dies. (Packer).

880BC: More to come

883BC: Nimrud, Assyrian capital of Kalhu, Calah of the Old Testament, by the ruins of a C13thBC older city, on the River Tigris, south of modern Mosul in North Mesopotamia.

885BC: King Omri begins his reign. ruled from Tirzah. (Packer).

McNeill's dates for Assyrian King Ashur-nasirappl is 883BC-859BC.

About 900BC: the writing-down of the Trojan War, attributed to Homer, but in bardic tradition it is known from as early as 1300BC.

900BC to 700BC: From 4th mlnm on, Luristan, a province of west frontier of Iran, well-watered plains plus Zagros Mountains. Luristan bronzes famed, iron is worked from an early date.

900BC: First apparent regular use of horse riding. (Source: McNeill - is this date far too late?).

900BC-879BC: Omri makes Samaria his capital (Packer).

900BC to 700BC: From 4th mlnm on, Luristan, a province of west frontier of Iran, well-watered plains plus Zagros Mountains, Luristan bronzes famed, iron worked from an early date.

900BC: Assyria rises to power. (Packer)

900BC and later: How was the Old Testament written? The Old Testament was not the dictated word of God, nor is it necessarily timeless at all, it was a production of a succession of writers, editors, storytellers, prophets, advisers to rulers, legalistic minds, as they reacted to changes in social and political life. etc. See Robin Lane Fox, The Unauthorized Version:Truth and Fiction in the Bible. Penguin, 1992 edn. (Publisher's blurb says, “The Bible is moving, inspirational and endlessly fascinating – but is it true?” Reviewer Frank Kermode in The Guardian said, “I don't know where one would turn for an account of the Bible so clear, so lively, and, in many respects, so just.”) Fox, p. 94 says the earliest-named religious author is Enheduana, of Sumeria, who 2350-2300BC wrote temple hymns. Fox, page 60, maybe, as early as C10thBC, the Israelites had a notion of God having “chosen” Israel, although with the specialness of a “covenant”. page 15 re, two creation stories in Genesis, story1 is re origins of the Universe, story 2 is more concerned with the predicament of Man, (there are also two stories of the Flood of Noah) and eg., the first creation is taken to be “vegetarian”, there are two major authors of the Genesis stories, handling material handed down for many generations, but the importance given to the idea of the Sabbath suggests a C6thBC origin, and certainly before 400BC, a third writer combined the two stories, and not until about c200BC did we find a single-named author Ben Sira (Jesus ben Sirach) who wrote Ecclesiasticus, recounting Eve's fall as [part of] the origin of sin and death. Fox, page 54, possibly as early as 900bc, the Israelites were being told that their god Yahweh was the only god in existence (?). How much of Monotheism is in the first commandment, which cannot be dated except as late as C6th-C7th BC (?). Fox p. 58 has it that the Yahwehist writer is termed, “J” (C10th-C6th, who wrote of stories, sightings of Yahweh and tales of origin. “J” seemed to have believed that God had promised his blessing to the descendants of Abraham and that a covenant had been made [so where first arises the notion of a covenant? Or, contract? But Fox says new scholarly theories are that the covenant story arose about C6th, that is, c620BC-500BC]. Later writers used bits of “J's” text(s). The north of Israel had a catastrophe about 722BC. Fox thinks “J” wrote before c722BC, probably in the southern kingdom of Judah, and produced the story of Eden, Eve and the Fall that we read today. And the southerner, “J” the Yahwehist (who is author of the story of Garden of Eden) also rewrote earlier work by the first writer, “E” (the Elohist) on the early patriarchs and Moses. (Fox estimates that “E” wrote before “J”, but is not entirely sure.) Fox thinks “E” wrote in the northern kingdom, as Israel had split into north and south after Solomon died, and the period c950-850c was a calm period, which had a “Golden Age” feeling to it. In any case, p. 63, the stories of the north from “E” went to the south and to the hands of “J”. Period of writing book of law is c720BC-620BC. Fox says, p. 63, that in 622/621BC, the Jewish priest Hilkiah is said to have found a scroll in the Temple which he said was a book of the law of the Lord, which Josiah adopted as important, as “Hear O Israel”:, as speeches by Moses, and on to themes of chosen-ness, war on neighbours of Israel, death to non-believers, personal responsibility and care of those too poor to protect themselves, as the core of what became Deuteronomy. Fox, p. 68, says that around 620BC was a period of activity and great interest in writing down laws, codification, from Israel to Athens. In 597BC the King of Judah was captured and sent east as a royal captive to Babylon, and with him went some subjects, as few as 832; and in 587BC Jerusalem fell to a second invasion by Babylon, the temple was ruined, the cult of Yahweh ceased. .The exiles wrote and rewrote on their various traditions and books as known to date. Fox, p. 78, suggests that during or after the Exile appeared the writer/editor “P” (who was also more a Pacifist), who reworked “J” and “E”. “P” seems to date Abraham about 1600BC, the dating of “P's” work is contentious, but his work may have had something to do with optimism re establishing a new temple. The years 520BC-331BC were years of Persian occupation of Israel. “P” can maybe be dated 530BC-500BC, “P” as one writer or with several co-writers had a great interest in hygiene, food laws, etc, there is also a tendency to organise and classify, which is seen re regulations on what is permissible as temple offerings. Temple was rebuilt. Yahweh was honoured with sacrifices of animals. Fox, pp. 180Ff, suggests that “P” was followed or even slightly preceded by “D”, the Deuteronomist, probably a writer in Exile, and who tried to chronologise more sensibly, and he saw misfortune-for-society as due to disobedience to God. Writings re Ezra arise 458BC-398BC, Ezra giving attention to Law of Moses. Between 540BC-400BC, an unknown editor amalgamated written traditions and worked older and respected texts including those by “J” and “E” into a single narrative of the kind we are used to (while women were more excluded from the temple). By 400BC the Jewish books of law had great centrality, having been given impetus by Persian influences. Fox says, 2 Chronicles 34 was written as late as 350BC. Fox, p. 87 has it that in 350BC-340BC, a second block of narrative arose, Chronicles, written by “The Chronicler”, possibly a Levite priest. Between 400BC and 100BC, writing was either in Hebrew or Aramaic. The Book of Jonah (which is on the dilemmas of a prophet), arises in C4thBC. The Book of Esther arises about 250BC-180BC The Book of Proverbs was written before 200BC. The Book of Daniel appeared about 164BC (about the time of the liberator Maccabees). Also about 160BC began to arise the idea of resurrection (an idea or hope being that, surely martyrs were not dying for nothing, their existence did not end merely in political squabbling?) What is known as today's Old Testament also owes much to work C8th-9th AD by the Masoretes Jewish scholars often of Palestine, (masorab here meaning tradition). Ends these notes. Further, Fox, page 37, in 1272AD, Marco Polo visited China, and visited one of the Persian towns where the Wise Men of the Orient were said to be buried, at Saveh, a seat of Persian astronomers, south-west of Tehran, and he wrote of them buried with three very large and beautiful monuments with a square building above them, bodies intact and hair and beards remaining, none of which has ever been verified.

