Helmsman graphic Monitor graphicHelmsman graphicThe Cozens/Byrnes Merchants Networks Project - Updated 3 June, 2023.
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A new wave treatment ...

These newer webpages will add much new information. They will be designed - and rewritten and rewritten - so that the reader can now - possibly for the first time - easily use an item of genealogical software to follow events as they unfold, with the assurance that everything will join up acceptably.

... Now is the time to release some new information ... We had already over the years previous taken on board much information about the various systems in use for convict transportation from Britain - to North America 1718-1775 then to Australia 1786-1868 - now we have new information in addition ... partly as we have lately (November 2022) heard more from a descendant of Joseph Lachlan Snr (died about 1856). Lachlan was possibly the most mysterious of the (in Australia) many-but-still-little-discussed C19th British convict handlers operating to Australia. So read on ... and on the way through, perhaps, find out more on why the convict handlers are so litte discussed by Australians!

BTW, if you are really into family history, please make sure than you get a copy of this researcher's ged.com file (dan1.ged) on this research and via this domain. (The desktop). Yes, it's that easy. Yes, it's a huge file but it is wonderful, and most merchants now have their proper place in this century-long history 1760-1860. So make a note now to get a copy soon.

This first pathways webpage and its kindred will become a new-wave treatment - maybe even a book one day - of British convict transportation to North America (1718-1775), then to Australia (1786-1788-1865/1868).

But firstly, some problems. One of the problems for the Australian with this history is with how the American Revolution - which affected the shape of the British Empire - has been written up. The way out of this dilemma is for the Australian to rummage in documents re the Loyalists, the losers of the American Revolution ... specifically the name is Harriot/Henrietta Betham, the wife of Richard Nicholls Colden Antill (she remarried); the niece of Duncan Campell the overseer of the Thamaes Prison Hulks. Duncan had a sister Mary who married Richard Betham. Their daughter Elizabeth Betham was the stay-at-home wife of NSW Gov. William Bligh; and her sister Harriot was the Loyalist in question, the wife of Richard Nicholls Colden of the Colden family of New York. (See Burke's Landed Gentry for Betham and some information per Rev. Borthwick.) After her husband died, she left America in 1778 for her father's house, presumably, on the Isle of Man. She had formally left America by 1785. On the estates she was left, see G. Palmer, Biographical Sketches of Loyalists of the American Revolution. Meckler Pub. Westport. London. 1983., p. 165. Her estate was valued at £21,790 sterling....

And this takes care of some problems between 1772 and 1786. The revised situation is, and as the UK researcher Peter Dickson found out, the senior business partner of the London-based convict contractor, Duncan Campell, was the British-Scot and convict contractor, John Stewart. Stewart had another life, though; a life entirely unknown to all researchers on convictism and convict transportation to North America, as a salt producer (which information, after years of work on the topic, we still didn't know.) There is more on this little-known story below. (See Peter Dickson with Dan Byrnes (Edited + additions by Dan Byrnes) (Received first on 24-9-2021; updated 8/24-10-2021), Convict contractor John Stewart at Portsea: Convicts & Salt, also lodged on the Byrnes profile at: www.academia.edu.

Now arises some trouble, too, for the Cook/Banks legacy. And the pathway for this trouble is via Whitby. Anthony Calvert, the high-powered-businessman man of the London slaving firm, Camden, Calvert and King, was the son of a man from Whitby, Thomas Calvert. So says Prof Sturgess, who must be owed a great deal by now by many researchers, including the present one. Cook's ships and part of his crews used in the Pacific were from Whitby, but Australians are not used to thinking that the noted London slaver, Anthony Calvert, of the firm Camden, Calvert and King, responsible for the Second Fleet, was also from Whitby.

There is another problem, too - one that involves the Pacific Ocean. The Australian university researcher Wilfrid Oldham made a grievous mistake about the London alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay. ... the details are given below and will also be in Dan Byrnes' 2023 article on alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay, which is planned to be lodged on academia.edu (about 20,000 words).

But firstly, a research question: were the convict ships ever insured as people-carriers? Prof. Gary L. Sturgess in Sydney finds that we have evidence that the convicts were insured - as evidence exists for the convict ships the Active, the Albemarle and the Marquis Cornwallis. But can we - should we - generalise from this? The convict ships to Australia were people-carriers after all, but did they all need some form of insurance? (Some were naval, but most were chartered by government from their owners.) Did they find themselves insured? Or, not?
We find from a reading of Roger Knight's new book from the UK that the East India Company insured the ships in its service. Prof Sturgesss thinks: "Government didn’t insure its own vessels - to this day, they still ‘self insure’ property. The convict transports were insured, out and back and did not benefit from government’s self-insurance. We have evidence of that for the Active and Albemarle and the Marquis Cornwallis and all the occasions when the London insurers refused to underwrite them if there were no soldiers on board."


Data on convict ship ownerships given in these webpages might be difficult to handle as there is still no consistent archive to use. But, efforts have been made here to make any efforts made as comfortable for researchers as possible. - Ed. So now we can return to our newly-refurbished narrative ...

Year 1717+

Catherine / Katherine (nee Sherborne). According to an email of 31-5-2023, John Stewart (d.1772) was possibly the son of Captain (army or EICo mariner?) Samuel Stewart (active in 1726) and Catherine Sherborne, executors of Judith Sherborne (nee Rogers, deceased in 1726), wife of Essex Sherborne II (died 1725). (All is extracted from the Bishop’s transcripts for Pembridge, Herefordshire as available on Family Search. The parents in each birth record case presented here are Samuel Stewart / Stuart and his wife Catherine / Katherine. Jonathan Forward marries Susannah Waple.

Year 1718-1725

New information arises from Andrew Waple (UK). In late 2021, Andrew Waple (e-mailing from the UK) informed rather newly: that a noted early British convict contractor (active from about 1718), Jonathan Forward, was married to Susannah Waple (which information, after years of work on the topic, we still didn't know) ... Who had one brother, William Henry, who worked with convicts for Forward and another brother, Osmond, (d.1717) who was an early 18th Century, but still little-known Maryland tobacco trader, resident in Maryland ... Susannah was also related to a well-known London society lawyer (Chancery), John Waple, who was active in the 1750s and was reasonably well-known in the London of his day as a legal-accountant. (Waple as a surname was related to Walpole.) Andrew Waple, a UK investigative journalist, unfortunately caught the covid virus in late 2021. And in 2018, we had heard newly from Peter Dickson (UK) about John Stewart (d.1772) - an older man and convict contractor to North America, to Virginia and Maryland. And we had anyway for years been getting backgrounders on many British convict contractors 1786-1810, from someone in Sydney, where it all began for Australians.

1720 and The Bursting of the South Sea Bubble

(Do not forget to read on the South Sea Bubble, the investment bubble - an enthusiasm for economic life had gripped England - that for a time in 1720 killed England; or certainly made life less pleasant for many.

On the year 1740, (more to come.)

Years 1753-1756: James Armour died in January 1753 and his brother Andrew Armour died in August 1756. Andrew Reid withdrew from the business and John Stewart was granted the Treasury contract for convict transportation. One Andrew Reid was a supercargo on two EICo ships of the 1730s .

1758: John Stewart in 1758 took a new junior partner, Duncan Campbell (1726-1803), who was in Maryland on a visit in February 1759 and there recorded a Power of Attorney from Stewart and the executors of the Armour brothers. This new partnership for the transportation of convicts, John Stewart & Campbell (JS&C) continued until Stewart died in February 1772.

Year 1766

In 1766, Thomas Hodge was appointed Virginia agent for the partnership of Stewart & Campbell (JS&C), while William Russell was appointed agent for Maryland. [MSA, Provincial Court Land Records, Vol. 725, pp. 639-640].

Year 1767

From about the year 1740, large in the Carolina rice trade, in which the younger Thomas Jefferson was an investor, was George Mackenzie, the uncle like his nephew Mordo/Murdo on the Isle of Wight - (George Mackenzie was at East Cowes, Isle of Wight); the mariner Mordo/Murdo who was the father of London alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay (1750-1803), and died in a cliff fall. George Mackenzie was thus the alderman's uncle. Thus, alderman Macaulay becomes a link man between Thomas Jefferson, the American Revolution, the Carolinas-Isle of Wight/England-France rice trade, and Scots Republicanism; and finally, convict transportation to Australia. Interestingly, the link is with the Carolina rice trade, not the American tobacco trade: and this is probably why this matter has for so long escaped the scrutiny of historians. Its sheer unexpectedness! Jefferson certainly knew George's son James, (about the time of Jefferson's appointment as American Plenipotentiary Minister to France by 1786) who took over his father's rice-trading business, and would have at least known of George, who was dead by about 1758.

Year ??

More to come ...

Year 1768

Junior partner Duncan Campbell has this year been ten years with London-based convict contractor John Stewart.

Year 1769

More to come.

Year 1770

More to come.

Year 1771

More to come.

Year 1772: New info from Peter Dickson (UK) in 2019

New information for the USA arises also from researcher Peter Dickson (UK) in 2019 on the affairs of John Stewart (died 1772) a senior partner of Stewart and Campbell, a London-based convict contractor to North America, and Stewart's relative, Matthew Ridley, who after he went to America became a minor diplomat of the American Revolution. (Virginia and Maryland.)

The junior partner of the firm was Duncan Campbell (1726-1803), the subject of The Blackheath Connection, which has been on the Net since 2000.

Mr. Dickson has gone back to amongst other things re-read The Duncan Campbell Letterbooks in order to bear down freshly on John Stewart; in ways that Dan Byrnes did not do at the time for lack of information. (So many dates given here should be regarded as provisional until further proof is forthcoming.)

John Stewart (died 1772) had married Amelia Vanderstegen (1726-1812). Amelia was daughter of a London merchant (who probably had two taverns), Henry Vanderstegen (died 1754), (husband of Engletje Boon died 1763). Henry was son of an Amsterdam burgher, Dirck Vanderstegen. The Vanderstegens are supposed to have arrived in London as part of the entourage of William III, Prince of Orange and King of England from 1688; or did they arrive earlier than William III arrived?

Amelia was sister of William Vanderstegen (1737-1797, a husband of Elizabeth Brigham a daughter of Thomas Brigham (died 1742, a son of Thomas Brigham); Elizabeth Vanderstegen (died 1754) was a wife of London Lord Mayor Sir Charles Asgill (1713-1778); and there was also Mary Maria Vanderstegen (no further information). This William Vanderstegen (died 1797) was father of William Vanderstegen (1760-1831) of Cane End near Reading, England, husband of his second wife, Elizabeth Grace Kirby (died 1844, daughter of Charles Kirby of Bath)); also of Frances, Hannah and Brigham Vanderstegen. Hannah V. was married to colonial sugar broker John Drake. Hannah V. was married (maybe) to Richard Goodere.

John Stewart (died 1772) had parents largely still unknown, but he was brother evidently to James (died Nov. 1772) a wine merchant in Oporto, Portugal, with Stewart and Croft; and perhaps to Alexander of "America" who may have married Sarah Bowley of a noted family of Baltimore, Maryland, and also to Sarah Jane Lux (1738-1817), daughter of a Maryland convict contracting firm and family, Lux, which had also intermarried with the Bowleys.

(Captain Alexander Stewart [died 1768/1769 in Baltimore, Maryland], who may or may not have been brother of John Stewart of London [died 1772], who married Sarah Jane Lux, was father of Anne Stewart (born 1758 and married to USA Senator Daniel Bowley Jnr [died 1807]) and of John Stewart who married Catherine Hare, the mother of Charles Augustus Stewart who married Mary Anne Bloise. These are names which should spring easily to the lips of readers of the history of the American Revolution, but do not!)

John Stewart (died 1772) and Amelia Vanderstegen had children, John Henry Stewart of Portsea who married Sarah Desborough - who had five children; Sarah Amelia Stewart, Henry William Seymour Stewart, Charles Desborough Stewart, Frances Amelia Stewart (died 1823) who married Rev Sir third baronet Augustus Bridges Henniker [1795-1849]; and Rev. John Vanderstegen Stewart (c.1794-1878) and Caroline Gibson Drury (daughter of Richard Vere Drury and Suzzanha Gibson); Colonel and Freemason grandmaster of Hampshire, Sherbourne Stewart (who possibly married Ann Mason (untraced) of Portugal Street, Grosvenor Square in 1789); and a spinster, Sarah Amelia Stewart (died 1840).

Rev. John Vanderstegen Stewart (d.1878) had three children; Fanny G. Stewart, wife of General George Henry John Alexander Fraser (born 1826 but otherwise untraceable on the Net); Caroline Letitia Stewart the first wife of a widower, Major Herbert George Bowden (1821-1891); and Miss Stewart who married to a man surnamed Bray.

Tantalisingly, John Stewart (died 1772) seems to have apart from being a merchant and convict contractor, also been a salt producer of some kind, probably associated with the salt works of Portsea, but the facts from Net resources are not clear. Portsea had 54 salt pans, and windmills were used for salt-water-shifting; there was perhaps in the area an operation known as the Copnor Salt Works.

William Vanderstegen, brother of John Stewart's wife, Amelia, for a time at least had part-ownership of a tobacco warehouse in Haydon Square, London, with his brother-in-law, Stewart. This William Vanderstegen, a High Sheriff of Oxfordshire in 1762, later of Cane-End near Reading, had inherited via his wife a deal of land about Cane-End and Caversham. Vanderstegen was also a Commissioner of the Thames River 1783-1796. He knew the family of novelist Jane Austen, as his son William was a student of Jane's father; while William V. Senior had been a childhood friend of Jane's mother, Cassandra Leigh (1739-1827).

Year 1718-1772


Peter Dickson reports that: 1748: The earliest reference (to date) of Andrew Reid and John Stewart acting in concert for the transportation of convicts to America is in The National Archives, Kew, England [QS13.2.16].

1749: The earliest reference (to date) of Andrew Reid and James Armour agreeing to act together for the same is in the Metropolitan Archives, London [MJ/SPT/3/19b-d]. Andrew Reid assigned a power of attorney to James Armour. James Armour for himself and for his brother Andrew Armour then assigned a power of attorney to John Stewart to act on their behalf in Maryland during his visit there in 1750 [MSA, Provincial Court Land Records, Vol. 1 p. 85].

1750: Whatever arrangements the four merchants had made amongst themselves in order to take advantage of Andrew Reid's Treasury contract – a financial subsidy for each convict transported - it was finally formalised as an equal partnership in December 1752 [TNA, PROB11.824.388, Will of Andrew Armour]. Prior to that, powers of attorney are presumed to cover agreements inter alia including those with ship masters [TNA, QS2/6/1748/Mid/70-73]. James Armour's Will, written in February 1752, already referred to Reid and Stewart as "co-partners".

Also new from Peter Dickson - Some ship masters transporting convicts for John Stewart and/or associates, 1749-1775


See for example, Peter Wilson Coldham, The Complete Book of Emigrants in Bondage, 1614-1775. Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Co., 1988. And, Peter Wilson Coldham, Emigrants in Chains. Phoenix Hill, Far Thrupp, Stroud, Gloucestershire, Allan Sutton, 1992.)

Ship master Ship Sailed Landing Merchants Sources

James Dobbins * Thames 1749 Maryland Andrew Reid & John Stewart SHC: QS2/6/1748/Mid/70-73.
“ 1751 “

Reid, Stewart & Armour Bros.

1752 “ Reid, Stewart, & Armour Bros. “

1753 “ Reid, Stewart & A. Armour SHC: QS2/6/1753/Eph/55-56 “

1754 “ “ SHC: QS2/6/1754/Eph/12.
William Gracie Lichfield 1750 Maryland Reid, Stewart & Armour Bros. T 1/340/34,35; 348/26

Greyhound 1751 Maryland Reid, Stewart & Armour Bros. Notts. Archives: DD/2197/4/1 Greyhound

1753 Maryland Reid, Stewart & Andrew Armour Md. Gaz: 5 April, 1753 Leonard Gerrard Lichfield 1752 Maryland Reid, Stewart & Armour Bros. SHC: QS2/6/1752/Eas/18a-b TNA: T 1/348/8 John Johnstoun Tryal 1750 Maryland Reid, Stewart & Armour Bros. LMA: MJ/SPT/3/17a “ 1751 “ “ TNA: T 1/346/29 “ 1752 “ “ TNA: T 1/348/18 “
1753 “ Reid, Stewart & A. Armour TNA: T 1/353/29 Matthew Johnson Whiteing 1753 Virginia Reid, Stewart & A. Armour TNA: T 1/358/1 Alexander Stewart Greyhound 1754 Maryland Reid, Stewart & A. Armour Md. Gaz: 30 May, 1754 [DR,CH] (J. Stewart's brother) “ 1755 “ Reid, Stewart & A. Armour “ 1756 **** “ Md. Gaz: 29 April [Alex. S] George Freebairn Tryal 1758 Tryal Reid & Stewart TNA: T 1/387/29, 41 Thomas Slade Rose 1755 Maryland Reid, Stewart & A. Armour TNA: T 1/361/39 William McGachen Tryal 1755 Maryland Reid, Stewart & A. Armour TNA: T 1/361/67, Phoenix 1759 “ Stewart & Duncan Campbell, “ 1760 “ Stewart & Campbell Md. Gaz: 27 January 1761 [D.R] Tryal 1764 “ “ TNA: T 1/429/147 Matthew Craymer Thetis 1757 Maryland Stewart & Campbell Md. Gaz: 8 Dec. 1757 ** “ 1759 “ Stewart & Campbell “ 1760 “ “ Md. Gaz: 27 June,1760 [AS,WL] Dolphin 1762 “ “ TNA: T1/418 Benjamin Dawson Neptune 1762 Maryland Stewart & Campbell, Md. Gaz. 15 July, 1762 [DR] Dougal McDougal Friendship 1760 Maryland Stewart & Campbell, Md. Gaz: 27 June,1760 [AS,WL] Dolphin 1761 “ “ Ana. Ships, p.46 Dolphin 1764 “ “ TNA: T 1/429/148, 149, 150 Tryal 1768 “ “ TNA: T 1/465/400-406 Tryal 1769 Maryland “ TNA: T 1/470/10-19 Thornton 1771 “ “ TNA: T 1/478/93-111 Tayloe 1772 Virginia Duncan Campbell SL/DC : Vol. 1, p.84 Colin Somervell Neptune 1763 Maryland Stewart & Campbell TNA T 1/423 (Campbell's nephew) “ 1764 “ “ TNA: T 1/429/156 Justitia 1764 Virginia “ TNA: T 1/429/151 & 152 “ 1765 “ “ TNA: T 1/429/154 “ 1766 “ “ TNA: T 1/450/96-101 “ 1767 “ Stewart & Campbell Va. Gaz: 05 November, [TH] “ 1768 “ Stewart & Campbell Va. Gaz:22 Dec., 1768 [TH] “ 1769 “ “ TNA: T 1/478 Colin Somervell Justitia 1771 “ Stewart & Campbell Va. Gaz: 28 March, 1771 [TH] John Errington Tryal 1766 Virginia Stewart & Campbell TNA: T 1/449/126-133 John Somervell (Campbell's nephew) Tryal 1767 Virginia Stewart & Campbell TNA: T 1/460/48-54 Christopher Reed Ann 1765 Maryland Stewart & Campbell TNA: T 1/437/25 “ 1766 “ “ TNA: T 1/449/19-28 Thornton 1767 “ “ Md. Gaz: 14 July, 1767 [AS] “ 1768 “ “ TNA: T 1/465/391-399 “ 1769 “ “ TNA: T 1/470/20-32 Scarsdale 1770 Virginia “ TNA: T 1/478/80-92 “ 1771 “ “ Va. Gaz: 10 October, 1771 [TH] James Arbuckle Neptune 1768 Virginia Stewart & Campbell Va. Gaz: 03 March 1768 [TH] Neil Gillis Justitia 1772 Virginia Stewart & Campbell Va. Gaz: 27 February, 1772 [TH] Neil Somervell (Campbell's nephew) Orange Bay*** 1772 “ Duncan Campbell SL/DC : Vol. 1, p.31, 37 William McCulloch Hanover Planter 1773 Maryland “ SL/DC: Vol. 1, p.131-133 John Kidd Thornton 1772 Maryland Duncan Campbell SL/DC: Vol. 1, p.22 “ 1773 Maryland “ MHS/Ridley, p.69,111,113 “ 1774 Maryland “ SL/DC: Vol. 1, p.241-242 Justitia 1774 Virginia “ SL/DC: Vol. 1, p. ? John Ogilvy Tayloe 1773 Virginia Duncan Campbell SL/DC: Vol. 1, p.156 “ 1774 “ “ SL/DC: Vol. 1, p.272 & 283 Salt Spring *** 1775 “ “ Va. Gaz: 14 October, 1775 [TH] SL/DC: Vol. 1, pp.397 & 400 Finlay Gray Justitia **** 1772 Virginia Duncan Campbell SL/DC: Vol. 1, p. 74,75,76, 91 “ 1773 “ “ SL/DC: Vol. 1, pp. 202-3 Thornton 1775 Maryland “ SL/DC: Vol. 1, p.385-6.

* John Stewart, as sole executor, proved James Dobbins' Will in 1754. [TNA PROB11.811.303].

** Maryland Gazette for 8 December 1757: an advertisement notes that the appointed captain, James Edmunds [TNA T 1/378/64] and 28 convicts, had died during the voyage. Matthew Craymer, presumably First Mate to Edmunds, took command - Craymer was recorded as the captain of Thetis in the port entry books for Annapolis, Maryland.

*** The ships Orange Bay and Salt Spring were usually assigned by Campbell to Jamaica voyages servicing plantations belonging to his relations in the West of the island. Neil Somervell and John Ogilvy remained their respective masters on the Jamaica run after the convict trade to North America ended in 1775.

**** 1756 Alexander Stewart, John Stewart's brother, settled at Baltimore and lodged a power of attorney granted him by his brother and Andrew Armour to act in their joint affairs in Maryland.

In 1766, Thomas Hodge was appointed Virginia agent for the partnership of Stewart & Campbell, while William Russell was appointed agent for Maryland. [MSA, Provincial Court Land Records, Vol. 725, pp. 639-640].

In 1772, following John Stewart's death and Russell's resignation, Matthew Ridley, a Stewart cousin, arrived in Maryland as agent for Duncan Campbell and returned home to England in 1775. The relationship with his employer did not end well.

Ana. Ships – Shipping in the Port of Annapolis, 1748-1775; Vaughan W. Brown, 1965.
LMC – London Metropolitan Archives, London, England.
Md. Gaz. - Maryland Gazette, USA.
MHS/Ridley – Massachusetts Historical Society, Matthew Ridley Papers, Boston, USA.
MSA – Maryland State Archives, USA.
Notts. Archives – Nottinghamshire Archives, England.
SHC – Surrey History Centre, Woking, Surrey, England.
SL/DC – State Library of NSW, Duncan Campbell Business Letter Books, Sydney, Australia.
TNA – The National Archives, Kew, England.
Va. Gaz. - Virginia Gazette, USA.

Names: T.H – Thomas Hodge; D.R – David Ross; A.S – Alexander Stewart; W.L – William Lux; C.H – Charles Hammond;


Year 1772+

1748 The earliest reference (to date) of Andrew Reid and John Stewart acting in concert for the transportation of convicts to America is in The National Archives, Kew, England [QS13.2.16].

1749: The earliest reference (to date) of Andrew Reid and James Armour agreeing to act together for the same is in the Metropolitan Archives, London [MJ/SPT/3/19b-d]. Andrew Reid assigned a power of attorney to James Armour. James Armour for himself and for his brother Andrew Armour then assigned a power of attorney to John Stewart to act on their behalf in Maryland during his visit there in 1750 [MSA, Provincial Court Land Records, Vol. 1 p. 85].

1750: Whatever arrangements the four merchants had made amongst themselves in order to take advantage of Andrew Reid's Treasury contract – a financial subsidy for each convict transported - it was finally formalised as an equal partnership in December 1752 [TNA, PROB11.824.388, Will of Andrew Armour]. Prior to that, powers of attorney are presumed to cover agreements inter alia including those with ship masters [TNA, QS2/6/1748/Mid/70-73]. James Armour's Will, written in February 1752, already referred to Reid and Stewart as "co-partners".

1753: James Armour died in January 1753 and his brother Andrew in August 1756. Andrew Reid withdrew from the business and John Stewart was granted the Treasury contract.

1758: John Stewart took a new junior partner, Duncan Campbell, who was in Maryland in February 1759 and there recorded a power of attorney from Stewart and the executors of the Armour brothers. This new partnership for the transportation of convicts, John Stewart & Campbell (JS&C) continued until Stewart died in February 1772. Although the Treasury subsidy of £5 per head was discontinued at the end of 1772, there is evidence that Campbell expected a similar sum for transportation from local court officials. [SL/DC: Business Letters, Vol. 1, p. 262, D.C. to John Matson, King's Bailiff at Sandwich, Kent]. In this letter, Campbell states his charge as £5 per head and refers Matson to Jerome Kn.

1772: Duncan Campbell continued the business of convict transportation to Virginia and Maryland until 1775. His vessel Salt Spring was the last-ever convict transport to be despatched, delivering 120 convicts to Virginia in October 1775 [Virginia Gazette, 14 October 1775].

This is not all, but for more clarification we need a mix of genealogical data from www.geni.com/ and from stirnet's genealogy files. The names to be joined are Stewart/Sherborne/Ridley. There were, for example, three of Essex Sherborne of Pembridge in Herfordshire. No. 1 of Essex, S. died c.1695 and had a son Essex II (died 1725), who had a brother Nicholas (Rev., of St Mary's, Pembridge); who had a son Essex III (died 1740). Essex Sherborne II had a niece, Katherine, daughter of this Rev. Nicholas, who became the wife of Captain Unnamed Stewart, which Stewart was perhaps a cousin, but otherwise a relative. By 1723, this Capt. Stewart was leasing a farm, Middlebrook, from Essex II S. This Katherine Sherborne (died 1696) and Capt. Stewart seem to have been the parents of the convict contractor John Stewart (died 1772) who married Amelia Vanderstegen. Which would make this Katherine the mother also of James (died 1772) the Oporto wine merchant and perhaps also the mother of Alexander who seems to have died in Baltimore, Maryland, America, about 1769 - as the husband of either of/or both of Sarah Bowley and/or Elizabeth Lux.

(Information follows mostly from stirnet files, but we find stirnet's information basically non-contradicted by www.geni.com ... Essex III Sherborne (died 1740) had two wives, Gertrude Spencer (daughter of Richard Spencer of Lyonshall, son of first Baronet, Sir Thomas Spencer [d.1622] and Margaret Braithwaite [d.1655]); and Elizabeth Lloyd (see below). We are not yet sure which wife came first.

Essex III Sherborne had as one of his wives, Elizabeth Lloyd, daughter of Sir Bart Charles Lloyd of Mitfield (d.1723 and his second wife, Frances Cornwallis), who had a daughter Emma who married Edward Hayden of Whitechapel (untraceable so far). Emma had a younger sister Frances Sherborne, who seems to have married John Ridley (died 1747) of London, who had two sons, Matthew (born c.1746 died at Baltimore, Maryland, America ) and John, and a daughter, Jane. This picture of the family dynamics would make Matthew Ridley and John Stewart (died 1772) cousins of one generation apart.

This picture would also mean that our picture of Duncan Campbell (1726-1803) becomes slightly revised. Duncan Campbell, who can be seen as the chief British convict contractor to Virginia and Maryland to 1775; in 1758 Campbell had become the junior partner of the convict contractor John Stewart (died 1772). There was in such mentions in The Duncan Campbell Letterbooks almost nil mention of Stewart as a salt manuacturer anywhere in England, and indeed, we still do not know just what type(s) of salt Stewart handled; salt for the English table (below the salt?), for tanneries or other industries, for export, or for any salted fish production or market) - or for all of these. Campbell nevertheless remained at least emotionally tied somewhat to the estate of the deceased Stewart; he owed Stewart's widow something (Amelia Vanderstegen) and he had at times to deal with her brother, William Vanderstegen (died 1797) of Cane-End. Campbell also appointed Stewart's relative, seemingly a first cousin of Stewart, Matthew Ridley, as an agent of the former firm, Stewart and Campbell (JS&C), which probably means that the Ridleys and the Sherbornes felt that they were due some part of John Stewart's debts in America; which would be collected by Ridley.

But Ridley found that he agreed with the Americans in their disputes with Britain, so much so that he did not become just a Patrriot, he became a pro-Revolution minor diplomat for what became the USA - as US books on the Revolution still do not record properly.

(See for example, Herbert E. Klingelhofer, 'Matthew Ridley's Diary during the Peace Negotiations of 1782', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 20, January 1963., pp. 95-133.)

Year 1775++

Matthew Ridley's career as a minor US diplomat is one thing. His marriages can mean another thing, a genealogical delving into what amounts to the demise of the British convict service to North America. Matthew Ridley's first wife was Ann Richardson (1755-1784 died in Paris, France), daughter of an East India Co, ships captain, Joseph Richardson, who died at sea in 1782. Ridley's second wife was Catherine Livingston(e) (1751-1813), daughter of New York Governor, William Livingston (1723-1790) and Susanna French (1723-1789). (Catherine also married John Livingston(e) [1749-1822]. She and Ridley had two daughters who married well).

Years 1775-1783

There are several articles/books one can read on bits-n-pieces for this story which can now be told newly. See for example, Anthony Vaver, Bound with an Iron Chain: The Untold Story of How the British Transported 50,000 Convicts to Colonial America. Pickpocket Publishing, 2011. (Which is not an untold story at all, Vaver is simply a new kid on the block.) See Dan Byrnes (online), The Blackheath Connection, 2000. (This project became long-term, and was begun in 1977. It is based on The Letterbooks of Duncan Campbell held at the Mitchell Library in Sydney.)

Coldham has listed many of the personnel and ships of this trade. (See Peter Wilson Coldham, The Complete Book of Emigrants in Bondage, 1614-1775. Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Co., 1988. Peter Wilson Coldham, Emigrants in Chains. Phoenix Hill, Far Thrupp, Stroud, Gloucestershire, Allan Sutton, 1992.)

A. Roger Ekirch, 'Bound for America: a profile of British convicts transported to the colonies, 1718-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 42, No. 2, April 1985., pp. 184-200. A. Roger Ekirch, Bound for America: The Transportation of British Convicts to the Colonies, 1718-1775. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1987. Roger A. Ekirch, 'Great Britain's Secret Convict Trade to America, 1783-1784', American Historical Review, Vol. 89, No. 5, December 1984., pp. 1285-1291.

Kenneth Morgan, ’The Organisation of the Convict Trade to Maryland: Stevenson, Randolph and Cheston, 1768-1775’, William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 42, No. 2, April 1985., pp. 201-227. (Morgan is also the author of Kenneth Morgan, Bristol and the Atlantic Trade in the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Meantime, we can speculate (as Peter Dickson has done) about the English convict contractors operating before 1758 when Campbell became the junior partner of John Stewart (died 1772) and about what the British government of the time was willing to put up with. Was there a John Stewart and Co. operating between Stewart & Armour and Stewart and Campell (known to their cargo-handlers in either of North America or London as "JS&C")? Dickson finds there was a two-year gap between the death of Andrew Armour (d.1756) and the appearance of JS&C in 1758. James Armour had died in January 1753. He was brother of Andrew Armour (who ended up as a merchant on St Christopher's/St Kitts, the Caribbean). James and Andrew had a father, James in Edinburgh. James Armour was a partner of John Stewart (died 1772) so Duncan Campbell by 1758 had replaced the Armour brothers.)

But it seems also that Stewart had filled a gap with the services of Andrew Reid - who had a "right and title" to James (then Andrew's) contracts with the British government to transport convicted felons. However, Dickson has found that the proceeds of convict handling could be split four ways, between Andrew Reid, John Stewart and the two Armour brothers ... (the contract stretched from December 1752 to 1 January 1763). All of which became concentrated rather differently when Stewart died in 1772 - while Campbell picked up the pieces, Stewart's executors were William Vanderstegen (died 1797), Richard Glover an insurance broker of London, and a London merchant, William Bowden. But who were they? (Stewart meanwhile seems to have gotten his salt business from Reids.) William Vanderstegen being the brother of John Stewart's widow Amelia, to an extent spoke for the family. But what of Stewart's formerly unknown salt manufactory business? Who were Richard Glover and William Bowden? There are several contenders on the Net for both of these identities. Richard Glover (1712-1785) was a British MP and poet who was son of a British-Hamburg merchant Richard Glover and his wife Mary West; not the insurance broker we seek. Whether these two men had relatives or agencies in North America we don't know. William Bowden was ??? There was a William Bowden handling tobacco in Virginia/Maryland whom we do not think was involved ...

Year 1783

More to come.

Year 1784

More to come.

Year 1785

More to come.

Another new-wave excursion into maritime history from The Merchant Networks Project

Pathways to the Convict Handlers to New South Wales 1786 in London to 1868 in London-Western Australia

These files will now treat matters from the 1780s to the 1860s.

A new excursion into Australian maritime history as seen through the lens of convict transportation.

Dates of some merchants´ business decisions to transport convicts to Australia

NB: From February 2019 this website will carry on these pages a new theory from Ken Cozens, and accepted by Dan Byrnes, on the use from London of shipping as sent or managed - or compromised - by an operative of the Spanish Government, Firmin de Tastet (1748-1832). Ken Cozen's new theory arose by late October 2018 and so far has not yet had time or opportunity to filter into mainstream historical thinking. But nor is any British anti-Spanishess necessarily a theme in any book written on the history of the British Empire since 1720 as its borders changed; this omission seems to include books on British whaling. (But this generalisation will definitely also include a book such as: V. T. Harlow, The Founding of the Second British Empire. Vols. One and Two. London, Longmans, 1964.); though various anti-Islamic propaganda helps along much of British history writing. There were things that Harlow simply didn't know!
It seems that Cozen's new theory about Firmin de Tastet (and world silver flows) affects (or changes, or adds to) the topic of transporting convicts to Australia for the period (at least) of the first three fleets of convict vessels (roughly 1786-1792). Added to which is the convict contractor John Stewart's linkages, c.1772, to the English domestic trade in salt as recently uncovered by Peter Dickson of the UK. We are sorry that Australians have extra people to remember, but we remain agnostic on whether our new information on Firmin de Tastet's activities (see below, chronologically) should modify (or not) the reader's views on events in the regions of South-East Asia, "the Far East" and/or British colonies in Australia or New Zealand. These are all matters for historians and readers of the future to dwell on and decide on. We often refrain from giving an opinion. Meanwhile, our current information on Firmin de Tastet we have delivered chronologically, as below. - Ed

The view taken here is that the topic forms a labyrinth. Since it does seem that Australians have great difficulty in discerning and commenting the maritime history that was produced by Britain´s decision in 1786 to resume the shipping of transportable convicts to eastern Australia.

Spanish ambassadors to London for the earliest timeframes re the later activities of Firmin de Tastet were: NB: Re the Spanish Ambassador in London. From tempe Charles II to 1793, the Spanish Embassy was at Ormond Street, then at Hertford House, Manchester Square. From 1793-1796, was built a chapel, St James, Spanish Place, in Westminster (today's George Street). In 1786 the Spanish Ambassador was Bernado del Campo y Perez de la Serna, appointed July 1787; in 1788 Malaspina got some navigational items via him, to the value of 1000 pounds. 1786 letter to el Conde de Floridablanca. 1792 lettere to el Condie de Aranda. In 1797, El Marques del Campo to Lord Grenville - in 1802 to Chevalier D'Anguado.

Charles Bateson´s book The Convict Ships, however misleading it becomes because it glosses over so much, still to 2022-2023 in Australia remains a classic on the topic of convict transportation from Britain to Australia. Delving into this book means however that the researcher enters something of a labyrinth of connections, historical phases and changes, and possibilities for conclusions. Yet on the Internet today, most Australian and New Zealand webmasters seem not to be really interested in the convict maritime or who owned the convict ships and immigrant-carrying ships arriving to their ports. This lack of interest is a loss to maritime history and also broadly to British social history. And it has to be said, that if a researcher does ask questions about ship owners sailing ships into Australasian waters, methodological questions arise to the complexities of the information arising as questions are answered.

For one thing, historical changes in Britain itself, in Imperial history, in NSW and New Zealand have to be alluded to, which is not easy across the vast oceanic distances to be considered. (Historians interested in British-India have similar problems and the researcher interested in Australasia will have to notice British-India as well, because British-Indian firms (often in fact, Scottish firms) often supplied the early colony in Australia.) Suffice to say, the research situation becomes complex, and so it remains to date. The easiest way to view matters is ... as a challenge.

By 1959, Charles Bateson had published his research on the transports used to ship convicts to eastern Australia, The Convict Ships, a book to be cited often on these wepages. But we now go much further than Bateson. But early in his book, Bateson had remarked, (p. 2):
"Its (Australia's) colonisation was the rich reward garnered from (James) Cook's voyagings, but its settlement was not effected in the tradition and spirit which had inspired the great navigator. The circumstances of the founding of Australia are divorced entirely from those of its discovery and exploration by Cook. The mainspring was very different, and in the conditions of the day, and the state of man's thoughts and outlook at the time, it was perhaps inevitable that it should be so. Never in history were a country's beginnings laid by such unhappy and unenthusiastic pioneers as the seven hundred and fifty-nine convicts of Australia's first fleet and the thousands of prisoners who followed them into an unwanted exile." And this is largely because of Britain's whalers.

We quite agree with Bateson here, and wonder, why so few other Australian writers have approached their research on the "founding" of European Australia in the light of Bateson's remarks? It is possibly out of enthusiasm for Australia, and associated forgetfulness of "Britain". But why has the Spanish Empire gone so missing?

One relatively simple way to view matters is to regard convict transportation as an outcome of class war in Britain, and of course a war that the convicts had lost. For what the convict handlers who can be identified did share were resources-for-living that most convicts had not been blessed with - a good-quality education, a useful and/or lucrative occupation, helpful associates, personal abilities to exploit opportunities, access to capital, and as a matter of personal outlook on life in Imperial Britain, relatively wide, personal horizons. But even this direction for research allows researchers still to avoid questions arising on the convict ship ownership! Still, it is here recognised that convict transportation was a tri-partite business; there was original, landlubber legality about specific cases at the English end, various mariner-ship-based business, and more land-based legality at the Australian end - what has gone unstudied is the mariners' scenario, the marine environment! It also seems somewhat inevitable that there has over time been some erosion of the facts of matters.

The rationale for this presentation on the names of Convict Handlers is that before any ship embarked convicts for Australia, the shipowner concerned had made a business decision on the use of his ship; call it, opportunity cost. Where a ship was part-owned, presumably a group of owners had made a business decision. For these reasons, it is important to find the date when a ship was to be placed in the convict service. We find that Bateson in The Convict Ships does list when ships departed their English or Irish port(s), but he gives precedence to the date a convict transport ship arrived at an Australian port (and the Americans have done similar) when the crucial date is whenever it was decided that a ship would go into the "convict service" - and, this date is a British date). And so the presentation below emphasises earlier dates for the participation of shipowners and particular ships in the convict service.

The question arises, of course: did the shipowners so involved share any patterns of cross-association. The answers arising to any such question are sometimes surprising, and they change complexion as the decades passed, indicating that merchants involved in convict transportation passed through several historical phases, as is not clear from Bateson.

The first phase lasted from 1786-1792, the second from 1792 to 1800-1810. By 1810, the third phase indicated a younger generation of merchants, and a set of merchant names with wider links to the East India Company. There are two kinks in the third phase which the historian might observe; one in Britain, due to the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, following which was a rise in the numbers of convicts to be transported, and in NSW, the rise of wool exports, which gave convict transports extra opportunities to carry a paying cargo home from an Australian port.

The final phase represents the winding down of the system of convict transportation, and during this phase, the business fell into the hands of fewer merchants. These phases are implicit in Bateson´s book, which remains a classic, but are also difficult to expand on, due to Bateson's 1959 lacks of information. Even by 2012, with Internet resources becoming freely available, information (especially of an Internet-style, keyword variety) is simply not forthcoming on many merchant names which can be identified but not explained further.

Follows a series of data on the owners and/or principals of the convict ships sent to Australia.

Prof Gary L. Sturgess is now running an informative, "occasional" newsletter about new research on the First Fleet of convict ships to Australia. Issue 3 is cocerned with William Hill of the NSW Corps. Issue No. 2, of 28 November, 2022 was concerned with "a biographical dictionary" of the First Fleet ships, as ships, with a long-range view on their entire career being implicit. Issue 1 was concerned with a little-known, little-written-about topic, convict messes as used on the First Fleet.

Dan Byrnes´ has three print-published articles on the convict handlers, including the two articles noted below:

Dan Byrnes, '"Emptying The Hulks": Duncan Campbell and the First Three Fleets to Australia’, The Push From The Bush: A Bulletin of Social History, No. 24, April, 1987., pp. 2-23.

NB: The author comments in 2012: this paper was written out of a decision to argue that the traditional Australian attitude to events before 1800, to treat three distinct fleets of convict ships, then smaller sets of convict shipping, or even individual ships, sent at intermittent intervals to about 1800, was an unsuccessful approach by landlubbers to a survey of the maritime history that did little justice to the maritime background. The article had no noticeable effect on the views of writers, publishers, or since 1996, Australian webmasters.

See also, Dan Byrnes, 'Outlooks for the English South Whale Fishery, 1782-1800, and the "great Botany Bay debate"', The Great Circle, Vol. 10, No. 2, October 1988., pp. 79-102.

Dan Byrnes, 'The Blackheath Connection: London Local History and the Settlement at New South Wales, 1786-1806', The Push, A Journal of Early Australian Social History, No. 28, 1990., pp. 50-98.

(A new (released in 2016) PhD thesis, well-worth reading on the topic of convict transportation, is: Alan Brooks, Prisoners or Servants? A History of the Legal Status of Britain's Transported Convicts. Phd Thesis, University of Tasmania, 2016. (Brooks in 2007 was at University of Tasmania.)

What has happened is an historical tragedy ... Certainly, it has all been a tragedy for Australia ... And it happened like this ...(1) Forgetfulness, or historical amnesia, about convict transportation generally - there has been a British (and so a colonial) forgetfulness of just which merchants benefitted most from British convict transportation 1718-1868. This is about a period of 150 years! (2) The effects of this allied with an American problem, which is represented by their writings about their Revolution before all the data was in and had been processed about the Loyalists; plus the loss of information re the "Anglo-American bank", Lane, Son and Fraser ... (3) forgetfulness re the career of Duncan Campbell re the hulks; (4) British foolishness at the level of foreign affairs re sending felons to America (the George Moore disasters), the African experiment. (See Emma Christopher, A Merciless Place: The Lost Story of Britain's Convict Disaster in Africa and How it Led to the Settlement of Australia. Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 2010.) (5) Australian supiness re receiving British convicts - and assessing the costs of this; (6) Australian belief in terra nullius (the assertion that the land was empty, by colonistsd - but it was not so).


Year 1786

The Convict Handlers treated here (1786-1865) are mostly as listed in Charles Bateson´s book The Convict Ships, first published in 1959, with some additions. Sydney-based historian Prof. Gary Sturgess since 2011-2012 has contributed much on new detail as well as approach points on the topics relevant. The netsurfer (and/or Bateson´s reader) will find that Bateson made a few errors which have been corrected by information listed below. The items given here are often sketchy, but will be subject to revision if incoming information suggests this should be necessary or interesting. These Pathways will be added-to only intermittently. -Ed

(In December 2016 was publication of, Gary L. Sturgess, 'A Government Affair: Reassessing the Contractual Arrangements for Australia's First Fleet,' The Great Circle, Vol. 38, No. 2, 2016., pp. 1-25. Part Two will be published in the next issue of The Great Circle. (Journal of the Australian Association for Maritime History).)

One error Bateson made was in mistaking the career of the firm of which London alderman George Macaulay Macaulay was a part of, Turnbull, Macaulay and Gregory (and see below on the name, Macaulay). Bateson due to this mistake produced in his book a spurious identity in convict transportation history, Mr. Turnbull Macaulay, who never existed. By today´s knowledge, Bateson also knew relatively little about the contractor for the First Fleet, William Richards Jnr. (see below).