900BC: Approx. date of writing of Book of Job (Packer)

910BC to 909BC: Nadab reigns in Israel, then is murdered by Baasha. (Packer)

Circa AD910, Chinese doctors/alchemists work on ideas of inoculation and immunology, working against smallpox. The notion spread to Turkey and then further west.

911BC: Accession of Adad-nirari II in 911 BC heralds the neo-Assyrian Empire with many expeditions into Babylonia, Syria-Palestine, Phoenicia on the coast, to Egypt, to Neo-Hittite territory, east into Iran, where Medes and Persians are gaining power.

920BC: More to come

925-924BC: Pharaoh Shishak I invades Palestine and strips the Temple of gold and treasure. (Packer, and Thomas Robinson, Bible Timeline)

926BC: Rehoboam: Solomon dies and his eldest son is crowned king, Rehoboam. Jeroboam returns from Egypt, and induces a splitting of the kingship, with Rehoboam to the south with Judah and Jeroboam in the north with Israel. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline)

929-928BC: Jeroboam: Jeroboam is minister for forced labour to Solomon, who has now hundreds of "wives" and has built shrines to many different gods, till Jeroboam revolts and goes to Egypt for asylum. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline)

930BC: More to come

931, Israel, The United Kingdom is divided into Israel and Judah.