Dan Byrnes and Gary Sturgess (for example) have (in 2021-2022) looked afresh at a Macaulay business partner, John Turnbull, (dc1816) who married alderman G. M. Macaulay's sister, Beata Maria .
They have decided that this John Turnbull is not to be confused or conflated with either of his own father or the John Turnbull who once looked into Pacific sealing.
This Aberdeenite-Gibraltarian-Londoner, John Turnbull (died c.1816), has also been mistakenly conflated by Gibraltarian local historians with his own father, as follows - it has been thought by certain Gibraltarians that John Turnbull (who maybe got to Gibralter aged about 14 and became a merchant who dabbled with government approval in military weaponry, and there is still on Gibraltar a Turnbull Lane) was the father of the rather rabid Scots Republican, John Turnbull; and what is strange about this story is that the son became a rabid Scots patriot/Republican but there is nary a word about his father's political affiliations.
By this narrative, his son, also a merchant, became the John Turnbull who later (after 1800?) had an anti-Spanish career and was perhaps a figure with the firm (as it became), Turnbull and Forbes.
Except (and as Prof. Gary Sturgess has found), there was no father named John Turnbull. John Turnbull (of Gibraltar, and the same man, not a father-and-son team at all) was all the time the son of one Peter Turnbull of Aberdeen ... this John Turnbull lived and worked on Gibraltar, suffered by the Siege of Gibraltar as mounted by France and Spain, then went to London and re-established himself so well as a partner with G. M. Macaulay's firm, Turnbull, Macaulay and Gregory; that about 1782-1784 he married Beata the sister of G. M Macaulay. This John Turnbull became involved (probably) with the anti-Spanish forces of his London days, and while the firm due to the retirement of Mr. Gregory became , Macaualay in 1796-97 and it seems due to bad investments, (by his surviving diary now available at the British Library) had lost about a quarter of his fortune, enough to keep him quieter in London; he died in 1803 of tonsilitis and his widow evidently sold his residence to another Blackheathite, Mr. Larkins, whose family of EICo servants had by 1792-1793 taken up the cudgels of the business of transporting convicts to eastern Australia, using their ship Royal Admiral 1.

Some co-owners of the Royal Admiral during her relatively long career were Sir Richard Hotham (died 1799), John Dingwall (), Augustus Browne (of Foster Lane, Cheapside), mast contractor (to the royal navy) John Henniker (), John Pascal Larkins of Blackheath Kent (), (his family history is really complex), Captain Essex Henry Bond () and Thomas Larkins ().

Although he did index a variety of the names of convict handlers (or, the owners of convict ships), partly because he mistook the identity of alderman Macaulay, Bateson overlooked any idea that there might have been any forms of co-operation between the convict handlers, the shipowners they dealt with, or any of their associates. In fact, alderman Macaulay was a friend of alderman William Curtis, owner of the First Fleet ship Lady Penrhyn. After the First Fleet had been arranged, William Richards, the contractor for the First Fleet, was possibly sidelined commercially by the efforts made to gain convict handling business by the slavers and shipping contractors, Camden, Calvert and King. Long later, during the nineteenth century, a variety of British convict handlers had forms of association, often by joint membership of like-minded commercial organisations in London. The nature of their forms of association in time will be explored by this set of Pathways files. There is however, a great deal of re-examination of data sources to be conducted before any such information becomes reliable. - Ed.

On the whaler Capt Sinclair Halcrow

Sinclair Halcrow was born in 1755 in Bressay, Shetland, according to an online posting by Ken Cozens. Capt. Sinclair Halcrow from about 1790 sailed for Greenland whaler and (London) Alderman William Curtis, who owned Lady Penrhyn of the First Fleet of convict ships to Australia, and remarkably, along with "civic London" has nigh been written OUT of history by Australian historians. Halcrow was originally from the Shetland Islands, Scotland, but when-and-where he learned the arts of navigation is still not known. He later had many cousins as shipmasters in London or Shetland ... .)

Bateson´s Convict Ships is a valuable resource, but its treatment is not as comprehensive as it seems. This series of Pathways webpages is designed to try to expand on Bateson´s information. The first question asked as the expansion occurs is: who owned the convict ships? This question seems to occur little in the minds of Australian descendants of convicts, historical commentators and maritime researchers, as can be noticed from many of today´s websites. Bateson listed some owners of convict shipping, but not near as many as actually operated. In February 2012 the present researcher, Dan Byrnes, embarked on a re-examination of the ownership of convict shipping and he has discovered that there were about 160 convict contractors, on whom information is discoverable for only 60. That is, 100 of the convict handlers remain only as names on a list, still to be researched, a parlous research situation.

The stories of the lives of the Convict Handlers begin to form a large-scale back-story to the general narrative of convict transportation to Australia (and has never before been attempted by an Australian. This series of files, to be irregularly updated, is an attempt to launch a narrative of this back-story, the telling of which has been too-long-delayed in Australia.


Bateson in his book The Convict Ships, presenting appendices consisting of lists of data on convict shipping, emphasizes the date the ship arrived to an Australian port. This series of web files takes a different approach, emphasizing the dates that shipowners or shipbrokers made a business decision to ship convicts to Australia (or, if it can be ascertained, the dates they or their agents signed their contracts). What in business terms was on the mind of the convict shipowners when they made such a decision is something that Australians have never wondered about. Nor, indeed, have English researchers of maritime history. Obviously, in many cases, the date of the business decision preceded the departure date from Britain of any ship loaded with convicts.

As will become obvious, the dates of the related business decisions form quite a different chronology to what Australians are used to reading concerning convict transportation. The revised chronology refers far more to English business conditions for shipping operators, to business history and to other related maritime history, than it does to the usually-presented penal history or social history. We need firstly to ask, why did such shipping operators bothered to become involved in convict transportation? And we need to ask such questions because the answers might impinge on Australian cliches such as about "staples" such as timber for naval masts or other naval use, whale oil for paint, or coal for heat ... We begin though with a legal/penal figure ... .

Thomas Shelton (died 1829), who wrote the convict transportation contracts for government 1787-1829.

On Thomas Shelton, the legal official who wrote the contracts for merchants to transport convicts (died 1829), and was a friend of the lawyer who invented some of the modern rules regarding allowable evidence in court cases, William Garrow (Both are ignored by Australian historians). See The Blackheath Connection.

Before the First Fleet

Duncan Campbell, convict contractor

Duncan Campbell (1726-1803). Overseer of Thames Prison Hulks, 1776-1803. West India Merchant. Uncle-in-law of Captain William Bligh famed due to the Mutiny on the Bounty. Campbell ceased to transport convict to North America (Virginia and Maryland) in 1775 and never (for his own reasons) transported convics to Australia.

The Pitcairn Island Pathway: Re the Bligh-Campbell connections see The Blackheath Connection. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism.)

At right: Image of Duncan Campbell, Thames hulks overseer.

Image of Duncan Campbell (1726-1803)

The Picton NSW Pathway: to Duncan Campbell and Bligh. Re Henry Colden Antill. The Antill genealogy of NSW is currently available on several websites.

On connections of the Bligh-Campbell families see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. Also the files, thebc31.htm, thebc37.htm

On Stephenson, Randolph and Cheston of Bristol. More to come

William Hamilton

William Hamilton. Still a problem person for research by late 2022. Duncan Campbell was personal friends with an unidentified William Hamilton by 1786. It is still not known if the little-known William Hamilton named below is the same man.

Year 1783

Re George Moore - an update on Moore will be given in 2022 in a new book on Merchant Networks, 1760-1860 by Ken Cozens and Dan Byrnes.

George Moore


Moore remarkably enough, as someone from the Isle of Man, falls within the extended family of Bounty mutineer Fletcher Christian, as is evident in the Christian genealogy lodged elsewhere on this website. For so far minimal information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. See also: an update on George Moore in the 2022 book Merchant Networks, 1760-1860:

Year 1784

On plans to transport convict to West Africa. See Emma Christopher, A Merciless Place: The Lost Story of Britain's Convict Disaster in Africa and How it Led to the Settlement of Australia. Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 2010., variously. (Except of course, this yarn has not been left untold at all. Mollie Gillen, for example, wrote about it!).

Year 1785

By 1785: a Spanish Basque named Firmin (Fermen Snr was born in 1748 died 1832?) de Tastet had definitely arrived in London by now as an operative for the Royal Philippines Co. (His name can also be spelled Fermen or Fermin, we prefer Firmin.)
In 1788 his wife became Sophia Chollet, who had eight children (including: Ana Josepha Eleonora de Tastet (1796-1884) who married Charles August Pieriot (c.1795-1864). and had a son, Louis); her siblings included, Fermina Phillipa de Tastet (1789-1874) who married Louis de Steiger (1783-1825), Antonia Beatriz (1790) married to Estaban "Stephen" Curcier (two children), Maria Ignacia (1791), Fermin Jnr. de Tastet (1793-1863 no wife listed), Joseph de Tastet (born 1795), Alonso Ximines (born 1798), Angelo Toribio (1800-1823).
The Chollets were a Swiss family, well-connected then and still. Sophia Chollet was born 1765 when her father, Samuel (1732-1802), was 33 and her mother, Elizabeth (1727-1774), was 38. Sophia lost her mother when she was only nine. In 1787, Sophia had married a London insurance broker in partnership with Rosseter Hoyle, one John Small Jnr., (son of John Snr., and Rachael) who was destined soon to die in 1788. Small was known to Firmin de Tastet, so Sophia when she remarried in effect married an associate of her former husband. (See Gentleman's Magazine, 1789, Vol. 58, part 1, p. 365.) After the death of Firmin de Tastet (1748-1832), an extraordinary amount of money, 400,000 pounds in cash, was found in a box in his home. [We have here consulted some documentation which is part of an archive put together by Fermin de Tastet (1793-1863), who was presumably Firmin Jnr.])
In this context the classic title, now very old, is: William Lytle Schurz, The Manila Galleon. New York, Dutton and Co., 1939. A modern treatment is Javier Mejia, ‘The Economics of the Manila Galleon’, New York University/Abu Dhabi, Division of Social Science, Working Paper Series, Working Paper #0023, January 2019 (35 pages), available on: http://nyuad.nyu.edu/em/academics/academic-divisions/social-science.html. The Manila Galleon commercial route linking Manila-Acapulco in Mexico existed 1565-1815, and was a kind of maritime silk road. Acapulco (Seville to Vera Cruz to Acapulco) loaded for Manila silver - (a large percentage of the cargo), cochineal for dyes, seeds, sweet potato and other crops, tobacco, chocolate and cocoa, wine and olive oil from Spain, weaponry and metalwork from Spain or other European countries; while Acapulco received from Manila goods from China or all over Asia, such as Chinese jade, wax, gunpowder, silk or other fabrics, rugs and camel wool from the Middle East, cotton and amber from India, goods from Japan and spices from South-East Asia. Guided by the Spanish Crown, the trade pattern was entrepot-style and an exercise generally in the use of comparative advantage(s). A Chinese hunger for silver dominated the route, partly as Chinese taxes were payable in silver; and China had changed to metallism from using paper money, also partly as Manila trading patterns were dominated by Chinese merchants. The Manila Galleon ceased activity in 1834, two years after the death in London of Firmin de Tastet (d.1732), the agent for the Royal Philippine Co., whom Mejia does not mention. According to Mejia, the Royal Philippine Co. was established in 1785 with an idea that Spain would centralize trade with the Philippines. The company also sought to establish a new trade link from Manila to Seville using the Cape Horn route, but in the long-term could not compete with British trade networks. However, a wikipedia page on Royal Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas accessed in February 2019 says that this company was a Basque company started in 1728 from Gipuzkoa, a province in Spain - the idea came from the government of Gipuzkoa - to compete especially with the Dutch in the cocoa trade of Venezuela but otherwise to herd an international trade (in New Granada, Dutch, English, French traders) to Spanish-Basque control. It was based in San Sebastian (Donostia, Spain) where Firmin’s brother Juan Antonio remained. Philip V had helped establish this company by 25 September, 1728, it could trade with Europe variously, and it became the first shares company in Spain, keeping the attention of Basque shareholders and Spanish royalty. Basque port cities in Spain benefited enormously. Basque control of the company increased from 1749, to be met with a resurgence of royal control via a shift of the company HQ to Madrid. The company’s monopoly was ended by 1766 as trade had matured in New Granada to the point where a royal-based company was no longer necessary. Spanish royalty terminated the company’s charter in 1784, and it became the Royal Philippine Co. (1785). This wikipedia page makes no mention of Firmin de Tastet in London. International scholarship on these scenarios seems by early 2019 to be immature still.

This Sophia had a brother, Samuel II of Croydon. And Firmin was quite real. Eg., in 1784, Firmin de Tastet and Co. wrote to Benjamin Franklin, as we find from the Benjamin Franklin Papers online. Firmin (as an alien seeking denizenization in England) was once at Bury Court, St. Mary Axe, London.

Some of De Tastet's activities in London seem to have been preceded by the activities of a known firm, Bourdieu, Chollet and Bordieu of London (a firem which produced Firmin's wife, Sophia), which did business with both pre-revolutionary America and pre-revolutionary France. This firm for example in 1788 with Samuel Chollet had a deal involving 290 slaves on Dominica from the ship Pearl which was owned by the Bristol slavers, James Rogers and Co. (See the London-propagated website on Legacies of British slave ownership for relevant names.)

One man named Samuel Chollet died in 1802. There are several men of this name (see below) on whom we we have to offer information. One of these Samuel Chollet (born Switzerland) ended up as HM Collector of Customs on ??; he was brother of Anthony Chollet, and Peter Chollet of Demerama. Meanwhile, by a Miss Lucy of Martinique, the man who died in 1802 had an illegitimate son, Samuel, a navy midshipman who died in 1828. Samuel died 1802 was a subscriber in London of New Lloyd's and was the father of Sophia who married Firmin de Tastet.

The de Tastet story is very much one of ship insurance and of world silver flows. Firmin de Tastet seems to have been a Spanish operative in London, and a very efficient one. Firmin can be said to have been a merchant for a goverment, but back in Spain where he had come from, in San Sebastian, Firmin had a brother, Juan Antonia, who operated internationally in private trade. Firmin arranged London ship insurance for any of his brother's ships that happened into the English-speaking world. The ship insurance money alone that these two brothers shifted during their careers, in the English-speaking world alone, must have been immense!

With Firmin having been an operative in effect for a department of the Spanish Government, Firmin we presume was well-known to London's diplomatic world, to successive Spanish ambassadors, any Spanish consuls appointed, and to London's pro-British spies, who answered to Evan Nepean, Under-Secretary at the Home Office. The same Nepean who did much to organise the first three convict fleets to Sydney, Australia. And here we have to confess ignorance re Nepean's attitudes (if any) to Firmin de Tastet. Did Nepean know or care that several of the convict contractors associated with the first three convict fleets to Australia were also associated commercially with some of de Tastet's activities. Did de Tastet's connections have anything important to do with the decision of the British Government to terminate fleets of convict ships being sent to Australia, and to instead send convict transport ships out in ones, twos and threes? We have here to confess that we have not yet had time to ask, let alone answer, these basic questions. (But see for example, a new paper by Prof. Gary Sturgess on Nepean (actually a draft Chapter 1 of a draft book)).

It should not be forgotten that in 1762, Britain had occupied Manila in the Philippines for 20 months, during the Seven Years War. The British Prime Minister was John Stuart. Britain occupied Manila, a walled city, and its nearby main port, Cavite, for 20 months, 1762-1764. The British occupation ended as part of the peace settlement of the Seven Years War. Britain declared war on Spain on 6 January 1762 and Spain responded in kind on 18 January 1762. Colonel William Draper (79th Regiment of Foot at Madras) had formed a plan to take Manila with forces already in the East Indies. This was acceded to by the young George III, as Britain wished to expand trade in the region, especially with China. The EICo meantime appointed Dawsonne Drake to be governor of Manila once it was taken. (He would be assisted by a council comprised of John L. Smith, Claud Russell, Henry Brooke and Samuel Johnson.) Drake was later tried in Madras having been accused of having tried to extort money from whomever came into his power, especially the Chinese community.
Madras on 24 September 1762 used a British fleet of eight ships of the line, three frigates, four store ships, 6839 regular troops, sailors and marines, led by Brig-General William Draper (1721-1787; who married firstly Caroline Beauclerk and secondly a daughter of a New York Loyalist, Susanna de Lancey.) and Rear-Admiral Sir Bart1 Samuel Cornish (1715-1770 who married Susan Gambier, daughter of a Warden of Fleet Prison, James Gambier).
They defeated the Spanish defence. However, the Spanish Gov-General of the Philippines, Pedro Manuel de Arandia, had died in 1759 and his replacement, Brigadier Francisco de le Torre, was delayed by a British attack on Havana, Cuba. The Spanish to fill the gap temporarily appointed a Mexican-born archbishop of Manila, Manuel Rojo del Rio y Vieyra as Lt-Governor, and he, not surprisingly, made military mistakes. (He died January 1764.) The British had used more than 5000 bombs and 20,000 balls to make their conquest. The British troops sacked Manila for 40 hours, assisted by the domestics of the Spanish, the Chinese and local Filipinos. Officially, the British wanted a ransom of four million dollars. (Which would have been about one million pounds sterling.) The British also took two Spanish ships and their cargoes, worth millions. However, shortly the British were confined to Manila and Cavite by a force of Spanish and local Filipinos numbering about 10,000. But being confined to Manila and Cavite made the British occupation futile. Spain finally prevailed, when Simon de Anda y Salazar had been appointed as a new Governor-General. (See a wikipedia page on the British occupation of Manila.)
With this, Cozens thinks, Portuguese Macao and its resident Portuguese merchants had played a pivotal role with facilitating business and offering opportunies to explore trade opportunities in regional trade. Portuguese missionaries (Jesuits) had already entered Japan and China, and they with Jewish merchants would try to expand trade in silks and furs and soon too, Jewish merchants in Macao and India would be able to ship home money using EICo ships or other facilities, and also to engage in trade via EICo ships, trans-shipments from the Caribbean via Jamaica, and/or using overland routes via Amsterdam-Russia. These were all, according to Cozens, old and established trade routes with which the Jewish merchants of the times were familiar. They used trusted Indian, Portuguese and Armenian merchants to act as agents, partners, middlemen, and these roles were critical to the safe shipment of these valuable, lightweight but high-value cargoes.

On the Royal Philippine Co:
A 1788 letter, when William Eden was the British ambassador to Spain, to the Marquis of Carmarthen, dated Aranjeuz, 10 June, 1788, shows that Firmin de Tastet was the London agent for Royal Philippine Co. He resided in London where he fitted out this company's ships to the Guinea Coast to purchase slaves to be shipped to Spanish colonies in South America or the West Indies.
(British Library, Add MSS., 38, 416 folios 114-117.)

What became the [Spanish] Royal Philippine Company was first established about 1728, and presumably continued trading. With the outcome known by late 1783 of the American Revolution, disruptive as it would be for world trade, etc. This company reorganised itself by 1785 and put Firmin into London. A whiz with ship insurance especially, and at commerce in general, a specialist merchant (a financialist?), Firmin, who had a brother an international merchant back in Spain, had several briefs and a lot of money to play with. By 1805, Firmin was a close associate of Nathan Rothschild in London.

One of Firmin's briefs was to use British Merchants (the institution was well-known as The Asiento, a multi-national mechanism allowing British merchants to get slaves into Spanish-ruled colonies). Firmin had lit for this purpose onto various London-based merchants including Sir William Curtis (A London based sea biscuits manufacturer, very wealthy, quite an operator, a Greenland whaler interested also in the South Whale Fishery (ie, the Pacific), also a London alderman, later a London MP, later a personal friend of Geo IV). Curtis had a ship in the First Fleet of convict ships to Australia, the Lady Penrhyn.)
Australians have missed all this by dint of not emphasizing the ownership of the convict vessels. But per Australian historian, Christopher Maxworthy, as for Spanish interests in Britain’s new convict colony, see Malaspina’s expedition and its aftermaths in front page, newsletter, March 2018, The AAMH Quarterly Newsletter, (The Australian Association for Maritime History) A reprint of an article by Ean Higgins, 'Exclusive: Spanish "allies" had Sydney in their sights for invasion', The Weekend Australian, 3-4 March, 2018., p. 8.

More so, Firmin re getting extra slaves sometimes used the services of a big London firm of slavers who were also into sugar refining and ship insurance, Camden Calvert and King (CC&K), who had half the Second Fleet (arriving 1789) and half the Third Fleet (arriving 1791) to Australia, and who for Firmin helped to get slaves from Africa to Jamaica then to Cuba. All this is quite international.
Curtis from London commanded a huge merchant network, so did CC&K. And at times, they answered to Firmin. The Firmin connection involved only some convict contractors to eastern Australia, but not all, so this conditions the story somewhat. But imagine, one of the things that Curtis sold to Firmin and to the Spanish commercial navy was large amounts of - sea biscuits. (This needs research, obviously.)

Firmin's other brief was to get Spanish silver dollars from Mexico then from Phillipines, into Macao and Hong Kong. (Via the annual Manila Galleon from Acapulco, Mexico?), for use in the cotton trade, opium trade, etc. So it is helpful here to look at the names of British merchants (also Portuguese merchants) involved in the said trades. The research then needs to be split between 1786-1792 re Curtis and CC&K re Africa-London-Jamaica-Cuba. And from after 1807 (re the abolition by Britain of the slave trade) re Manila, Macao and Hong Kong. With "Australia" (not named as such till 1814-1819) in the middle somewhere. (This is partly how and why the usual timeframes used for the study of Anglo-Australian History are misleading; they have long acted to distrct attention from these matters.)

Year 1786

The Phantom First Fleet (1786)

Alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay

Blackheath: Pathway to London alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay (1750-1803) - For some information here re convict transport Pitt see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. Also the file thebc39.htm. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism.)

Bedford: Macaulay´s diary, which survives only for 1796-1797, held at British Library, indicates Macaulay often visited Bedford. This was possibly because each of his wives, both surnamed Theed, may have come from Bedford and wished to visit their families frequently.

Notes by Dan Byrnes on new clues arising re the parents of the wives of London alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay. (These notes have arisen since February 2018.) It has long been thought that Macaulay had two wives, Ann Theed and Mary Ann Theed, who were either sisters or cousins. It now seems as though they were half-sisters. Mary Ann has an obituary notice online, from Gentleman’s Magazine and Historical Register of 1847, indicating she died when aged 77, so she was born c.1770. She was evidently the daughter of the not-entirely well-known coal merchant William Theed of Bedford and his second wife Elizabeth Godfrey; an obituary notice says. (The name of the first wife remains unknown.) Now, who was this William Theed? Theed was a common name in the Bedford area, yet this man eludes research.
My researches indicate he was not the William Theed of Uxbridge, who did exist in the period. Nor was he William Theed the older or younger, the sculptors/artists. Nor was he the William Theed who was partner with the London jeweller, London Lord Mayor William Pickett. He was perhaps the William Theed who in 1785 saw the dissolving of his partnership with one John Staines; their business, unspecified, serviced the Bedford area and also Northampton in the Midlands. In Northampton or Northamptonshire, which is in the Midlands, or, the middle of England, there evidently was a William Theed Jnr, who owned a wharf, presumably a wharf on a canal servicing Northampton before its railway was built, a railway that linked it to Bedford, evidently.

There is online, with the UK National Records Office at Kew, London, a record of the Will (PROB 11/1296/149)) of one William Theed of Bedford who died in 1797, that we have not yet read properly, but which says he had a house on about two acres of land which adjoined the hunting area of the Duke of Bedford. While at Bedford, there was before 1800 a William Theed who evidently owned land in or near Horne Lane, land which was later used for the Horne Lane Brewery which was built 1818-1836 by Stephen Benson. There was also a name William Theed connected with the manor of Wales. Nothing arises on the Net yet re Elizabeth Godfrey of Bedford.
It is known that G. M. Macaulay retained an interest in the Bedford area, presumably for family reasons. It could be that William Theed and Elizabeth Godfrey were also parents of one William Theed who became a lunatic and died at Hoxton, probably at the Hoxton mental hospital; this lunatic had been in love with a clergyman’s daughter, a woman who gave in to parental disapproval and spurned him. All these matters need further examination from Feb. 2018.
At Bedford there was once a town clerk, Theed William Pearse (1819-1890), whom I have had no luck with retracing; his Theed naming seems to stem from a Pearse/Theed marriage about four generations previous. (Dan Byrnes)

The First Fleet

On William Richards Jnr. (See Gary L. Sturgess, ‘Guillaume Richard/William Richards: A Huguenot Back Story to Australia’s First Fleet’, Huguenot Times: The Newsletter of the Huguenot Society of Australia, No. 32, Spring (November), 2018., pp. 1-4.

William Richards (contractor for The First Fleet)

Pathway to convict contractor William Richards - Contractor for the First Fleet. See Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. On Richards´ various ambitions see The Blackheath Connection. Otherwise on Richards, see the file, thebc34.htm. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism.)

On Nicholas Antis

There is another Cork-born Nicholas Antis (probably related but probably also born a generation later than "our" Nicholas Anstis (died 1804 in or near the Malacca Straits) who was possibly a relative. The surname Anstis in the English-speaking world is conspicuous by its rarity - but no matter how enticing this conjectural relativity might be because of its implicit connections, matters must be set aside for lack of proof - and any relativity has to remain conjectural for a period as our Nicholas Anstis (of the Lady Penrhyn was son of a Cork man ... the Cork-born (but later-born) Nicholas Antsis, possibly born a generation later than our Nicholas (of the Lady Penrhyn) was (according to genealogical website, the peerage.com) the father of Ann who married ??, and "enticing" names follow including Octavius Browne of the Australia trade and his relative, the illustrator for books by Charles Dickens ... Philip Hablot Browne.

Our Nicholas Anstis, first mate on the Lady Penrhyn of the First Fleet which sailed for William Richards, and later master of the Surprize of the Second Fleet organised by CC&K, was born in Cork, Ireland, and his death at sea near Malacca, was on his way to China in 1804, as he was employed by David Scott Snr in London, who had returned to London from India by 1786.
Many details on his two voyages to NSW that have been missed by various historians. But Prof Sturgess found a House of Commons report in 1814 which listed the East India ships consigned to Scott Co. and/or Fairlie Bonham & Co., (Fairlie had been Scott’s partner in India).
The list included the Ganges, the Barwell, the Minerva, and the Cornwallis/Marquis Cornwallis. Conveniently, it also included the amount of money spent in fitting out each of these ships for the voyage. Now we knew about some of these, but this confirms by bits-and-pieces research and we didn’t know previously about the Ganges. This highlights just how important the Botany Bay trade was for David Scott Snr. Prof. Sturgess says, we now know about two of the early Botany Bay master mariners who got involved with Scott in their "after-life" – William Cropton Sever commanded a rice ship around 1795, as part of a fleet of ships organised by David Scott Snr through Robert Charnock, to bust the Old Ship Owners grip on the freight trade to British-India. And now we find Nicholas Anstis, who had been Sever’s mate on the First Fleet and then master of the Surprize on the Second Fleet, in command of a Scott ship from 1802 and Anstis died in 1804. The Ansis agent was Charles Blaney of Calcutta, married to Mary Ann Leek, who has his own genealogy.
And ... This data so far means that Anstis worked for Macaulay/Curtis, then CC&K and then Scott; and in that order ... and was connected also with John Macarthur of Paramatta, Sydney.


(These notes are from Prof. Gary Sturgess.) Nicholas Anstis was born 1754-to-1756 in Ireland, almost certainly in Cork (Ballymodan) to William and Margaret Anstis. Nicholas had a sister, Mary, also born 1754-1756. (Flynn – different ages and thus years are given in the muster books - This is probably William Anstis, who married Margaret (or Margrett) McCarthy in Cork in 1749. See Marriage Licence Bonds Index, Cork, Ireland, on ancestry.com). Given how rare the name is in Ireland, it seems likely that this is the family. It is likely that he went to sea at an early age, resulting in a move to London. By 11 November 1780, Anstis, of the parish of St Nicholas, Deptford, married Mary Hartham of St. Clement Dane at St Nicholas, Deptford. One of the witnesses was a John Nichols, the other was a Richard Watson. (ancestry.com) It seems likely that Nichols was a lifelong friend.) In about March 1787 – Cassandra Sophia was born to them. (Baptismal record on ancestry.com). About 11 July 1792 – Hector was born. (Baptismal record on ancestry.com) On 14 September 1792 – Cassandra Sophia and Hector were baptised at St Mary Lambeth – presumably they were baptized late because their father was at sea. (Baptismal record on ancestry.com). In July 1804, Nicholas died on a voyage from Calcutta to China, probably somewhere near Malacca. On 15 September, 1831 – Mary Anstis, widow of a [ship?] Master, died. (Flynn – Navy Board, and Admiralty, Accountant General's Department: Officers' and Civilians' Effects Papers, Mary Anstis, who [seems to have] died: 15 September 1831. Notes on executor's application for money owed by the Royal Navy. Copy of baptism, parish of Lambeth, Surrey (ref ADM 45/1/127). [We know this is the right person because the claimant to the Will was Hector Anstis.]
19 September 1831 – Mary Anstis was buried at St Pancras Camden. She was 70 years of age. (Parish Register on ancestry.com.)

Hector Anstis

Hector was an Inspector of Stamp Duties in the Office of Stamps and Taxes. (Royal Calendar.)
On 6 December, 1840 – Hector Anstis, Gent, married Mary Ann Cossar, a widow, at St John Clerkenwell. His father was described as a naval officer. She had had two previous husbands – James McPhee Duff (married 1825-36) and Thomas Cossar (married 1838-40). Mary brought into the marriage five children from the first marriage. Her father, William Bowerman, deceased, had been a builder. (Marriage Record on ancestry.com). 1841 – Hector and Mary Anstis lived in John Street, Clerkenwell. He was 45 and she was 35. (1841 Census). March 1849 – Hector died. On 26 March 1849 – He was buried at Clerkenwell. (FMP)

Residences: 1799 – Nicholas Anstis was renting from W. Phillips at Southwark. (Land Tax Records). 1803-1804 – Nicholas Anstis was living in Surry Place, leading into Surry Square, Southwark, renting from J. Goade. (Land Tax Records)
1805 – Widow Anstis was listed at Surry Square, Southwark.

Career: Early Career: Royal Navy: September to November 1775 (at least) – Nicholas Anstis was serving on the Asia. (Ship’s Muster Book). He was then around 20 years of age, so there was a prior career. January 1779 – Transferred from HMS Rattlesnake to Aetna, serving as coxswain. (Flynn) 1779-1780. At some point he briefly joined the Star. In November 1780 – He was transferred to the armed transport, Porpoise, was reported as aged 26. (Flynn). On 7 January 1781 – he re-joined HMS Porpoise, recorded as aged 24 and born in Ireland, as an able seaman. Two weeks later he was promoted to Master’s Mate. (Flynn). 10 December 1781 – Anstis was designed as Master. In July 1782 – Anstis was confirmed in the rank of Master in July 1782 off the coast of Madras. On 28 December 1782 – Anstis was discharged to HMS Worcester. (Flynn, p.136.)
1783 – Anstis left the navy at the end of the war and joined the merchant service.
Merchant Service: 1783-1786 – Unknown. March 1786 - Anstis was examined at Trinity House and qualified as a Master to take any Navy ship down the English Channel, to Antigua and Bombay, and to pilot into Spithead, through the Needles, and into Plymouth and Hamaoze. (Flynn, p.136 – should be at Trinity House and it might be from By-Minutes 1786-91, MS30010/18?.)
Lady Penrhyn: By late 1786 – Anstis was appointed as First Mate in the Lady Penrhyn under Captain William Cropton Sever. It is unknown when he was appointed – the first mention of him on the ship is in April 1787, by which time he had already been on the ship. 19 April 1787 – Smyth: Mr. Anstis the Chief Mate went to London; Rec’d, intelligence that Governor Philip's business is at last all finally settled & he may be expected at the Mother Bank on Saturday next. (SLNSW Journal). 23 April 1787 – Smyth:

This day Mr. Anstis our Chief Mate arrived from London & brot. wt. him Letters from Capt. Collins to his Brother Wm. in our Ship acquainting him that Governor Philip was to take leave of Ld. Sydney on Saturday last & that he wd. not continue in London more than 48 hours. (SLNSW Journal). Further notes follow ... 6 May 1787 – Smyth:

Capt. Sever Lieuts. G. Johnstone & Collins &: Mr. Anstis went on shore at Ryde. (SLNSW Journal) 14 May 1787 – The First Fleet sailed from the Mother Bank. At NSW, 1 January 1788 – Smyth: The Rudder Rope broke: the wind fortunately at this time did not blow quite so strongly it being in the daytime & the Capt. & Mr. Anstis being instantly made acquainted with it, it was soon repair'd & the ill consequences, had it happen'd in the night, avoided.
Voyage to China: 16 May 1788 – Captain Sever, Mr Watts and Mr Smyth went ashore to hunt. Mr Anstis, the steward and several of the ship’s company came in the afternoon. Smyth wrote that there were no quadrupeds or reptiles on the island but there were birds and fish, as well as broad beans, scurvy grass, samphire, endives and spinach. There were no turtles on this occasion. (Smyth, pp.82, 84, 86).

Capt. William Croften/Cropton Sever

More to come ...

On Leighton(s)

Another notable shipowner that Richards dealt with was Sir William Leighton (c.1750-1826), a London coal merchant recently re-researched by Prof. Gary Sturgess. Leighton was from a County Durham family, and had married one Mary. William had a brother George who married Elizabeth Swan and a sister Ann who married a butcher, James Wood. Sir William moved to London about 1779 after his father had died in 1774 and became a coal merchant shipping coal from Newcastle mostly using Whitby-built ships. He had a counting house at 18 Mark Lane, then was at the Coal Exchange. He first lived at Charlton, Kent, near Greenwich, and then at Kemnall House near Chiselhurst, a convenient eleven-mile commute into London. As a convict contractor he sent five ships in all to NSW, including several in the First Fleet. He perhaps had links with Martin Lindsay, also probably a minor convict contractor. After 1783, Leighton also send several ships as military transports to Quebec with Navy Board contracts. Leighton was Lord Mayor of London in 1806-1807, and continued as an alderman for Billingsgate till 1821. In 1796 he was on a committee of shipowners interested in the intended London Docks and Canal from Blackwall. In 1798 he was part of a committeee to supervise the appearance of a new register of shipping. As someone who took various government contracts, Leighton seems to have been a busy-but-modest man who got things done, his modesty meaning he made no publicity splashes in London life. As Lord Mayor he still remains little-known.

The ship Scarborough of the First Fleet was possibly part-owned by Hoppers and George Moorson. The latter was possibly actually one George Moorsom (sic) who has a known genealogy at Whitby, north of England.)

The ship Charlotte of the First Fleet was owned by William Matthews and Co., suggests Prof. Gary Sturgess. She was built in 1784 for [William] ]Matthews and Co. This William Matthews (died 1792) of London had a wife Charlotte Marlar (1759-1802, daughter of John Marlar died 1791 and Ann, John being son of Thomas a London calico printer. Thomas Marlar had a sister Susanna who married a gentleman, John Chandler) who probably gave the ship her name. See a wikipedia page on Matthew Boulton. Matthew Boulton of Watt and Boulton steam engine banked with Matthews, of 6 Green Lettice Lane, Cannon Street in the City of London. Matthews was a partner with Joseph Barton till their situation was dissolved 30 September 1779. Member of Society for Improvement of Naval Architecture. Matthews was London agent for Matthew Boulton by 1770 and his wife Charlotte continued as an agent for Boulton till 1801. The ship Charlotte then seems named then for Matthews' wife? Charlotte was built 1784 for William Matthews and Co. In 1789 Charlotte was owned by Thomas Bond and William Bond of Bond Court and Jonathan Fryer of Wapping. See also a Wikipedia page on Charlotte Captain Thomas Gilbert which after her run to Australia was sold to Bond and Co. of Walbrook for the Jamaica run, then sold to a Quebec merchant and lost off Newfoundland. Gilbert named Daniels Island, Pedder Island and Arrowsmith Island plus Fordyce´s Passage before Charlotte went to Macao. There was a William Bond at 4 Bonds Court, Walbrook, in 1792. Until 1789 one Benjamin Bond owned Bakers Coffee House in Exchange Alley, which he sold in 1789. (Per updates from Prof. Gary Sturgess who by 2017 has lodged this sort of information on webpages of Dictionary of Sydney. - Ed)

Other ships of the First Fleet included: Alexander. Prince of Wales. Friendship. Lady Penrhyn. Borrowdaile. Fishburn. Golden Grove. HM Sirius (naval). HM Supply (naval).

Other shipping/contractor names associated with the First Fleet include James Mather, better seen as a whaling investor.

James Mather (1738-1796), whaling investor, is thought to have married Jane Whale (1739-1807) and had three children, to named James and Thomas. He was sometime of 12 Birchin Lane, Cornhill. Mather bought Cook´s ship Endeavour from the navy once Cook had returned from his first voyage of exploration. He renamed her Lord Sandwich and re-hired her for naval use; the ship was caught up in the American War, captured by the Americans and finally scuttled at Newport, Rhode Island, as part of an American blockade of that water to deny it to the British. Mather is mentioned only sporadically in relation to whaling in American or Pacific waters, presumably since he remained active in the Greenland Whale Fishery. Mather by 1784 leased land which was part of Blackwall Yard, its western section, perhaps with an Orchard House with a Thames River frontage, which land was leased to the East India Co. in 1804. Mather used this land for blubber boiling and whale oil extraction. In the early 1790s, Mathers leased land from Perrys, known as East Quay, to land Greenland whaling product. When Mather died in 1796 his three sons continued his business till 1803, when they leased land to the EICo, probably because the Greenland whaling trade had lost force in London and had anyway moved to Hull and Whitby. By 1797, John and Thomas Mather with partner John Anderson (so far unknown) were in whaling business at Mark Lane, London. The Mather family is noted in a book on the dark side of Captain James Cook. They apparently were near the Orchard House, Sir Robert Fitzwigramn, who was also a convict contractor, and who had a freehold estate.

Another Essay Section by Dan Byrnes

By 15 September, 1786 William Richards had offered three ships to Government for "The First Fleet". By 19 September, William Richards Jnr. and Fernie (who remains still unknown) contacted the East India Company directors offering Scarborough, Brothers, and William and Mary, then Scarborough, Brothers, William and Mary, Britania (sic) and Brittania (sic) to carry tea cargoes. By 25 September, the East India Company had surveyed at least three of Richards' ships, so that he could properly tender their use. The idea had increasingly taken hold that the costs of the exercise to government - (perhaps to the king's Civil List?) - would be lessened by bringing home tea from Canton. (By 23 September, William Wilberforce had been responsible for recommending the Rev. Richard Johnson as chaplain for the new colony).

Bateson,The Convict Ships, p. 80. A ship named Prince of Wales owned by James Mather, a South whaler, built at Sidmouth, 1779, captained by a John Mason, was not the POW of Fleet 1. But the Mather-owned POW may have been the ship POW sent by John and Cadman Etches mentioned by J. H. Meares, but the second POW was also owned by Mather. Shaw, Convicts and The Colonies, p. 76, Note 2. Pitt to Wilberforce, 23 Sept. 1796. Byrnes, `Emptying The Hulks', Note 29. In 1793, James Mather, was of Cornhill, managing a wharf at Blackwall. Other whale fishery wharves were Paul's wharf, Mr. Lucas' wharf at Rotherhithe.
Information for the name Borrodaile (Borradaile) is sketchy and indeterminate. William Borrodaile (died 1826) dealt in the Australian trade and became a member of the Van Diemen's Land Company; he was perhaps the brother of a woman who married into the Lloyd family of bankers? (George Sugden Le Couteur, Colonial Investment Adventure, 1824-1855: a comparative study of the establishment and early investment experiences in New South Wales, Tasmania and Canada, of four British companies. Ph.D. thesis, Sydney University. 1978., presents an 1826 list of members of the Van Diemen's Land Company. Broeze, Brooks, variously). William Borrodaile of Surrey was possibly the trader who had a first fleet ship? (Burke's Landed Gentry for Lloyd of Dolorbran.) He was of Bedford Hill, Streatham, Surrey. William Money was an East India Company shipowner, active 1790. (He was probably the one in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Boxall with a daughter who married William Percival Boxall and see also, for Chatfield,  with a daughter of one William Money noted. (Chatterton, Mercantile Marine, pp. 94ff) Richard Borradaile Lloyd (1839-1913) was a London banker, son of Richard Harman Lloyd and Isabella Mary Borradaile; he married Catherine Jean Campbell Money. (Burke's Landed Gentry for Lloyd of Dolorbran. Julia Money (died 1902), was daughter of Rev. William Money, noted in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Ryder/Harrowby. In general, the Borradaile descent involves the later names, Money, Gurney and Lloyd the banking family. See also, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Wigram.

The shipowners then that Richards dealt with as he gathered the First Fleet included London coal merchant William Leighton, Hoppers of Scarborough, William Walton and Co., the whaler James Mather and the Greenland whaler, alderman William Curtis, (though most of these merchants did not continue their involvements with the Pacific).

Whether he realised it or not at the time, Richards would develop numerous worthy ideas about servicing the new colony's needs for shipping. But also whether he knew it or not, he was inviting the competition of merchants who wished to see the Pacific explored commercially. Richards' more idealistic ideas were inimical to their ambitions.

So Richards gathered other ships: the Three Brothers, Friendship, Britannia, Scarborough, Lady Penrhyn, later Alexander in lieu of Friendship, then Golden Grove in lieu of Three Brothers; and Borrowdale in lieu of Young William (Young William may have been a whaler owned by the whaler Daniel Bennet, later of Blackheath). Later, Richards tendered Fishburne and another Friendship to complete his contract.
Oldham, his original thesis: Wilfrid Oldham, The Administration of the System of Transportation of British Convicts, 1763-1793. Ph.D. thesis. London University. 1933., pp. 415, 430, 468, 430.

Richard's own ideas for use of the ships were well in line with government policy on the colony's purpose and likely development, and would have been useful if pursued. Government, as though in contempt of its own guidelines, first pulled the rug from under him by accepting tenders much cheaper than Richards' and allowing an atrocity to occur - the Second Fleet death rate - then allowing a consortium of whalers and slavers - the Third Fleet - to organise more shipping than Richards could organise.

But who paid for it all? It seems, the First Fleet transportation was paid for from the king's Civil List. Maxine Young, writes: "Before 1815, it was the practise to borrow money from the king's current Civil List revenues to pay the running costs of New South Wales and other expenses concerning the colony. The money advanced was repaid by parliament in the next Miscellaneous Supply Grants."
Paying for the new convict colony from the king's Civil List might be the explanation for one striking feature of the exercise - it was consistently underfunded. If so, any notion of the new colony being an Imperial venture is given a slightly different complexion - a complexion suffused with the hues of royal outrage at the continued state of crime, at men unworthy, in the king's eyes, to remain in the kingdom!
Maxine Young, 'The British administration of New South Wales, 1786-1812', pp. 23-41., in J. J. Eddy and J. R. Nethercote, From Colony to Coloniser: Studies in Australian Administrative History. Sydney, Hale and Iremonger, 1987.

Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor (1795-1796): Sir William Curtis
Descendants of Joseph Wapping CURTIS, (b.1715;d.1771) business of sea biscuits at Wapping and sp: Mary TENNANT (d.1789)
2. London Lord Mayor, Freemason, Sir William CURTIS, Bart1 (b.1752;d.1829) sp: Anne CONSTABLE (m.9 Nov 1776;d.7 May 1853)
3. Investor in Australian Agric. Co., Charles CURTIS (b.1795;d.1878) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN
4. Charles William CURTIS sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 4. Henry Downing CURTIS 4. Maj-General DSO, Reginald CURTIS (b.1863;d.1922) sp: Hilda Margaret BARRINGTON (m.1894;d.1929)
3. George CURTIS (b.10 Sep 1784) 3. Banker Timothy Abraham CURTIS, investor in Australian Agricultural Co. (b.30 Jan 1786;d.1857) sp: Margaret Harriet GREEN wife1 (m.1809;d.8 Jun 1847) 4. Lt.-General William Frederick CURTIS 4. Colonel James Charles CURTIS sp: Frances Pitt (Browne?) CONSTABLE (m.17 May 1851) 3. Sir William CURTIS, Bart2 (b.2 Mar 1782;d.1847) sp: Mary-Anne LEAR (m.19 Nov 1803;d.1864) 4. Sir William CURTIS, Bart3 (b.26 Aug 1804) sp: Georgina STRATTON (m.18 May 1831) 4. George CURTIS (b.15 Sep 1805) 3. Rebecca Mary CURTIS sp: RN Capt. Timothy CURTIS 4. Army Capt. Constable CURTIS (d.30 Mar 1909) sp: Henrietta Mary Anne ADAMS, cousin
2. Biscuit baker, Freemason, Timothy CURTIS of Hackney (b.1743;d.1804) sp: Elizabeth WILDBORE, (a cousin) 3. William CURTIS 2. James CURTIS (b.1750;d.1835) 2. Rev. Charles CURTIS, Bengal India (b.1784;d.1805) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 3. RN Capt Timothy CURTIS sp: Rebecca Mary CURTIS 4. Capt. (army) Constable CURTIS (d.30 Mar 1909)

December 1786: A London wit wrote satirically:
Away with those whimsical bubbles of air,
Which only excite a momentary stare;
Attentions to plans of utility pay,
Weigh anchor, and steer for Botany Bay.
Let no one think much of a trifling expense,
Who knows what may happen a hundred years hence?
The loss of America what can repay?
New colonies seek for at Botany Bay.