931 BC: basic Bible date, the Israel Kingdom, Elisha and Elijah. Mt Carmel, where Elijah defeated the prophets of Baal. (Packer)

931BC: King Solomon dies, the kingdom of Israel is divided. (Packer).

931BC: division of the Jewish Kingdom in Palestine. (Packer) Jeroboam reigned in Israel from 931BC while Rehoboam ruled Judah. (Packer).

940BC: More to come

945BC-924BC: in Egypt, king is Sheshonk I, who in 925 had to campaign in Libya.

945-730BC: 22nd Dynasty in Egypt (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline) From now on, Egypt is ruled by non-Egyptian kings. Ruling 945BC-924BC is Sishak I, a Libyan, first Pharaoh of the 22nd Dynasty, and he aids enemies of Israel.

945BC: Troubles for Egypt, with the Hittites, then the Sea Peoples. The Libyan period for Egypt was 945BC to 750BC: Egyptianized Nubians from the Sudan invaded Egypt, to form the dynasty from 750 to 656BC. But then came conflict with the Assyrians, then the Babylonians. See 525BC.

c950BC: Israel: David, Solomon-- not monotheistic; Israel splits north/south.

960BC: Solomon's temple is designed more on Canaanite standards than Jewish, and the later Ezekiel calls it an abomination. (Mellersh).

962-922BC: approx date of writing of the book Song of Solomon. (Packer).

965-926BC: Solomon: Solomon reigns for 40 years. It is possible that about 964BC, Solomon marries a daughter of Pharaoh (Psousennes II?) The Edomites rebel against Solomon in 963. Solomon begins in 961 to build the Temple of Jerusalem, completed in 954BC. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline.)

965BC: King David, Israel, dies: at about the age of 69 years. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline.)

966BC: Solomon begins to build the temple at Jerusalem using Lebanese cedar-wood from King Hiram of Tyre. (Mellersh - Packer). See also, Roy Stenman (a British UFO researcher), Atlantis And The Lost Lands. London, Aldus, 1976.

970BC: Solomon comes to the throne of Israel and marries a daughter of Pharaoh, which Pharaoh is unknown. (Mellersh)

970BC: Israel, King Solomon: Tyre, originally stood on an island off the Lebanese coast, linked to mainland by causeway when Alex besieged it in 332BC. Site of factories for the royal purple Tyrian dye. from the murex shell. Hiram King of Tyre in 970-936BC: a contemporary of Solomon.

971BC: King David dies. King Solomon begins his reign. (Packer).

973BC: Temple in Jerusalem: In a time of plague, David buys a threshing floor on a hilltop near his palace, for an altar, and the Temple is later built there. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline.)

978BC-959BC: Reigns Siamum in Egypt.

980BC: More to come

989BC: Solomon: Solomon is born to David and Bathsheba. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline.)

990BC: More to come

993BC-984BC: in Egypt, Amenemope reigns.

999BC: Jerusalem: David captures Jerusalem from the Jebusites and makes it his new capital. In 997 he gains support of the northern tribes and is king of all Israel. After further defeat of the Philistines he brings the Ark of Covenant to Jerusalem and keeps it in a tent. By 995 he uses forced labour from vassal states for building projects. (Date from Thomas Robinson, The Bible Timeline.)
Note: David and Goliath, as in the Bible story: Goliath may have lost his fight with David due to poor vision, is the theory of Mr. Vladimir Berginer, a neurologist at Ben-Gurion University, of the Negev. Perhaps, Goliath, the three-metre tall champion of the Philistine, suffered acromegaly, which is associated with gigantism, and means poor peripheral vision. This is due to a tumour of the pituitary gland pressing on the point where the optic nerves cross over. (Reported 19 February 2000)

Circa 1000BC: Ethiopia: Legend arises that Ethiopia is founded by Menelik, eldest son of Solomon of Israel and the Queen of Sheba.
Note: The theory also exists that the Queen of Sheba was Hatshepsut of Egypt, as Velikovsky in his book, Ages of Chaos, writes that the details of Hatshepsut's trip to "the Holy Land of Punt" as depicted in her palace, match details of the Queen of Sheba's visit to Israel.

1000BC, Bantu peoples of West Africa (sub-Saharan Africa) engage in iron working.