Of the First Fleet ...

Lady Penrhyn was owned by Alderman (later, Sir) William Curtis. She was also chartered by alderman Macaulay once she'd left Sydney to go to Nootka Sound for seal furs under Lt. John Watts, but ended arriving at Tahiti, thence China, before Bligh arrived at Tahiti in HMAV Bounty (as noted above).

Lady Penrhyn, convict transport, females only, 333 tons, Capt William Crofton Sever of 12 Princess Square, Ratcliffe Highway. Chief mate Nicholas Anstis, (master of Surprise of the Second Fleet). Took prisoners at Deptford or Spithead. Owner, alderman William Curtis. Possibly built Thames, 1786 and therefore her maiden voyage? Under East India Company Charter, departing Sydney in May 1788 after discharge from government employ in March. On leaving Sydney, taking a declaration from Gov. Phillip, proceeded east, Capt. Sever in July naming Macaulay and Curtis Islands after the owner and the alderman having chartered the vessel to obtain furs on the North-west American Coast. As the crew by then had scurvy, the ship went to Tahiti, thence China for a cargo of tea. The vessel may possibly have been named for the Lady of Richard Pennant, Lord Penrhyn, Chairman of the Planters and Merchants of the West Indies. Vessel later sold to the London firm of Wedderburns and put to the London -Jamaica run. E. A. Stackpole in "Whales and Destiny" presumes her voyage was an exploration of potential whaling grounds.
Lloyd's Lists of this period indicate - Also to China was alderman G.M. Macaulay's ship Pitt, Capt. G. Couper. Some other ships registered with Lloyds that year (1786-1787) were the First Fleet ships, Scarborough, Capt. J. Marshall, owned by Thomas Hopper, to Botany Bay, and Prince of Wales, Capt. J. Mason, for Botany Bay, owned by South Whaler J(ames) Mather of Cornhill.

Prince of Wales, Capt. John Mason. Convict transport, 350 tons. Mason died, being replaced by Samuel Moore on the voyage home. Ship built Thames in 1786. Launched 12 August after building by Christopher Watson and Co. Departed Sydney to be in England via Cape Horn and Rio, reaching Falmouth on 22 March 1788, at Deptford April 30. Owned by James Mather, South whaler, merchant of Cornhill. This vessel later continued to sail out of London. However, another view is that Prince of Wales (the First Fleet ship) had been built by Christopher Watson and Co. of Thames Yards. There were a John and a James Mather at Finsbury Square, London, it is yet unknown if they were related.

Alexander, 445 tons, Capt. Duncan Sinclair. Convict transport. The largest ship of First Fleet. Owners, Walton and Co. of Southwark, firm headed by William Walton. Took late-arriving convicts before she sailed. Surgeon, William Balmain. Some 16 male convicts died before she sailed. Left Sydney about 13-14 July, 1788, in company with Borrowdale, Friendship and Prince of Wales.

Storeship Fishburn, 378 tons, owned by Sir William Leighton. Capt. Robert Brown, storeship, 378 tons. Acting mate, Keltie, sometime RN. First mate is [Archibald?] Armstrong. Discharged from government employ on 18 November, 1788, being delayed whilst cellars were built ashore for Fishburn's cargo of three years' supply of rum. Thence England via Cape Horn and Rio de Janeiro for England in company with Golden Grove, until losing sight of her on 11 April 1789 at Falklands for recovery of sick members. She arrived home to be discharged from HM service at Deptford on 25 May 1789.

Storeship Borrowdale owner, William Leighton, 275 tons, departing 13 May 1787 as part of First Fleet. Contracted by William Richards Jnr. Crew of around 20. Capt. Hobson Reed (also perhaps known as Readihon Hobson?). Second mate was one William Richards (it is not known if he was a relative of Richards the fleet contractor). Departed Sydney 14 July, 1788 for England via Cape Horn and Rio as one of the ships in government employ for the round trip, under the direction of Lt. John Shortland, agent for the Transport Department. Crew so bad with scurvy that by mid-October, her captain took her into Rio de Janeiro.

Storeship Golden Grove, Capt. William Sharp. Storeship, 375 tons, owners unknown. First mate Simms, later on William and Ann of the Third Fleet. Departing England 13 May 1787. On this vessel came colony chaplain Rev. Richard Johnson. Left Sydney on 12 October 1788 to take 21 male and 11 female convicts to Norfolk Island. On 19 November 1788, left in company with Fishburn, both storeships delayed for want of a storehouse to hold their cargo (says Gillen who lists some crew). Home via Cape Horn. Also stayed at Falklands as crew had scurvy. (Gillen says she was 331 tons.) Later she was possibly put on Liverpool-Jamaica run, disappears from records.
References various: Bateson, and Gillen, Founders of Australia.

Friendship, convict transport, 274 tons. Owned by George Moorson with Thomas, George and John Hopper of Scarborough. Capt. Thos. Walton. Master, Francis Walton. Ship scuttled on way home 14 July 1788 in Straits of Macassar in company with Alexander as crew bad with scurvy, resulting in a legal battle by owners, so annoying the contractor, William Richards. The case put to Treasury for reimbursement dragged on for several years (see contents of a later file here). Took prisoners aboard at Plymouth. Carrying some prisoners from the Mercury mutiny including John Best.

Charlotte. Convict transport, 375 tons, probably owned by William Matthews.

Capt. Thomas Gilbert (not to be confused with Capt. John Gilbert of the Second Fleet, first appointed to the Neptune, with whom John Macarthur duelled before Gilbert was replaced by Capt. Donald Trail).). Out of government employ by 25 March, 1788. Departed 13 May 1787, from Portsmouth, part of First Fleet.
Charlotte was later sold to Bond and Co., Walbrook merchants, and put to the London-Jamaica run, according to Bateson.
1 December, 1788: Alexander Duncan at Canton, a correspondent of Sir Joseph Banks, as was Alexander's brother, mentioned to Banks one Capt. Gilbert of a Botany Bay ship, a stuffed "kon-goroo" aboard which weighed 70 lbs. Alex Duncan was surgeon to the EICo factory, sought Banks' favours, which later were granted. (Dawson, Banks Letters, p. 281)

Scarborough. Convict transport, 430 tons, owned by Hoppers of Scarborough. Captain John Marshall. (The Hopper Islands were named for them.) Had an EICo charter for China tea. This ship was later placed in the Second Fleet for different contractors.
Shipowners Hoppers are listed in Treasury Board Papers petitioners with others letting ships to the Transport Board, T1/695, Reel 3553. They were the only shipowners letting vessels to NSW who were familiar as shipowners with the Transport Board, a fact probably meaning they already knew William Richards. An unrelated name, Capt. William Richards, later commanded the convict transports Prince Regent, I, (3) in 1827; Roslin Castle, in 1833-34-35 to NSW.
(Bateson, The Convict Ships, pp. 347ff. See also Connah, Rowland and Oppenheimer, Captain Richard's House at Winterbourne - A Study In Historical Archaeology. Dept. of Prehistory and Archaeology, University of New England. 1978. Ch. 5. A book which is wrong re its claim that this Capt. Richards was a son of the First Fleet contractor, William Richards.
Hoppers of Scarborough whose name was commemorated in the Hopper Islands named by Marshall. Made a second trip to Sydney with the second fleet. (Capt. Marshall also named another island after Constantine John Phipps.)

Storeship Fishburn, 378 tons, owned by Leightons. Capt. Robert Brown, storeship, 378 tons. Acting mate, Keltie, sometime RN. First mate is [Archibald?] Armstrong. Discharged from government employ on 18 November, 1788, being delayed whilst cellars were built ashore for Fishburn's cargo of three years' supply of rum. Thence England via Cape Horn and Rio de Janeiro for England in company with Golden Grove, until losing sight of her on 11 April 1789 at Falklands for recovery of sick members. She arrived home to be discharged from HM service at Deptford on 25 May 1789.

Storeship Borrowdale owners, Leightons, 275 tons, departing 13 May 1787 as part of First Fleet. Contracted by William Richards Jnr. Crew of around 20. Capt. Hobson Reed (also perhaps known as Readihon Hobson?). Second mate was one William Richards (it is not known if he was a relative of Richards the fleet contractor). Departed Sydney 14 July, 1788 for England via Cape Horn and Rio as one of the ships in government employ for the round trip, under the direction of Lt John Shortland, agent for the Transport Department. Crew so bad with scurvy that by mid-October, Capt. took her into Rio de Janeiro.

Storeship Golden Grove, Capt. William Sharp. Storeship, 375 tons, owners unknown. First mate Simms, later on William and Ann of the Third Fleet. Departing England 13 May 1787. On this vessel came colony chaplain Rev. Richard Johnson. Left Sydney on 12 October 1788 to take 21 male and 11 female convicts to Norfolk Island. On 19 Nov. 1788, left in company with Fishburn, both storeships delayed for want of a storehouse to hold their cargo (says Gillen who lists some crew). Home via Cape Horn. Also stayed at Falklands as crew had scurvy. (Gillen says she was 331 tons.) Later she was possibly put on the Liverpool-Jamaica run, and later she disappears from records.
References various: Bateson, Gillen, Founders of Australia.

Note: 26 March, 1789: Francis Masson at Cape Town sends Banks 422 species of seeds and or bulbs, per Alexander transport from NSW. (Carter, Banks, 1988. Noted from pp. 560ff, Appendix XIA).

1788: Across decades, revisionist have been afoot about the first British governor of Australia, Arthur Phillip. Many writers have seen him a small man doing an inadequate job, some kind of failure. A newly-arising view (January 2002) is that he was "a man of considerable intellect, widely read, a son of the European Enlightement, a gentleman proud to dine in his home with Sydney's most powerful Aboriginal warriors and a dedicated adherent to the rule of law", and also "organisationally brillant" with commanding the First Fleet (all from a former NSW premier, Bob Carr). Professor in Australian History at University of New England, Alan Atkinson, rather demurs. Town planning was not one of Phillip's strengths, and the governor was "a highly imaginative authoritarian", he said. (Reported 26 January 2002, Australia Day.)

Even by December 1788, decisions on "Botany Bay" were still fluid. Nepean had an idea that Nova Scotia might be settled as an alternative to NSW, that matters were flexible, that destinations could be changed. On 1 December, the Recorder of London had a long conference with Lord Sydney. The Times reported that "The season is over for sending them [convicts] to Quebec or Nova Scotia, but assurances have been given that two ships, properly fitted up, shall be ready [within months] to carry convicts to America." [These would have been ships arranged by George Moore.] There was an idea to send some men to Newfoundland in the fleet for the next season.
David L. Mackay, A Place of Exile: The European Settlement of New South Wales. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1985., p. 58. Ged Martin, 'The Alternatives to Botany Bay', pp. 152-168 in Ged Martin, (Ed.), The Founding of Australia: The Argument about Australia's Origins. Sydney, Hale and Iremonger, 1978.

London alderman William Curtis


Curtis and his commercial operations are well-outlined in a 2005 Masters thesis by Ken Cozens of London which is freely available as a download from this website at: titled Patronage and Profit: A Case Study of Three 18th Century London Merchants)

By 1784, a contractor for naval stores (sea biscuits) were brothers Timothy and William Curtis. The Curtis´ had the address, 236 Wapping. At times, eg, 1788, one Richard Henry Clark was at the same address. There was also, William Curtis Jnr. at 236 Wapping in 1786, in 1789 at Southgate or 40 Old Broad Street, in 1795 at Old South Sea House, Broad Street.

Vaucluse House, Vaucluse, Sydney: Built by Sydney lawyer and politician William Charles Wentworth (1790-1872). Son of Darcy Wentworth (1762-1827) who was a convict transported for a spot of highwayman work. Darcy at Shooters Hill, Blackheath, one day had held up alderman William Curtis (1752-1829) (who years later was a personal friend of George IV). (See Dan Byrnes, The Blackheath Connection website.) Being an alderman, Curtis sometimes acted as a magistrate, sentencing offenders. In business he was a manufacturer of sea biscuits, selling them to the navy and merchant shipping. Being an alderman, a noted figure in Civic London, Curtis decided to charter his new ship, Lady Penrhyn, for use in the First Fleet to ship out convicts to Botany Bay. (Darcy Wentworth was later transported, somewhat after the First Fleet, see Ritchie´s book on Wentworths). Alderman Curtis was, amongst other things, a Freemason. One doubts he was sorry to hear his highwayman had been transported. For so far minimal information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

The Curtis family genealogy is extensive, extends to today, and is placed on this website in folders devoted to genealogies. ()The database used to produce the mini-genealogy websites supplied is Personal Ancestral File V5.)


Convict shipping contractor, Borrowdaile. For so far minimal information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection variously.

Year 1788

1788: HM Supply. RN. First Captain John Hunter. Captain Henry Lidgbird Ball, Lt. Jan 1788. To Norfolk Island.

1788: HM Sirius RN,lead ship of First Fleet to Australia. Captain Arthur Phillip. 1787-1788. Create new colony at NSW

1788: Fishburn. Owner, Leighton. Captain Robert Brown. 1787-1788. Storeship as part of First Fleet.

1788: Golden Grove. Owners, Leightons. Captain Unknown. 1787-1788. First Fleet storeship.

1788: Lady Penrhyn. Owner (Sir, London alderman) Sir William Curtis. Captain William Cropton/Crofton Sever. 1787-1788. Convict transport. Later bought by Wedderburns for the West India trade run. ()See Bateson, Byrnes.)

1788: Scarborough (1). Owners, Hopper Brothers. Captain John Marshall. 1787-1788. Convict transport, part of First Fleet. Cumpston's Register.

1788: Prince of Wales (1). Owner James Mather. Captain John Mason. 1787-1788. Convict transport, see Bateson. Mather may have once bought Cook's old ship, Endeavour, which was sunk as part of a blockage of Newport, Rhode Island, during the American Revolution? (a story still to be properly verified in terms of archaeological specificity).

1788: Charlotte. Owner, William Matthews. Captain Thomas Gilbert. 1787-1788. Convict transport of First Fleet. See Bateson.

1788: Alexander. Owners, William Walton and others. Captain Duncan Sinclair. 1787-1788. Convict transport of First Fleet. See Bateson.

1788: Friendship (2). Owners Hopper Brothers. Captain Francis Walton, 1787-1788. Convict Transport of First Fleet. See Bateson.

1788: Borrowdale. Owners, Leightons. Capt Readihon Hobson. 1787-1788. Storeship to NSW. See Bateson.

Item: Charles Bateson, The Convict Ships, 1787-1868. [Orig. 1959] Sydney, A. H. and A. W. Reed, 1974.

Item: John S. Cumpston, Shipping Arrivals and Departures, Sydney, 1788-1825. Canberra, Roebuck, 1963-1964.

Year 1789

Surveying neglect

A sympton of the Australian neglect of convict transportation seen as a variety of maritime history is revealed by the date of the first treatment of questions arising from - the arrival of the First Fleet ships back to England. For the arrivals home allowed Britain to reassess its views of Pacific opportunities, and gave both government and ship managers chances to make new decisions. Not until 1989, two centuries later! See A. K. Kavanagh, ´The Return of the First Fleet Ships´, The Great Circle, Vol. 11, No. 2, 1989., pp. 1-16.


The term "The Second Fleet" is something of a misnomer, as this "fleet" of five ships was split into two wings. The second three ships (Neptune, Scarborough and Surprise) were solely organised by the London firm of slavers, Camden, Calvert and King, who had virtually sidelined Richards for future transportation business.
Note: 17 July, 1791: Sir Joseph Banks is consigned various samples by Capt. Trail, Neptune transport. (Noted from Carter, Banks, 1988, pp. 563ff, Appendix XIB)

The other Second Fleet ships were Lady Juliana, 401 tons, given a tea cargo by EICo, contracted for by William Richards, a slow sailor which still has the reputation of being a "floating brothel". Plus the ill-fated supply ship, HM Guardian. 1789: HM Guardian. Captain Edward Riou. 12 Sep. 1789, wrecked off South Africa. Convict transport and supply ship.

Lady Juliana Capt. Aitkin: Owner, William Morris (who is little known). Contractor, William Richards. Ship taken up by September, 1788. (In October 1788, Richards laid before Treasury an extensive plan for convict transportation, by which time he knew little of what had already transpired at Botany Bay. The first First Fleet ship to return was Mather's Prince of Wales, 22 March, 1789.) Lady Juliana had freight by Richards and Moore. By 2 February, 1789, Richards had contracted to carry 226 female convicts. A crew member was Edward Powell who later came out free settler on Bellona. She had aboard Lt. Thoms Edgar, who had been out with Cook's last voyage as master on Discovery
Bateson, The Convict Ships, variously. Sian Rees, The Floating Brothel: The Extraordinary Story of the Lady Juliana and its cargo of female convicts bound for Botany Bay. Hodder, 2001.

The Second Fleet was sent in two wings. The first wing consisted of Lady Juliana and HM Guardian. The second wing consisted of Surprize. Neptune. Scarborough.

The ship Lady Juliana has been identified by Gary Sturgess as once owned by Christopher Stephenson (no extra information) and Joseph Smith (no extra information). 1788: Lady Juliana (Second Fleet). Owners? Captain Aitken. Unknown. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1789: HM Guardian. RN. Captain Edward Riou Lt RN. 12 Sep 1789, Wrecked off Sth Africa. Convict transport, supply ship for the Sydney colony. See Bateson.

Reference Item: 1789: Sian Rees, The Floating Brothel: The Extraordinary Story of the Lady Juliana and its cargo of female convicts bound for Botany Bay. Hodder, 2001. (Historical account of a shipload of women convicts transported to Australia in 1789 - in the ship Lady Juliana)

1789: Note: The Nootka Sound area (north-west America) seized by Spanish who curtail British activity in the area. British merchants including William Curtis (owner of Lady Penrhyn) later protest vigorously. "The Nootka crisis" ends won by British interests (A Convention is signed, 28 Oct 1790, allegedly because of Spain's military weakness and because Prussia backed Britain diplomatically). By 1793, Britain and Spain were allies against France.

Year 1790

On Camden Calvert and King. See also the 2005 thesis by Ken Cozens noted above, Patronage and Profit. See also a major update of Cozens' 2005 work, published by May 2013: Gary L. Sturgess and Ken Cozens, 'Managing a Global Enterprise in the Eighteenth Century: Anthony Calvert of The Crescent, London, 1777-1808', The Mariner's Mirror, 99:2, May 2013., pp. 171-195.

Anthony Calvert (Camden, Calvert and King)

At right: The premises of Anthony Calvert at The Crescent, London, today. (Photo made available by Gary Sturgess, 2012)

For so far minimal information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection variously.

1790: Ship Justinian. Owners unknown. Captain Benjamin Maitland. 20 June 1790-28 July 1790. Storeship, trader to China.

1790: HM Pandora. RN. Captain Edward Edwards. Departed Portsmouth in November 1790. Wrecked on coral 29 August, 1791 about 5km northwestof Moulter Cay, 120km east of Cape York. Seaman William Moulter took pity on the caged prisoners and freed ten of them. Some 89 of the ship's company survived. Mission to capture Bounty mutineers. See re unexpected capture of Mary Bryant and other convict escapers heading north from Sydney. A 24-gun frigate. Called to Matavia Bay, Tahiti, in March 1791. Tracked down 14 of Bounty mutineers, those who had not gone with Fletcher Christian to Pitcairn Island. Edwards caged his prisoners and searched at Cook Islands, Union, Samoan and Society islands. Had stopped at Sydney, then proceeded to Torres Strait. Wreck regarded as perhaps Australia's most significant shipwreck. Surgeon was George Hamilton, whose gold watch and surgical instruments were retrieved during 1984 work on the wreck. Pandora went down in one piece, settled on the bottom and has remained largely undisturbed.

1790: Surprize (1). Owner Unknown. Captain Nicholas Anstis. 26 June 1790. Convict transport. Anstis had been chief mate of Lady Penrhyn.

1790: Britannia (Capt Raven). Owner John St Barbe. Captain William Raven. 25 Jul 1790- Oct-Dec 1790. Sealing. Cumpston's Register, To Dusky Bay, New Zealand, sealing.

1790: Chesterfield. Owners Unknown. Captain Matthew Bowles Alt. 18 Nov 1790 - 10 Mar 1791. Whaler. Is still around NSW by April 1792, Cumpston's Register.

1790: HM Discovery. RN. Capt George Vancouver. 28 Sep 1790. Pacific exploration.

1790: Waaksamheyd. Owner, Unknown. Capt Detmer Smith. 17 Dec 1790-28 Mar 1791. Food supplies for Sydney NSW. Or, De Waak Zaamheid - "Good Look Out".

The Third Fleet of 1791

1791: HM Gorgon. RN. Captain John Parker (plus his wife Mary Ann). 21 Sep 1790. Supply ship to Sydney. See Bateson. Sometimes thought of as part of the Third Fleet. Gorgon sailed 18 March 1791 (The Times), with stores, livestock and personnel (280) for the Sydney colony.) One task she had was to pick up any stories salvaged from the wreck of HM Guardian.

The Third Fleet consisted of nine ships. Matilda Capt Matthew Weatherhead, whaler.
Atlantic Captain Archibald Armstrong, non-whaler.
Salamander Captain J. Nichol, a whaler.
William and Ann, Captain Eber Bunker who later settled at Sydney, a whaler.
Active, Captain John Mitchinson a non-whaler.
Queen, Captain Richard Owen a non-whaler.
Albermarle, Captain George Bowen, a non-whaler.
Britannia, Captain Thomas Melville, a whaler.
Admiral Barrington, Captain Robert Abbon Marsh a non-whaler.

Samuel Enderby Snr.

Samuel Enderby Snr (died 1797). From 1786, the Enderby-owned Emilia
On Emilia, Captain James Shields sailed 1786-1787 to become the first British whaler to sail into the Pacific, via Cape Horn. She returned home by 1790 with a full cargo of sperm oil. Of which Enderbys were very proud. Thus, it can be argued that any ships London-based whalers sent into the Pacific, or by Australia, were part of a two-pronged, east-west exploration of Pacific whaling opportunities. Added to which, Londoners interested in sealing in the Pacific were on the fringes of whaler activities in the Pacific and might well discussed conjointly. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism.)

For so far minimal information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection variously.