1000BC: The Medes, the Indo-Aryans, settle in west and north of Iranian plateau, capital at Hamadan, in Assyrian records from 9th century BC on. In 612BC the Medes and Chaldeans sacked Nineveh and undid the Assyrian empire. They rivalled the Achaemenid Persians until two ruling houses united in marriage with Cyrus II, son of this marriage, asserted Achaemenid supremacy.

From Fourth Millennium: Jerusalem, originally on the eastern ridge, is walled in Middle Bronze Age. Jebusites held it when David captured it about 1000BC. Jerusalem destroyed in 614AD by the Persians.

1000BC: Religion, a change in the Mediterranean, gods are no longer the abstract forms/forces of nature, (eg, the bull, the sun), but more like people with human-like failings and virtues. Art depicts half-men-half-beasts. There is also by now, class-consciousness.

Circa 1000BC: Latins from Central Europe settle on the Tiber River. Site of present-day Rome. They deal with Estruscans and the Greeks colonising Southern Italy.

1000BC: arises a major civilization on Nile Valley of Nubia, later till 0BC-1AD, = ancient Kush, and includes Khartoum - Kush = source of gold, the first capital of Kush is Napata, on a bend of the Nile, in C8th Kush conquers and rules Egypt. In 676BC-666BC, the Assyrians invade Egypt and drive Kushite Pharaohs back to Kush.

1000BC: Most of Iran emerges into history with advent of the Mannaeans and the Indo-Aryan Medes and Persians, then to play a dominant role in Near East.

1000BC: Tuchman has the Dorians invading Greece around 1000 BC.

1000BC: James R. Newman, (Ed.) The World Of Mathematics: A Small Library Of The Literature Of Mathematics From A'h-Mose the Scribe To Albert Einstein. US, Tempus, 1956. Egyptian geometry depends on the Rhind papyrus. Egyptians invented geometry to restore landmarks lost when the Nile flooded and they needed precise orientation of n/s/e/w for aligning temples. Scribe Ahmose on geometry-writing about 1000BC.

1000BC: Old Smyrna founded. A major port for Turkey.

1000BC: In Ireland, a sinister triad of Goddesses, The Morrigan, cruised battlefields and showing themselves to those about to die, collecting severed heads, it being "a grim Celtic habit" to sever heads of the beaten foe. (Miles)

1000BC: And much later, a view of Roman historians that the Estruscans of Italy had come from Asia Minor originally, possibly Lydians. Rise of locals into a civilized state moves against view they were not immigrants... They had bronze chariots. They had 12 city-states loosely linked. The Apollo of Veii. Bay of Naples is entered by Greeks about 730BC: temple of Jupiter (named later) above a Temple for Apollo, and temple for the Sibyl. Greeks impressed by a volcanic past. On Italy, was Paestum, earlier known to Greeks as Poseidonia, conquered by the Lucanians in late 5th C BC: goddess Hera, and a temple of Neptune dated 475BC. Seven miles from the city is the mouth of the River Sele, where a temple to Hera, traditionally founded by Jason, leader of the Argonauts, about 650BC.

1000BC: Basic Bible date, the Philistines, King David, and Solomon, Solomon continued the saga of the desert-bred horse. in defiance of Judaic law which forbade keeping of horses as soldiery, he had about 40,000 chariot horses and 1200 to 2000 riding horses. (Edwards).

1000BC: Jaynes has the voyages of Odysseus (Ulysses) about 1000BC to 800 BC: a journey of deviousness, following the breakdown of the bicameral mind after the loss of Atlantis, when subjective consciousness took root in Greece.

1000BC: The early Hebrew alphabet began about 1000BC. (Cambridge Hist).

4th Millennium - Writing, earliest is cuneiform, wedge shaped, Sumerians, end of 4th mlnm. Semites adopted it to write Akkadian. used by Assyrians and Babylonians. Writing for Elamite, Hittites, Urartian, about 500BC: for Persian. 1500 BC: Ugarit has 32 letters of alphabet. Byblos had a pseudo-hieroglyphic script. 1700BC: early Canaanite inscriptions. By end of 2nd mlnm, the 22 letter North Semitic script developed, later for Hebrew, Phoenician, Aramaic, Greek. This writing on parchment.


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