The first four ships of the Third Fleet carried freight for India. Governor Phillip was to complain on their arrival that cargo space had thus been used which could have been filled with goods for the colony.
Phillip to Lord Grenville, 8 November, 1791, and to Navy Board, 9 November, 1791, HRA, I, I, pp. 295, 300-301.

So the vexed issue arose again, of private trade in a colony which had not been intended to develop an economy - a patently unworkable policy. Strategically, on a global front, it appears the London whalers were testing the usefulness of Sydney as a refreshment base, and also experimenting with the carriage of convicts and/or stores as a way of paying part of the voyage out. Certainly, the Third Fleet revealed deliberate exploratory strategies useful for the whalers.
Information given here comes from various sources. On freight, Navy Office Accounts, HRNSW, Vol. 2, as cited above. See Byrnes, 'Outlooks', variously. Otherwise Bateson, Cumpston, Stackpole, Dakin, Steven and footnotes in other sources too numerous to list. On the fate of Matilda, foundering near Tahiti, see Kennedy, Bligh, cited above. See also, R. Hodgkinson, Eber Bunker. Canberra, Roebuck, 1975.

Hitherto, reliance on an alleged but never-proven role of the East India Company in the establishment of New South Wales has prevented useful questions being asked about the strategic deployment of shipping by the Southern whalers. Contemplation of the East India Company attitude to the activities of Macaulay, Calvert, and other convict contractors to Sydney before 1800 is for the most part a study in the muttering acceptance of the inevitable. A Company chairman, Francis Baring, quite early remarked on "the serpent we are nursing at Botany Bay".

On 18 November, 1789 Camden, Calvert and King were awarded a contract for the Third Fleet, specifying 1,820 English convicts and 200 Irish. In mid-December Treasury informed the Navy Board that some of the ships to be sent were nearly ready to take their stores and provisions aboard.
J. C. Garran, 'William Wright Bampton and the Australian Merino', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society. Vol. 58, Part 1, March, 1972., p. 2. Other details are in Byrnes, 'Outlooks', variously. Garran has followed up his views on Bampton, and on Macaulay's Capt Edward Manning on Pitt, in J. C. Garran and Leslie White, Merinos, Myths and Macarthurs: Australian Graziers and their Sheep, 1788-1900. Canberra, Australian National University Press, 1985. Garran is interesting also on maritime outcomes after Phillip chartered Atlantic to purchase stores at Calcutta, and his views seem valid. And ibid., pp. 20, 31ff, 126ff.

Convict transport Mary Ann, 298 tons, carrying 150 female convicts, part-owned by her captain, Mark Monroe; according to Bateson she may or may not be regarded as a Third Fleet ship. She sailed "independently" in 1791 (February 1791) with HM Gorgon, a storeship which also carried convicts. Mary Ann went whaling via Norfolk Island/Peru; she was owned by Mark Monroe and/or Lucas & Co. /p>

Lists: The Third Fleet of convict ships to Australia:

Transport and storeship, Matilda, 460 tons, also whaler. Freight by Alexander Davison. Whaler. Contracted by Camden Calvert and King (CC&K). Possibly owned by Calvert. Capt. Matthew Weatherhead. Usually a south whaler but wrecked near Tahiti and some crew picked up by Bligh in HM Providence on his second breadfruit voyage. To Sydney by 1 August 1791. Thence fishery. Originally intended to Peru and/or India.
Note: Apparently mysteriously, 26 March 1792 a small vessel touched at Tahiti, Prince William Mary, and took some of wrecked Matilda's crew thence N/W coast America/Nootka Sound. In 1793: Whalers Jenny and Britannia called at Tahiti and picked up some of Matilda's crew. Presumably, the owners of these ships were in touch with each other in London.

Convict transport and storeship, not a whaler, Atlantic, 422 tons. Some freight by A. Davison. Transport. Contracted for by CC&K. Capt. Archibald Armstrong. Went various trading voyages for Gov. Phillip to Calcutta . On return from India to Sydney in 1792, Phillip went home on her. Also went later to Norfolk Is.

Transport/whaler Salamander, 320 tons, Freight by A. Davison. CC&K contracted. Capt. William Irish. Owned by Joseph Mellish. Surgeon J? Nichol. To Sydney by 21 Aug., 1791. Thence Norfolk Island. Fishery - Norfolk Island/India.

Usually a whaler, William and Ann, 370 tons. Convict transport. Freight by A. Davison. Owned by Enderbys or Enderbys/St Barbe. Usually a South Whaler. Contracted CCK. Capt. Eber/Ebor Bunker. Portsmouth Division of fleet. Crew inc. Simms, first mate on Golden Grove of First Fleet 1. To Sydney, 28 August, 1791. (Bateson.)
Eber Bunker (1761-1838, died NSW). The Bunker clan of Nantucket was extremely large, and today, much of their genealogy is available on the Internet. See Hodgkinson on Bunker, p. 4, p. 47 and elsewhere. See Newsletter of the Royal Australian Historical Society (RAHS), July 1972., p. 8, and June-July, 1976., pp. 4-5. See Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers, p. 19, p. 30ff re Albion. Hainsworth, Sydney Traders, p. 239, p. 242. Eber's mother's name was Hannah, see R. Hodgkinson, 'Eber Bunker-Whale-Ship Captain of Parramatta', Newsletter Royal Australian Historical Society, June-July, 1986, pp. 4-5. Birthdate in Newletter of RAHS, July 1972, p. 8, in an article by Olive Havard which says Bunker had sheep on the Namoi River at Keepit when he died in 1836, but this sheep matter cannot be verified by Tamworth's local historians. (Tamworth is Dan Byrnes' home town.) There is a genealogical tree of Eber's wife in ML prepared by Marie Fearn, See Hogkinson, 'Eber Bunker - A New Look', Journal RAHS, March 1979., pp. 252ff. See Hodgkinson's treatment of Bunker at Liverpool, Sydney etc. In 1795 he sailed for Alexander and Benjamin Champion. Then Eber sailed for Enderbys. He had left Nantucket for England in 1786. His lineage as given by Hodgkinson, 'New Look', pp. 253-254, goes back to the Mayflower via his grandmother, Desire Gorman, and he was related to John Howard and Elizabeth Tilley. About the time of the American Revolution, James Bunker and his brother Simeon Bunker took a whaling lease in Barrington, Nova Scotia, but the effort failed as the British Government promoted her home ships (that is, ships of the South Whale Fishery based in London).

Transport, Active, 350 tons, Capt. John Mitchinson. Arriving Sydney 26 Sept., 1791.

Transport and storeship, non-whaler, Queen, 380-400 tons. Owned by Enderbys whalers. Stores by A. Davison. With Irish convicts. Contractors, CC&K. Capt. Richard Owen. Only vessel sailing from Ireland. Arriving Sydney 26 Sept., 1791. Thence Norfolk Is/New Zealand. Fishery, Calcutta/India.

Transport/storeship, non-whaler, Albermarle, 530 tons. Grossly overcrowded. Freight by A. Davison. Contractors, CC&K. Capt. George Bowen. Arriving Sydney 13 Oct., 1791. Thence Bombay via Norfolk Is.

Transport, storeship, whaler, Britannia, owned by Enderbys. Freight by A. Davison. Other freight by St. Barbe and Green by account dated 15 Dec., 1791. Contractors, CC&K. Capt. Thomas Melville who had recently on Friendship been into the Pacific via Cape Horn and by South America for Enderbys. Arriving Sydney 14 Oct., 1791. Thence pioneered Australian whale fishery on NSW coast/Norfolk Island area.

Transport, non-whaler, Admiral Barrington, 527 tons, grossly overcrowded. Freight by Alex. Davison. Contractors CC&K. Capt. Robert Abbon Marsh/Peter Gossan. Surveyed by EICo re experiment in new method of surveying. Ship may have been earlier connected with Greenland Fishery. Arriving Sydney 14-16 Oct., 1791. Thence New Zealand, Bombay. In 1792 she was driven from her Bombay anchorage by gale to the Malouine Islands and wrecked. Some crew were slain by natives.

Transport, William and Ann, 370 tons. Freight by A. Davison. Owned by Enderbys although Stackpole suggests she was owned by Calverts. Usually a South Whaler. Contractors CC&K. Capt. Ebor/Eber Bunker. Crew includes Simms, first mate on Golden Grove of First Fleet. Arriving Sydney 28 Aug., 1791.

Thackeray Wetherell

Thackeray Wetherell. Convict ship captain. Still a problem person for research by October 2012.

The ship Salamander of the Third Fleet has been identified by Prof. Gary Sturgess as owned by P. and R. Mellish, who were probably the well-known London butchers and victuallers based around the Isle of Dogs, London.

John St Barbe

1786-1788/9: Addresses: St. Barbe and Green(e), ships husbands, and Insurance Brokers, 33 Seething Lane. (London Directories). St. Barbe, merchant, was at 1 Little Marlborough Street, London, in 1790).

John St Barbe. The ship Atlantic of the Third Fleet has been identified by Prof. Gary Sturgess as owned by Charles Long (probably the director of the East India Company of this name), and the insurance underwriting firm of St Barbe and Green. Much is known of St Barbe by now, but this unfortunetely is not the case for his partners, Green or Bignell.


For some information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. See also file thebc42 on St Barbe and Captain William Raven of Britannia at Sydney and New Zealand. See also file thebc44.htm on St Barbe´s activities at Lloyd´s of London in the 1790s.

Year 1791

1791: Mary Ann as part of Third Fleet. Part-owner and captain, Mark Munroe.

1791: HM Gorgon. (Naval).

15 June 1791. Alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay (1750-1803), owner of Pitt. Shelton´s Account No. 5.


A variety of issues arise with discussion of the movement of convict transports and other ships between the Third Fleet and 1800. Some issues are with the question, how was the trading of the NSW Corps officers funded? Other issues arise regarding the dominance, if any, of any particular London merchants interested in the new Australian colony. Thirdly, were any London merchants interested in financing the officers of the NSW Corps? (The answer to which seems to be, no. The officers of the NSW Corps are treated in The Blackheath Connection - Chapter 40).

For example, between 1792-1800, John Macarthur, the paymaster of the NSW Corps, Sydney, drew Bills on the Corps' London agent (Cox, Cox and Greenwood) for more than £46,000 for investment in imported goods.
See D. R. Hainsworth, The Sydney Traders: Simeon Lord and his Contemporaries, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1972., pp. 25ff.

Attention will be given here to the dates of the departures of convict ships, due to the matter of assessing the earlier decisions and motives of the shipowner involved - and any groupings amongst them. Australian historians have never given this matter attention, which is partly why we lack treatments on the population of merchants involved. Especially before 1800, whenever a ship was being prepared by her owners for a voyage to Botany Bay, news from the ship(s) most recently arrived from Botany Bay was still filtering through London. Especially at Blackheath, London. Each ship sailing for Botany Bay sailed first through a context of opinion developing in London about the new Australian colony.

Also, it needs to be explained that in order to transport convicts, a shipowner had to tender his ship to the Navy Board/Transport Board, have her surveyed and accepted, and then he or his agent(s) were required to sign a contract for the transportation with the only official in London empowered to make out such contracts, Thomas Shelton at the Old Bailey. (Shelton answered to the Home Office and by 1807 if not before, all his contracts listed the counties and areas the convicts came from.) Whether a ship was accepted by the EICo to take a cargo from ports under their control was a separate matter. All such business can be well illustrated by the departure of Pitt, owned by alderman George M. Macaulay.

In Navy Office Accounts (1793), found in Historical Records of NSW, are found lists of merchants taking contracts regarding ships for Botany Bay. For Pitt's voyage, the contract takers are listed as G. M. Macaulay and a man who was actually his neighbour, John St. Barbe. Both men at Blackheath lived close to the whalers Enderby. St Barbe was a whaling investor, Macaulay had earlier been interested with Lady Penrhyn, owned by Macaulay's friend, alderman William Curtis, in exploring prospects for sealing at Nootka Sound, and both Macaulay and St Barbe were underwriting names at Lloyd's in the City.

By April-May 1787, the First Fleet ship, Lady Penrhyn, had presumably been given an EICo licence to take a tea cargo from Canton. In which case, she can be regarded as making a commercial reconnaissance voyage, via Australia, to NW America; but in fact , to China for tea via Tahiti. By April 1787, London aldermen Curtis and Macaulay had decided to send Lt. John Watts on Lady Penrhyn to NSW as part of the First Fleet. As a man who had been out with Cook, (he was a midshipman on Resolution, and was sailing with William Bligh), Watts has been greatly overlooked. A rare mention of him is contained in David Howarth, Tahiti: A Paradise Lost. (London, Harvill Press, 1983.. pp. 143ff).

Howarth is one of the few writers treating Lady Penrhyn's voyage to Tahiti after she left Sydney. (And it is remarkable how it is easy enough in books to track commercial motives for the departure of British ships to any destination - such as NW America, the West Indies, to India or China, but not regarding the convict ships to Australia - as though the convict ships are a taboo subject that somehow risks slandering the prestige of Captain Cook!)

More will be detailed below on Lady Penrhyn's voyage to Tahiti, arriving there before Bounty arrived. By 26 October, 1788, Bligh on Bounty had entered Matavi Bay, Tahiti. By 27 October, 1788, (Howarth, p. 147), Lady Penrhyn had been about a week at Macao, China.

Relevant dates: By 8 August, Lady Penrhyn was by Penrhyn Island, named by Capt. Sever. By 15 September, by the Isle of Saypan. On 17 September she refreshed at Tinian. By 15 October she was by Grafton isle. By 19 October, she sailed up Macao Roads, readying to take her cargo of tea. About China, Lady Penrhyn met a British ship named Talbot.
The meeting with Talbot is confirmed in Ruth Campbell, 'New South Wales and the Glocester Journal, 1787-1790', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 68, Part 3, December 1982., pp. 169-180.
Then Lady Penrhyn went home, presumably to the enrichment of Curtis and Macaulay, and possibly William Richards. And to be remembered mainly because she had carried only women to Botany Bay, not because she represented a mystery about the tenor of London's commercial instincts about the Pacific. On Tahiti, on 26 October, 1788, Bligh entered Matavi Bay on Bounty.
Some of Lt. John Watts' writings can be found in Arthur Phillip, The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay, With an Account of the Establishment of the Colonies of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island, including the journals of Lts. Shortland, Watts, Ball and Capt. Marshall. Melbourne, Facsimile edition for Georgian House, 1950.

Note: At least two stories appear as to why Lady Penrhyn did not go to North-West America. One is that she had developed a bad bottom (worm-ridden), by the time she got to Tahiti. Or, that the crew was too weak from scurvy. The ship's surgeon, Bowes-Smythe, opted for the scurvy explanation (see Bowes-Smythe's Journal, pp. 98ff). Watts took command of the ship on 18 May 1788. She was near Tahiti on 16 June, and arrived there 10 July, staying at Tahiti only ten days, not long enough to improve the crew's health. A decision not to go to America had possibly been made by 3 July. Scurvy symptoms began to dissipate by 3 August. By 18 October she was at Macao, then to Whampoa by 21-23 October. By 14 January 1789 she was leaving Macao to make for Java, Pulare of Malaya, then St Helena, to the Isle of Wight.


More to come

h1>Year 1788

More to come

h1>Year 1789

More to come

h1>Year 1790

More to come, the

h1>Year 1791The Third Fleet

Shelton's Contract No. 5, was dated 15 June, 1791, with George Mackenzie Macaley (sic) for the Pitt, which usually sailed as an East Indiaman to China for tea and was wholly owned by Macaulay. (Inside Pitt was a small ship-in-frame, Francis, which was used on the coast about Sydney, reputedly put together and launched by Capt. William Raven - who was a partner with St Barbe in Britannia, a ship notable in its day in Sydney Harbour. (Unusually, it appears a copy of an original contract for Pitt remains with the NSW State Archives.)

At right: Macaulay's ship Pitt

Convict transport Pitt

15 June, 1791:
Indenture for the Pitt, copy of original, made on June 15, 1791, thirty first year of Geo III, .... between Thos Shelton of the Sessions House in the City of London, and George Mackenzie Macaulay of Chatam Place London, [transportable felons] 224 cons, 227 [names], And Whereas His Majesty by His Royal Sign manual bearing date at His Court of St James's the [15 June] 1791, [by Act of Parliament in the 28th year of the reign of Geo III], initiated "an Act to continue several laws relating to the granting a bounty on the exportation of certain species of British and Irish linens exported, and taking off the duties on the importation of foreign [?] and yarns made of flax and to the preventing the committing of frauds & bankrupts and for continuing and (?) [of] several laws relating to the imprisonment and transportation of Offenders and has graciously thought fit to authorise and empower the above-named Thomas Shelton to make a Contract or Contracts with any person or persons for the effectual transportation of all the above named Offenders and to take securities from that person or persons so contracting for the effectual transportation of them pursuant to the sentences and orders aforesaid concerning them respectively And Whereas the said Thomas Shelton by virtue of such power and authority and in consideration of the Contract and Agreement of the said George Mackenzie Macaulay hereinafter mentioned and of the security to be given by him the said George Mackenzie Macaulay .................... by Bond or Writing obligatory for the effectual performance thereof hath agreed to and with the said George Mackenzie Macaulay (he being a fit person to transfer all the several before named Offenders unto him the said George Mackenzie Macaulay and his Assigns for such and the same terms for which they were ordered to be transported as herein abovementioned And the said George Mackenzie Macaulay in consideration thereof and of the property which he and his Assigns will have in the service of the said Offenders for and during the remainder of such terms and for divers other good and valuable Considerations him (?) (?) hath contracted and agreed to and with the said Thomas Shelton for the effectual transportation of the said Offenders pursuant to the sentences and orders aforesaid concerning them respectively Now This Indenture witnesseth that the said Thomas Shelton (?) of the power and authority given to him in this behalf as aforesaid and in pursuance of his said agreement with the said George Mackenzie Macaulay ...doth transfer all the several before named Offenders unto him the said George Mackenzie Macaulay and his assigns for such and the same terms for which they were ordered to be transported as herein before mentioned - And the said George Mackenzie Macaulay for the considerations aforesaid hath contracted and agreed and by their presents for himself his executors and Administrators and Assigns Doth contract and agree to and with the said Thomas Shelton in manner following, that is to say, that the said George Mackenzie Macaulay and his Assigns shall and will forthwith take and receive all the several before named Offenders and transport them or cause them to be transported effectually as soon as conveniently may be to the Eastern Coast of New South Wales or some one or other of the Islands Adjacent pursuant to the sentences and orders aforesaid concerning them respectively And shall and will procure such evidence as the nature of the case will admit of the landing there of the said several before named Offenders (death and casualties by Sea excepted) and produce the same to whom it may concern when lawfully called upon And shall not nor will by the wilful default of him the said George Mackenzie Macaulay or his Assigns suffer the said Offenders or any or either of them to return to Great Britain or Ireland during the respective terms ...
sgd in presence of ? Fitzpatrick and one other illegible, Thomas Shelton and George M Macaulay. Macaulay on 11 July, 1791 then agreed to assign [the prisoners] tho Gov. Phillip and his assigns, and all his rights in them, on 11 July, 1791.
(Probably, after the convicts had been loaded?)

Pitt, 775 tons, sailed under Capt. Edward Manning, arriving Sydney 14 Feb., 1792. Lloyd's Register for 1789 says she sailed 26 December, 1788, under Capt. Manning "for St Helens and Bencoolen, built 1780, husband G Macaulay". Carter in his biography of Sir Joseph Banks says that by 2 January, 1793, botanist Colonel Robert Kyd at Calcutta, only months before his death, put on Pitt, Capt Manning, various samples including a mango tree for Banks. This then was on Pitt's return voyage from Sydney/China.
Carter, Banks, 1988, noted from pp. 563ff, Appendix XIB.

On 15 July, 1791, the surgeon on Pitt reported smallpox aboard. Opinions on the matter differed.

The general context of Pitt's departure can be guaged from the following ...

By April 1791, after squabbles with the Spanish, Vancouver was being sent from England to Nootka Sound to restore the trading post there and to further survey the Sandwich Islands.
K. M. Dallas, Trading Posts or Penal Colonies: The Commercial Significance of Cook's New Holland Route to the Pacific. Hobart, Fuller's Bookshop, 1969., p. 43. Margaret Steven, Trade, Tactics and Territory: Britain in the Pacific, 1783-1823. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press, 1983., pp. 82-83.

Interests in the Pacific had become more intensely concentrated since early in 1791. In January, London's South Whalers led by Enderbys had submitted a Memorial to the Committee for Trade asking for legislation on proposals that their vessels be allowed to proceed from the South Pacific to the Nootka Sound area, north of NW America. Enderby had expected that the whalers would use the new convict colony as a refreshment base. Of course, if interested in furs from Nootka Sound, the South Whalers were also interested in sales to the Chinese merchants at Canton - which might have made EICo hackles rise.

During April 1791, a new Bill was being drafted - for opening a trade through the South Seas to China. The EICo was firm that India-registered ships should not be permitted to trade between Asia and the north-west sealing coast of America and the adjacent islands. It was no accident here that St Barbe would also send his partner on Britannia, Capt. William Raven, to seek seal fur at Dusky Bay, New Zealand. (Cook had earlier noted the number of seals at Dusky Bay.) Nor an accident that the Bristol whaler Sydenham Teast sent mariner Charles Bishop into the mid-Pacific.

It was also as a matter of whaler politics, no accident that after the second fleet had departed, Anthony Calvert and the whalers organised a third fleet, of course excluding William Richards and his interests. The third fleet after delivering its convicts to Sydney would split into two arms. One arm went into the Pacific, whaling. The other ships, with trading contracts for the Calvert firm, went either to China or India. The inspired whaler in the planning operations for this convoy was probably John St Barbe, who after the Third Fleet had left, personally arranged with George M. Macaulay for Pitt to carry out convicts. After the Third Fleet operation, the whalers continued to carry out convicts and their continuing interest in the Pacific whaling grounds was perfectly illustrated when after 1798 (during which wartime year, ships for their own protection were required to sail in convoy), they sent out the first really well-organised flotilla of whaling ships since the Third Fleet.

With whaler politics, the situations facing the EICo were that whalers and their associates (by the Whalers Bill of 1791) would be allowed to utilise EICo banking facilities at Canton - as a "new and independent traffic in their own preserve", meaning, freelancers could come into Canton with mixed cargoes and sell to the Hoong merchants. According to whaling historian Stackpole, the EICo directors recognised that the South Whalers had mustered "overwhelming political support", so the EICo had "conceded tho retaining their control of the China Trade at Canton." The Bill's passage was not quick, but later, Pitt had some patience vindicated by success of a Bill allowing whalers greater freedom to fish in Australian waters.
Eduoard A. Stackpole, Whales and Destiny: The Rivalry between America, France and Britain for Control of the Southern Whale Fishery, 1785-1825. University of Massachusetts Press, 1972., p. 155, Refer: Act 32 Geo III. c. 73 and Act 33 Geo III c. 90.

So while Bligh's second breadfruit voyage to Tahiti was being arranged, a great deal of other British shipping moving into the Pacific was also being contemplated. Bligh's latest ship, HM Providence (a new West Indiaman) was launched on 25 April. Bligh had received his commission for her by 16 April. Francis Godolphin Bond was appointed First Lt to Providence (420 tons launched at Blackwall, purchased from Mr Perry, ship to have marines from Chatam, a complement of 134 men.)

Contractor to government and a friend of Evan Nepean at the Home Office, Alexander Davison, by 4 May, 1791, had dated an account to Navy re Pitt, for £8846/10/8d for supplies. So Davison must have been prompted to act as supplier somewhat earlier. Also loaded in Pitt would be the 41-ton ship, in frame, with stores and furniture, Francis, valued at £901. Presumably then, Macaulay had decided by early May or even earlier to send her to Botany Bay, and presumably the Navy had unofficially decided already to use her. Assessment here may depend on conversations Macualay had with other residents of Blackheath, probably Enderbys and St Barbe.

In fact, a variety of word was about. By 18 May, 1791, (Grenville to Sir George Yonge), two extra companies of the newly raised NSW Corps were advised to go on Pitt, then lying at Gravesend. Two such companies were at Chatam Barracks, (the other company of the NSW Corps would remain in England until further ships were taken up.)

By 20 May, 1791, Lt. Richard Nairne was appointed as naval agent to Pitt, confirmed by Treasury. By about 21 June, 1791, Pitt was possibly at Portsmouth. On 23 June, an anonymous letter regarding convicts on Pitt was received by government officers, to be referred to by Henry Dundas, who the same day wrote to Treasury on convicts to be put aboard her. The later-wealthy Sydney colonist, John Piper (youthful in the NSW Corps), was on her at Portsmouth by 23 June. As was the later convict artist at Sydney, Watling, "the limner of Dumfries", sent from the Lion hulk at Portsmouth to the custody of Captain Manning of Pitt. Piper had entered the army (NSW Corps) as an ensign only the month before, in April.
Lloyd's Register for 1792-1793, East Indies list, noted: Sailed late 1791, Pitt 775 tons Capt Manning for NSWales and China, built river 1780, husband G Macaulay.

More news of Botany Bay would also soon come to hand, since by 5 May, 1791, Albermarle of the Third Fleet had arrived at St Jago; she sent a letter by a French ship which mentioned other Botany Bay ships, HM Gorgon, Admiral Barrington and Britannia.

Also, by 12 May, 1791, the First Fleet contractor, Richards, still hopeful for more business, wrote to Charles Long, Esq (at Treasury), offering to manage 300 convicts on a hulk - in England. (That is, Richards had conceived notions of competing with the major contractor then managing hulks prisoners, Duncan Campbell.)

News would also spread of William Bligh preparing for a second breadfruit voyage. Bligh by 17 May, 1791, was wanting supplies for HM Providence - in a letter he wrote, could Mr Larkins at Mr Perry's Dock at Blackwall supply wood? (And was this Mr. Larkins part of the Larkins family of Blackheath which owned Royal Admiral, which would soon follow Macaulay's Pitt to Botany Bay?) A question on early British interest in the Pacific might be: just how cohesive - even, inspiring - were the interests of the mariner families of Blackheath?
This letter is noted in George Mackaness, (Ed.), 'Fresh Light On Bligh: some unpublished correspondence', Australian Historical Monographs, Vol. 5, (New Series). Review Publications, Dubbo, NSW, Australia, 1976 (Reprint). Lloyd's Register for 1791 indicates: Ships in EICo service, sailed 17 April, 1790, Royal Admiral Capt. E. H. Bond, for China, built River in 1777, husband T Larkins, 914 tons.

To come - the family history of Capt. E. H. Bond

(fix paf of Capt eh bond)

In 1825 Marquis Camden owned by Thomas Larkins. (In 1830, the British government made an examination of ships let from 1811 to the service of the East India Co. Amongst the shipowner and ship names listed, some are noted as ships carrying convicts to Australia. Follows an extraction from the list, which is on a webpage provided by www.british-history.ac.uk - an aspx-generated report.)

Dark mutterings

The scuttling of the Friendship: There were darker, unhappier mutterings about disaster ships going into the Pacific. Mentioning Richards, and regarding the earlier-dated charter party for the First Fleet, the owners of Friendship, after they had heard of her being scuttled, had correspondence around 15 July, 1791. Mr Secretary Long of the Treasury wrote to the Commissers of the Navy re the memorial of Samuel Hopper and other owners of Friendship; the owners (including Samuel Hopper) wanted to charge government for the loss of the ship, not the owners of Alexander. (Who were Walton and Co. of Southwark.) Opinions on legalities were to be sought from the attorney-general. (Letter of 19 August, 1791.)

In a letter of 9 August, 1791, William Richards to the Navy Office referred to the scuttling of Friendship and freight of the ship; Richards at least was reimbursed for his own losses by Friendship (some £350/18/9d.)
See Historical Records of Australia, i, i, 1792-95, pp. 38-40. Treasury Board Papers, T1/695 Reel 3553, ML.

Convict ships listed by date of departure

Note: Bateson lists ships by date of their arrival at Sydney (a port in Australia.) Some convict ships only are now re-listed here by date of their departure from England, a more reliable date.

Reference item for 1790: Michael Flynn, The Second Fleet: Britain's Grim Convict Armada of 1790. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1993.

HM Gorgon: A naval ship, basically a storeship but carrying 31 male convicts. She sailed 15 March 1791, arriving Sydney 21 September. Best seen as a "loner" ship.

Another convict ship for Australia - Pitt: Departing June-July 1791 for Sydney, arriving 14 February, 1792. Capt. Edward Manning. She was owned by London alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay.

Another convict ship for Australia - Kitty, Capt. George Ramsay. Departing March 1792 - Arriving 18 November, 1792.

Another convict ship for Australia - Royal Admiral 1: Departing 30 May 1792 - Arriving October 7, 1792.
Re: 1792 - Capt. Essex Henry Bond on convict transport Royal Admiral ... Owned by Thomas Larkins, according to Bateson (p. 140), "a member of perhaps the most prominent family associated with the EICo's shipping"...
Cathy Dunn, Ladies of the Royal Admiral, 1792. Milton NSW, Cathy Dunn, c1996.

Follows a list of some descendants of EICO dockowner/ships husband Thomas Larkins
1. Dockowner/EICo ship's husband Thomas Larkins (b.1746;d.1794) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN Miss 2. William LARKINS of Point House, Blackheath (b.1756;d.1800) 2. EICo shipowner John Pascal LARKINS (b.1765;d.1818) sp: Mary Ann SAMPSON 3. Georgiana LARKINS (IGI data only) (b.Mar 1802) 3. John Pascal LARKINS (IGI data only) sp: Mary Anne NOTKNOWN (IGI data only) (c.1827) 4. John Pascal LARKINS (IGI data only) (b.Jul 1827) 3. Susannah LARKINS wife1 (d.14 Jan 1832) sp: Sir Frederick CURRIE, Bart1 (In India) (b.3 Feb 1799;m.7 Aug 1820;d.11 Sep 1875) 4. Rev Sir Frederick Larkins CURRIE, Bart2 (b.18 Apr 1823) sp: Eliza Reeve RACKHAM wife1 (d.14 Apr 1861) 5. Sir Frederick Reeve CURRIE, Bart3 (Unm) (b.13 May 1851;d.27 Feb 1830) 5. Sir Walter Louis Rackham CURRIE, Bart4 (b.16 Mar 1856) sp: Bertha FREEMAN (m.28 Jun 1892;d.15 Jun 1951) sp: Mary Helen CORRIE wife2 4. Major Mark Edward CURRIE (b.10 Sep 1824;d.14 Dec 1868) sp: Jane wife1 UPWOOD 5. Lt-Col Frederick Alexander CURRIE sp: Geraldine Lucy GRAVES sp: Catherine GRAVES 4. Katherine Louisa CURRIE (d.26 Mar 1914) sp: Rev Edwin Francis Mersham DYKE of Kent (b.27 Sep 1842;m.22 Nov 1870;d.26 Aug 1919) 3. Jane Emma LARKINS (IGI data only) (b.Feb 1810) 3. George LARKINS (IGI data only) (b.Dec 1807) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 4. J. P. LARKINS - at Calcutta sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 5. John Johnny LARKINS (c.1815) 3. Capt . Thomas LARKINS of London (c.1805) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN 4. EICo sailor William LARKINS Died Young (b.1770;d.May 1786)
See E. W. Bovill, 'Some Chronicles of the Larkins Family: the convict ship, 1792', The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1954., pp. 120-121. George Thompson, 'Slavery and Famine: Punishments for Sedition, or An Account of the Miseries and Starvation of Botany Bay, by George Thompson, who sailed in the Royal Admiral May 1792 with some Preliminary Remarks by George Dyer, BA. Edited by George Mackaness, Sydney, Australian Historical Monographs, Vol. XXXI, New Series, (Orig. 1947).

Enderbys about this time had a white lead factory (paint factory) at Gravel Lane, Southwark - an industry based on whale oil. George Enderby to his grandchildren in 1875 produced a debatable quote which ought to be more famous ... "You will I think on consideration be of the opinion that unless there had been whaling ships to carry out the first convicts to Sydney, that the Government would have been obliged to select some nearer spot for the convicts ..." What Enderby failed to mention here was that these whalers were anti-Spanish.
Samuel Enderby Junior of Croom Hill, Blackheath was by 1820 recommending the annexation of New Zealand as a way to control whalers and traders on its coasts, although by 1819, Australasian whale oil was virtually barred from London. See D. R. Hainsworth, The Sydney Traders: Simeon Lord and his Contemporaries, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1972., p. 139. See AGE Jones, Ships Employed, pp. 266ff.

Charles Enderby (d.1876), promoted the development of coastal New Zealand. His parents' generation had been part of The Blackheath Connection. The younger Enderby generation was notable for letting their whaling industry slip from their grasp, and failing to re-establish a new South Whale Fishery ranging New Zealand waters by 1849. A letter of 16 September, 1823, from S. Enderby and Son, William Mellish and Daniel Bennett and Son, to Lt. Col. Edward Nicolls, Royal Marines, outlined the advantages of whalers operating from New Zealand if a settlement existed there.
The names Enderby-Mellish-Bennett in this 1823 context are seen in pp. 28-31 of Phyllis Mander-Jones, (Ed.), Manuscripts in the British Isles Relating to Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific. Canberra, Australian National University, 1972. Adams, Fatal Necessity, listings. Broeze, Brooks, p. 227 on the 1849 South Whale Fishery failure. Note: When he returned home from examining New South Wales, Commissioner Bigge had used an Enderby home at Greenwich/Blackheath to write his three reports on the state of New South Wales. P. P. King a commissioner to the AA Co. had his shares in the AACo jointly with the Enderbys who acted as his agents. (Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 48., citing AA Co. Minutes, 4 July, 1833.) Such details suggest that with any suggestions concerning New Zealand development, Enderby interests were assuming the continued satisfactory progress of New South Wales. See also Historical Records of New Zealand, pp. 608-609. P. Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 205, Note 2.

1791: Jenny of Bristol. Owners Unknown. 1791-1792. To Nootka Sound from Bristol. She called at Tahiti to pick up Capt Matthew Weatherhead of wrecked Third Fleet ship Matilda.

Year 1792

1792: Royal Admiral (I). Captain Essex Henry Bond. Owner Thomas Larkins. 7 October 1792. Convict transport but normally in EICo service. Later bought by William Wilson (on whom, see below.)

28 January 1792. Contract to William Christopher for Kitty Captain George Ramsay. Shelton´s Account No. 6. Convict contractor, still a problem person for research by October 2012.

William Christopher

William Christopher. Convict contractor noted in Shelton´s Accounts. Still a problem person for research by October 2012.

1792: December 1792: convict transport Boddingtons. Captain Robert Chalmers, for William Richards who had engaged Augustus Beyer. EICo charter for ship to trade.

8 May 1792. Contract to Thomas Larkins (of the Larkins family of Blackheath). Re transport Royal Admiral I. Shelton´s Accounts No. 7.

Thomas Pascal Larkins

London: Pathway to convict contractor Thomas Pascal Larkins. For some basic information here see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism.)

Update 31 March 2012++. Some new information, small clues only, has arisen on the Larkins family of Blackheath.

A certain Eliza or Elizabeth Larkins (parents still uncertain) married a man associated with the EICo, Adam Walker (parents still unknown). They had a daughter, Elizabeth Larkins Walker, who married a Lt-Colonel in India, Michael Edward Bagnold (1787-1857). The Bagnold genealogy here leads to the family history of Samantha Sheffield, wife of the present Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David William Cameron.

One notable family member was John Pascal Larkins, (1781-1856). He had been a manager of opium supplies from India for the East India Company, and also a deputy Grand-Master of Freemasonry in Bengal. He worked with the Bengal Civil Service between 1796-1827. Prior to 1804 he had been an assistant to the Opium Agent at Bahar. He was once (in Bengal) a Member of a Board of Trade, and once Superintendent of Silk Investments. JPL returned to England in 1826 and retired from the East India Company in 1827. He lived with his second wife, Mary Ann Robertson, at Brunswick Place, Regents Park, London. (His first wife was Louisa M. Muller/Mueller.) Mary Ann Robertson was mother of Ann Larkins, who died in 1847 in Dublin, Ireland, (buried in Mount Jerome Cemetery), having married Sweeting Bond, and they had at least one child who emigrated to America and married there, John Baptist Bond.
John Pascal Larkins (died 1856) was seemingly a friend of a Major-General in India, Samuel Watson, who had a son, Lt-Colonel William Larkins Watson (1784-1852), who had a daughter Jane Woodburn Watson who married to the Steer family of England (who have considerable genealogy available on the Internet).

There are faint hints on the Net that before 1810, there was a William Larkins d1800, designated as being of Blackheath, London, (wife not mentioned) who had a daughter, Eliza Susannah (died 1851 in Brussels), who married a son of a Loyalist of the American revolutionary period, the son being a Major-General of the Royal Artillery, Guy Carleton Coffin (1782/83, born South Carolina and died 1865 at Greenham Lodge, Berkshire), son of Loyalist General John Coffin (1756-1838) and Ann Mathews. Guy Carleton Coffin evidently had some daughters who married British military men. This William Larkins of Blackheath could be the same William Larkins (1756-1800) who was once a senior accountant in India for the East India Company, reporting to none other a personage than Governor-General of India, Warren Hastings, who was subjected to well-known impeachment proceedings in the 1790s, once he had returned to London. This William Larkins (of Calcutta, later of Blackheath where hecame a noed amateur astronomer) gave evidence for Hastings at those proceedings.
What is not yet clear is whether William the accountant (son of William Larkins and Christian Pascall) had two wives, one being W. Reynolds (parents unknown), probably the second wife (who apparently had a daughter Harriet Anne Reynolds Larkins who married a barrister, Edward Orpen (born 1781)). The accountant´s first wife might have been Mary Harris (no known parents), with whom he seemingly had a painful estrangement. Since in his Will, he was still surly enough with Mary Harris to threaten his daughters by her that they would lose their inheritance if they had any contact with their mother. But all matters re the accountant still need clarification. (Various Orpen genealogy is available on the Net but it does not help with any Larkins-related questions.)

An Australian e-mailer to this website has some years ago conjectured that William Larkins Jnr (1755-died c.1800, the accountant) married to Mary or Mary Ann Harris (no parents?) - and had a daughter Mary Ann or Marian Larkins born 1780, married to one Thomas Dawson (born 1775) of Essex, and some further generations continue, but this cannot be verified from the Net, and so all we have are this gentleman´s conjectures, and no useful proof.

This William Larkins Jnr (1755-1800) was presumably the son of William Larkins (1721-1784 no parents) and Christian Pascall (c.1728-1788 no parents and no known siblings). As it turns out, there is contradictory information on him, so far available on the Internet; it almost gives William two separate identities. What does seem remarkable is that no historian treating the Impeachment of Warren Hastings has ever sorted out the facts on accountant William Larkins.

Yet another of the too-little-known Larkins clan was John Pascal Larkins (parents still unidentified) who was a lawyer in Bombay by 1840. He had earlier married at Islington, London, to Eliza Bird Andrews, and took her to Bombay, India. Eliza had three children, a son surviving and two children died young. She apparently committed adultery with an English artist staying in Bombay, Frederick Christian Lewis (1813-1875), son of an English artist of the same name. This enraged Larkins, who petitioned for an Act to divorce her (not so uncommon with the affluent British in British-India), Which he was granted.

Other matters re Larkins

Fresh questions arise. We have Adam Walker (no parents yet) married to Eliza Larkins, daughter of Thomas Larkins (1745-1794) and Susannah Collingwood (1748-1818). Adam is father of Elizabeth Larkins Walker who leads us to the Bagnold genealogy which leads us to today´s Samantha Cameron (see above). But we have little on Adam´s other children, apart from Colonel Thomas Nicholls Walker who is author of a book re the India Mutiny which is on the Net in entirety. But there is not much extra to find on Colonel Thomas Nicholls Walker.

There is a problem also here, John Pascal Larkins (1754-1818) and Mary Ann Sampson (1767-1831), (said by a recent e-mailer to have been a daughter of Henry Morse Sampson), of the EICo and of the ship Rose of Kent, but I can find nothing on Henry Morse, and for years there has been nothing useful on the Net on the name Sampson in any parts of Southern England. The situation is, the name Larkins is more or less surrounded by intermarrying surnames on whom we still lack useful, comparative information. This makes the name Larkins more stand-alone than not, and no one seems to be able to sort things out or cut through the difficulties.

Mary Ann Sampson seems to have seven children at least, including Louisa Seton Larkins, but I have no clue why the name Seton creeps into the picture. The alleged Louisa Seton had a sister Georgiana (found only via an older version of the IGI), who conjecturally married one Luke Dawson (per the Australian emailer referred to above). Georgiana had a brother George (also via the IGI) who married Unknown (maybe a Cecilia) and had a son. John Pascal Larkins (born 1807?), who maybe had a son John Burton Larkins of EICo service, who married Georgiana Henrietta Valiant (born 1851, no parents listed), but there is nothing I have ever been able to find on the Net on John Burton Larkins or his wife Valiant, nor her surname, Valiant. Mary Ann Sampson also had a daughter, Susannah, who married Sir Frederick Currie (1799-1875) Bart1 of EICo, and there is quite a lot on the Net re the Curries.

The latest on Larkins

The latest on the Larkins descendants of Larkins Progenitor by 5-4-2012 ... a cleaner genealogical picture with many conjectures annotated, solved, rectified or removed - Ed. Corrected with much assistance from e-mail from May and Nick Walker of London.
1. Larkins Progenitor 2012 - sp: LNotknown Miss
2. Larkins William- (b.1721;d.1784) (the first-known relevant Larkins name) sp: Pascall Christian- (b.1720;m.1744;d.1788) (Pascall genealogy on the net cannot yet establish her origins)

3. Larkins Christian - (b.1762)
3. Convict contractor, EICo, Shipowner Larkins John Pascal - (b.1754;d.1818) sp: Sampson Mary Ann- (b.1767;d.1831) (Sampson genealogy on the net cannot yet establish her origins)
4. Conjectural Larkins Georgiana - (b.1802) sp: (conjectural per Keith Dawson of Toowoomba Queensland) Luke Mr- (not yet findable on the net but was he a son of Stephen L. of Penzance? There was via thepeerage.com one Edward Vyvyan Luke (1796-1875), who was son of Stephen Luke and Harriet Vyvyan, who married Georgina Larkins in 1829 at Bombay, India.
5. Luke Henry- (b.1795)
4. wife1 Larkins Susannah- (d.1832) sp: Sir Bart1, in India Govt, EICo Currie Frederick- (b.1799;m.1820;d.1875)
5. Rev Sir Bart2 Currie Frederick- (b.1823) sp: wife1 Rackham Eliza Reeve- (d.1861)
6. Sir Bart3 Unm Currie Frederick Reeve- (b.1851;d.1830)
6. Sir Bart4 Currie Walter Louis Rackham- (b.1856) sp: Freeman Bertha- (m.1892;d.1951)
7. Sir Bart5 Poet Currie Walter Mordaunt Cyril- (b.1894;d.1978) sp: wife2 Corrie Mary Helen-
5. Major Currie Mark Edward- (b.1824;d.1868) sp: wife1 Upwood Jane-
6. Lt-Colonel Currie Frederick Alexander- sp: Graves Geraldine Lucy- sp: Graves Catherine-
5. Currie Katherine Louisa- (d.1914) sp: Edwin Francis Mersham, Kent Dyke Rev- (b.1842;m.1870;d.1919)
5. EICo Currie Charles- (b.1829;d.1878) sp: (had issue) Upwood Marian- (m.1852;d.1903)
6. Currie Lucy Marian Alexander- (d.1962)
6. Currie Stanley Charles Cuthbert- (b.1856;d.1916)
6. Currie Harry Augustus Frederick- (b.1866;d.1912)
5. Died young Currie Amelia-
4. Of Blackheath Larkins William- (b.1792) sp: Steer Harriet- (b.1788) (Steer genealogy is available on net)
5. Larkins Frances-
5. Larkins Georgina-
4. Larkins Henrietta- (b.1797) sp: Major-General RA Coffin Guy Carleton- (b.1782;m.1854;d.1865) sp: Dimsdale John- (not findable so far on net)
4. Larkins Mary Ann- (b.1789;d.1814)
4. Larkins John Brooks- (b.1792)
4. Captain EICo ship Marquis Camden Larkins Thomas- (b.1793;d.1850) sp: Ibbetson Sarah Sparke- (widow of Caunter and sister of Robert Ibbetson a governor of Penang/Singapore)
4. Larkins Georgiana- sp: Vyvyan Edward- (not findable so far)
4. Died young Larkins Eliza Susanna- (b.1805;d.1807)

3. Merchant EICo Larkins William Jnr- (b.1755;d.1800) sp: IGI entry only Harris Mary Ann or Mary Harries- (c.1780;m.1776) (uncertain if her surname is Harris or Harries. Presumably not connected with George Harris of India, Lord1 Harris of Belmont, Faversham, Kent.)
4. Larkins Georgiana Grueber- (b.1779)
4. Larkins Apollonia Charlotte-
4. IGI entry only Larkins Mary Ann or Marian- (b.1780) sp: Of Essex Dawson Thomas- (b.1775;m.1805) (seemingly unfindable on net)
5. Dawson James- (b.1810;d.1876) sp: Hogarth Magaret-
6. Dawson George Hogarth- (b.1845;d.1917) sp: Womersley Elizabeth-
7. Dawson Neville- (b.1876;d.1947) sp: Liddon Catherine-
8. Of Leaden Hall Suffolk Dawson Douglas George Damer- (b.1905) sp: Slacke Rosamund-
4. Larkins Warren Hastings- (d.1788)
4. Larkins Eliza- (b.1782)
4. Larkins Christiana- (b.1776) sp: James William- (unfindable on net so far) sp: Vowler Mr- (unfindable on net so far)
4. Larkins Charlotte Anne- (b.1778) sp: Captain EICo Walker James-
In 1811 General Kyd was owned by James Walker. (In 1830, the British government made an examination of ships let from 1811 to the service of the East India Co. Amongst the shipowner and ship names listed, some are noted as ships carrying convicts to Australia. Follows an extraction from the list, which is on a webpage provided by www.british-history.ac.uk - an aspx-generated report.)
3. Dockowner, EICo husband Larkins Thomas Pascal- (b.1745;d.1794) sp: Collingwood Susanne Susannah- (b.1748;d.1818)
4. Of Greenwich Kent Larkins Susannah- (b.1774;d.1865) sp: Merchant Of Hull and Hamburg Haworth Joshua Jnr- (c.1798;m.1798) (findable on net but not in a useful way)
4. Captain EICo Larkins Thomas- (b.1775;d.1858) sp: le Gallais Harriet- (d.1806) (this surname appears in New Zealand at time of WWI)
4. Opium dealer Larkins John Pascall- (b.1781;d.1856) sp: wife1 Robertson Mary Anne- (c.1827) (unfindable on net so far)
5. IGI only Larkins John Pascal- (b.1827)
5. Larkins Ann- (d.1847) sp: Bond Sweeting Svealing- (b.1750)
6. Bond John Baptist- emigrant to USA sp: Stone Catherine Kitty-
sp: wife2 Muller Louisa M.- wife 2
5. conjectural Larkins Louisa Seton-
5. conjectural Larkins Susanna-
4. Larkins Eliza- (b.1782;d.1871) sp: EICO Walker Adam- (c.1806;m.1807)
5. Walker Susan Caroline Larkins- (b.1808;d.1875) sp: Capt 70th Regt Foot Kelsall Edward William- (b.1808;m.1833;d.1875)

6. Kelsall Senior- (full genealogy seems to not yet be on the net)
sp: KNotknown Miss-
7. Kelsall Senior- sp: KNotknown Miss-
8. Kelsall Senior- sp: KNotknown Miss-
9. Kelsall Anne- (Internet family historian)
5. Architect Walker Thomas Larkins-(b.1811;d.1860) sp: WNotknown Miss- (so far unfindable)
6. Colonel Walker Thomas Nicholls- (b.1837;d.1903)
5. Walker John Pascal- (b.1808)
5. Walker Adam Scott
5. Walker Elizabeth Larkins - (b.1817;d.1873) sp: Lt-Colonel 17th Regt India Bagnold Michael Edward- (b.1787;d.1857)
6. Colonel Royal Engineers Bagnold Arthur Henry- (b.1845;d.1943) sp: Alger Ethel-572121 (b.1866)
7. UK novelist Bagnold Enid Algerine- (b.1889;d.1981) sp: Sir Chairman Reuters Jones Roderick- (b.1887;d.1962)
8. Jones Timothy Angus- sp: Clifford Patricia David Pandora-
9. Jones Annabel Lucy Veronica- sp: Sir Bart8 Sheffield Reginald Adrian Berkeley-
10. Sheffield Samantha Gwendoline- (b.1971) sp: UK Prime Minister Cameron David William- (b.1966) (some of his genealogy is net-available)
11. Cameron Miss- sp: Viscount4 Astor Astor William Waldorf- (b.1951)
10. Astor Flora Katherine- (b.1976) sp: Rycroft Baronets Rycroft Alexander Theophilus
8. Jones Richard Bagnold- 7. Brigadier (Founder of Long Range Desert Group), Bagnold Ralph- (b.1896;d.1990) sp: Plank Dorothy-
8. Bagnold S. C.-
5. Walker Margaret-
4. Larkins Christian (Catherine)- (b.1768;d.1848) sp: London merchant Pinkerton Thomas- (it is not yet clear if he was not Thomas Pinkerton a war contractor of Birchin Lane London and Nuneaton Warwickshire, helping to victual the navy during the Napoleonic Wars)
4. EICo sailor, died young Larkins William- (b.1770;d.1786)
4. Larkins Jane Carlton- (b.1778;d.1780)
4. Larkins Maryann- (b.1787;d.1804)
4. Larkins Laura- (b.1788;d.1856) sp: Goodwyn Henry- (d.1814)
5. Goodwyn Elizabeth Catherine- sp: Captain EICo army Hawkins Edward- (not yet further assessed)
6. Hawkins Edward-
6. Hawkins Henry-
6. Hawkins Eliza-
5. General, RE, Goodwyn Henry- sp: wife1 Gale Maria-
6. Lt Bengal Engineers Goodwyn Henry- sp: wife1 McAlpin Susan- (not yet assessed) sp: wife2 Fuge Emmeline-
6. Goodwyn Faith- (b.1874) sp: Patch Henry- (a different view is that his name is Thomas)
4. Larkins David Scott- (b.1792;d.1805)
3. Larkins Ann- (b.1765)
3. Larkins Elizabeth- (b.1765)
3. Accountant-General, India Bengal, Larkins William- (b.1756;d.1800) (He gave evidence for Warren Hastings at the prolonged impeachment of Hastings, and it is very peculiar indeed that he is not far better known for that, given the notoriety in history of the Hastings proceedings. One might ask, whom his widow married, if anybody. Since he died relatively young, aged 44. -Ed) sp: Reynolds W.- (unfindable)
4. Larkins Harriet Anne Reynolds- sp: Barrister Orpen Edward- (b.1781) (Orpen genealogy is net-available)
4. Larkins Eliza Susannah- (d.1851) sp: Major-General RA Coffin Guy Carleton- (b.1782;m.1808;d.1865) (Son of a noted Loyalist of the American Revolution)
5. Captain RN Coffin John Townsend- (b.1789;d.1882) sp: Of Canada, Donaldson Sophy Wallace
5. RN Coffin William Henry-
5. Coffin Caroline-
5. Coffin Elizabeth- sp: Captain Kirkwood T. of Bath- (not yet assessed)
5. Coffin Anne Eliza- sp: Lt-General Sir Royal Welch Fusiliers, Pearson Thomas- (b.1781;d.1847) (not yet assessed).

25 July 1792. Contract to William Hamilton re Bellona (Captain Boyd). Shelton´s Accounts No. 8. Bellona has been identified by Prof. Gary Sturgess as owned by Boyd and Co. and managed by William Hamilton and John Brickwood. This Brickwood was probably the partner of London merchant Thomas Pattle whose genealogy has been posted elsewhere on this website. It is not impossible that this William Hamilton was the man of this name who was friends with Duncan Campbell (1726-1803) the Overseer of the Thames Prison Hulks, it remains uncertain. Bellona carried free settlers to NSW, disembarking 16 January 1793. When she left Sydney went to Whampoa, China and sailed back to England in company with the EICo ship Minerva (which is noted otherwise below).

On Alexander Davison. Friend of naval hero Lord Nelson. Sent stores/freight to NSW. More to come.

Alexander Davison

For some information on Alexander Davison see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection.

December 1792, A British vessel Jenny reached Nootka Sound, from Bristol, she had called at Tahiti and picked up Capt. Matthew Wetherhead off the wrecked Matilda, earlier a ship of the Third Fleet to Australia. So Wetherhead must have been waiting on Tahiti deliberately on South Whale Fishery business, as he could have gone earlier with Bligh on Bligh's second breadfruit voyage pick-up. 17 December, 1792, Bligh in Providence called at St Helena where she received orders from England pointing locations in West Indies at which she was to touch, and deliver cargo. On Providence Bligh had picked up part of the crew of the wrecked London whaler, Matilda, wrecked near Marquesas Islands. Matilda wrecked at night near Muroroa or Osnaburg Island. 21 survivors. Bligh met them at Matavi Bay, Tahiti.

Year 1793

Out May, 1793: Simon Paul, Queen Charlotte. (?) Estimate: Simon Paul of Tottenham Court Rd, May 1793, had out Queen Charlotte in fishery. TI/719.

1793: Follows a List of Subscribers to John Hunter's "Transactions", 1 January, 1793.
Addington, speaker, House of Commons; Pepper Arden; Sir Joseph Banks; Sir Charles Bunbury; Mr Barnard Jnr; Richard Barwell Esq; George Chalmers; Alexander Dalrymple; Alexander Davison; Samuel Enderby; W. Faden; Lord Grenville; John Hunter (surgeon); Lord Hawkesbury; Sir George Jackson; Mr Alderman Macaulay; Evan Nepean; Rt. Hon. W. Pitt; Mr Richardson; Vis. Sydney; Sir James Sanderson, Mayor; Robert Thornton; Nicholas Vansittart; Sir George Young.

August, 1793: (Stackpole. p. 182) Capt Thomas Melville of Britannia Fleet 3 returns to NSW waters in that ship. Oct. 1793, Capt. Thos Melville out whaling (for Enderbys) on Speedy.

1793: See Capt. Thomas Melville of Fleet 3 ship Britannia in NSW waters. Dakin has his argument with Gov Phillip and his letter home to Enderbys. (See Stackpole, p. 182) He is possibly still out in August 1793.

1793: Sugar Cane. Owner, Unknown. Captain Thomas Musgrave. 17 Sep 1793. Convict transport, see Bateson.

1793: Shah Hormuzear. Master/Owner, William Wright Bampton. Captain William Wright Bampton. 24 Feb 1793. Stores, provisions to NSW. Ship 18 May, 1793.

1793: Duke of Clarence. RN. Lt John Hayes. 25 Apr 1793 - 9 Jun 1793. Exploring New Guinea. Cumpston's Register. Hayes/McCluer. Effort to annex n/e New Guinea. Had tried to obtain EICo interest, failed, trade with NG till 1801. 1793: Also given as Duchess of Clarence. RN. Captain Lt John Hayes. 1793. 25 Apr 1793 - 9 Jun 1793. Explore New Guinea area. Cumpston's Register

1793: Descubierta. Spanish Navy. Captain Malaspina. 1792-1793. Exploration.

1793: Daedalus. HM? Lt James Hanson. 1792 - 20 Apr 1793 - 1 July 1793. Storeship to NSW. Cumpston's Register.

1793: Canada of 1793. Owner Notknown. Captain Muirhead. 1793 but did not sail. Convict transport per John St Barbe. John St Barbe tried to send but she is condemned as unfit. Did not sail.

1793: Boddingtons. Owners Unknown. Captain Robert Chalmers. 7 Aug 1793. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1793: Atrevida. Spain Navy. Captain Malaspina visiting Sydney. 1792 - 1793. Exploration.

1793: Francis. Local NSW ship, schooner. Owner, Gov. of NSW. Captain William House. 24 July 1793 - Local Sydney, local transport. Mate is Robert Watson from HM Sirius. Cumpston's Register.

1793: Bellona. Owners, Unknown. Captain Matthew Boyd. 16 Jan 1793. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1793: Another convict/storeship for Australia - Bellona:
Departing? Arriving 16 January, 1793. Capt. Matthew Boyd. Carrying 17 women convicts.

1793: Another convict ship for Australia - Boddingtons, 331 tons:
Departing Cork ? Arriving Sydney 7 August, 1793 carrying Irish convicts. Contractor William Richards. Capt. Robert Chalmers. Ship had "alarms" of convict mutiny risks. Boddingtons and Sugar Cane were the last two ships ever organised by William Richards, who was not heard of again.

1793: Another convict ship for Australia - Sugar Cane, 403 tons:
Departing Cork, 12 April, 1793 - Arriving 17 September, 1793 carrying Irish convicts. Contractor, William Richards. Captain Thomas Musgrave.

In 1793, the Amelia brig, Capt. Trotter sailed for n/w America.

In March 1793, the Spaniard Malaspina (originally an Italian from Tuscany) visited Sydney with ships Descubierta/Descuvierta and Atrevida, 11 March, 1793, Two Spanish ships, treated with hospitality, invited two colony officers to a ship for dinner. See story by Bob Beale in The Sydney Morning Herald, 22 May, 1993, a member of the British Library staff has rediscovered three of the pictures from the Malaspina expedition to Sydney in early 1793. Three large ink-and-wash drawings, the deputy map librarian was Mr Peter Barber, who was "examining the contents of an obscure file in a remarkable collection of 50,000 maps, charts, prints and drawings compiled by King George III", the so-called Kings Collections, also with scenes of New York and Toronto. The English King apparently removed the drawings enclosed in a despatch to the then Home Secretary, Mr Dundas, from the then Lt. Gov of the Australian colony, Major Francis Grose, to whom they had been given by the Spaniards ... executed by Don Fernando Brambila ..." Apparently the absence of the drawings had been noted earlier by PRO and scholars lamenting their absence.
Malaspina arrived in January 1793, when Bampton's ship Shah Hormuzear possibly was in Sydney Harbour at the time, it seems for political reasons the Spanish censored scenes depicting the convicts. Malaspina was privately critical of the colony on humanitarian and political grounds, especially about the treatment of the convicts. But Malaspina knew that Britain was keen at the time to promote the colony as a suitable place for emigration. So Bambila painted two sets of scenes, one sanitised for the British; one showing it as it was. One scene kept by the Spanish shows convicts in chains under armed guard being used in teams to pull a wagon, possibly a rick-shaw arrangement. The Spaniards arrived in Sydney on 13 March, 1793, and left on 11 April, only five years after the colony was first established. Malaspina had secret orders to make military and commercial maps, records on the colony, and to find if Sydney was intended as a British naval base with a view to attacking the west coast of Spanish America and even California. Malaspina's second-in-command, Bustamante, had recommended a Spanish invasion of Sydney, which never happened. But when Malaspina's voyage took years, and when he made his final report (on return he became involved in a conspiracy to topple the Spanish royal government), his views were deemed seditious and he spent many years in jail; his reports were suppressed. One of his views, according to a wikipedia page on him, was that Sydney should trade regularly with Manila in the Philippines - and he wanted an association of Spanish traders (with links to Manila and also with Chile) in London to be recognised and promoted.

16 December, 1793, London: John St Barbe tendered a ship Canada (Capt Muirhead) for convict transportation, and on inspection the ship was condemned, replaced by Surprize Capt Patrick Campbell, 110 convicts, at 25 pounds per head, 20 pounds now, five pounds at delivery, as per Third Fleet arrangements under Lt. Bowen, etc., but the ship was found to be in a state to be condemned. This was surprisingly bad form from John St Barbe, who should have known ships far better than to try on such a bad ship for the convict service.

1792-1793: From Providence, Rhode Island, Brown and Francis, in late 1792/1793 had out their trader Hope, Capt. Benjamin Page, to Sydney, thence Canton. Also, one Capt Martin Page is recorded as being on a trader/sealer from Providence, Hope, for owners Brown and Francis, to Sydney thence Canton. Probably, Benjamin and Martin Page were related (?).

1793: Discovery - Capt. George Vancouver; accompanied by Chatham; arrived 12 Feb., 1793, departed 30 Mar., 1793. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1793: Chatham - Lieut. Peter Puget; accompanied Discovery; arrived 12 Feb., 1793. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

28 June and 8 August 1793: For Samuel Enderby Jnr. and Christopher Willoughby. Convict transport William. Shelton´s Accounts No. 9. Ship owned by Enderbys. A whaler by Peru. Departing ?. Arriving Sydney 19 March 1793, Captain William Folger. (A Nantucketeer?). See Cumpston´s Register. On Christopher Willoughby. More to come. A problem person for research by October 2012.

The ship Boddington was perhaps owned by Seale and Co, with managing-owners Thomas Seale (no extra information) and Thomas Allen (no extra information), suggests Gary Sturgess.

The ship Sugar Cane was perhaps owned by [Colonel] Turner and Co, Gary Sturgess suggests. (On whom, no more information arises.)

1793: Ship Butterworth as sent out by alderman William Curtis, English registry, a trader. Captain William Brown.

Year 1794

1794: Sydenham Teast of Bristol, had out Charles Bishop in Nautilus in the Pacific.

1794: Out June, 1794. Donald, Robert, Swift. (?)
King, Thos. Spry. (?) Spencer, Chris, Lucas (?)
Bennet, Daniel, Fanny, (?)
Delano, Harvey, Kitty (?)
10 June, 1794. Yorke, Thos. New Hope, Capt. Joshua Bunker (same, May 1795.
Dec. 1794. Bennett, Daniel, had out Lord Hawkesbury Capt. Henry Mackie, returning 2 Dec.

1794: (Stackpole, pp. 400-401, Appendix). SWF from GB, vessels returning in 1794.
Owners Ship Capt.
Curtis Arnold Wheatley, Patagonia SA
Duncan Chesterfield 180 Duncan
Mangles British Tar 347 Fitch
Mather Prince of Wales 318 Bolton, Coast of Peru, Pacific.
Source: Chalmers Papers/Pub. Lib. NSW. BT-6/95. BT 6/230 PRO.

1794: Speedy (1). Owner Samuel Enderby Snr. Captain Thomas Melville. 8 Jun 1794-2 Aug 1794. Delivers food supplies, thence whaling.

1794: Salamander (2). Owner Unknown. Captain William Irish. 11 Sep 1794-15 Nov 1794. Stores, whaling, India. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Resolution. Owner Locke? Captain John or Matthew Locke. 10 September 1794- 9 Nov 1794. Stores, whaler. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Prince Lee Boo. British. Captain Notknown. Nil as to Hawaii. Exploration. Views civil war on Hawaii, in company with Jackal.

1794: Lady Washington (US). Owner Notknown. Captain Notknown. Honolulu. Nil. Exploration, Views civil war. See Glen Barclay on Pacific History.

1794: Jackal of 1794. British. Owner Notknown. 1793-1794. Nil as to Hawaii. Exploration, Views civil war. In company with Prince Lee Boo and US ship Lady Washington

1794: Fancy snow. Owner Dell. Captain Thomas Edgar Dell. 9 July 1794-29 Sep 1794. Food supplies. Dell? Formerly chief mate of Shah Hormuzear. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Surprize (2). Owner British. Captain Patrick Campbell. 25 Oct 1794 - 17 Dec 1794. Convict transport, to Bengal. Cumpston's Register.

1794: William. Owner Samuel Enderby Snr. Captain William Folger. 10 Mar 1794. Convict transport, whaling by Peru. Bateson. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Atlantic (1). Owner Unknown. Captain Archibald Armstrong. 20 Aug 1791

1794: Arthur (brig). Owner Unknown. Capt Barber. 10 Mar 1794. Food to Sydney, speculation, then to Bengal.

1794: Arthur (US-1794) snow or brig, Owners Brown and Ives (US), Capt Henry Barber, 1793-1794, 1794 at Sydney and Apr 1796. Trader from Providence, RI. Notes from a website say Barber is recorded on n/w American coast of 1794, as George Vancouver saw her moving, it left there on 23 July, she had originally come from Bengal via Port Jackson, was wrecked off Hawaii, From Wace and Lovett.

1794: Ruby of 1794. Owner Sydenham Teast of Bristol. Capt Charles Bishop. 1794-1795. N/W America sealing. To arrive by April 1795. Roe, pp. 6-7. See chronology notes

1794: Experiment (snow). Owners British. Capt Edward M'Clellan. 24 Dec 1794-23 Mar 1795. Spec trader, to Bengal. Goes to Hawkesbury River for cedar and mahogany. Cumpston's Register.

1794: Another convict ship for Australia - William:
Owned by Enderbys, a whaler. Departing ? - Arriving 10 March, 1794. Capt. William Folger.

8 December, 1794. English mariner Charles Bishop in Ruby sailing for Sydenham Teast of Bristol reached Berkely Sound in the Falkland Islands. See May 1795.) Note: Roe, pp. 6-7.

1794: At Honolulu, Hawaii, came in two British ships the Jackal and Prince Lee Boo, (sic) plus the American ship Lady Washington, all three to find themselves viewing a civil war on the islands. (Note: See also on Coffin, Margaret and Colin Kerr, Australia’s Early Whalemen. Sydney, Rigby, 1980., p. 34. Glen Barclay, A History of the Pacific: From the Stone Age to the present day. London. Sidgwick and Jackson. 1978., p. 59.)
By 10 March, 1794, the brig (or snow? ) Arthur Captain Barber was to Bengal on speculation, then to the n/w coast of America. By 26 April, 1794, Captain Barber in Arthur was at Tahiti, and discovered the west of Fiji group of islands on his passage from Sydney to N/W America.

1794: June-July 1794, Capt. Benjamin Page is on trader Halcyon, from Providence, for owners B. page, W. Megee and others, to Sydney thence Canton. (Churchward 1948.)

By 10 March, 1794, the British brig Arthur Captain Barber was to Bengal on speculation, then to the n/w coast of America. By 26 April, 1794, Captain Barber in snow Arthur (?) was at Tahiti, and discovered the west of Fiji group on his passage from Sydney to N/W America.

By June 1794, there returned to Bristol, England, Charles Bishop who now won his employer Sydenham Teast's approbation and an appointment as master of Ruby (a small ship) for a voyage to n/w coast of America, Bishop to reach n/w coast by April 1795, to begin trading at about 45 degrees north, and he must take scrupulous care to observe the requirements of EICo, on which Teast had entered a £25,000 pounds bond. The South Sea Company had to grant approval also for this voyage - see 9 September, 1794. (103) (8 December, 1794. Charles Bishop in Ruby reached Berkely Sound in the Falkland Islands. See May 1795.)

1794: Discovery - Capt. George Vancouver; accompanied by Chatham; arrived 9 Jan., 1794, departed 14 Mar., 1794. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Chatham - Lieut. Peter Puget; accompanied Discovery; arrived 9 January, 1794, departed 14 Mar., 1794. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Britannia - first vessel built in Hawaii; constructed under Vancouver's supervision in Feb, 1794 (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Jefferson - American registry; Capt. Roberts, master; arrived Oct 1794. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Phoenix - Capt. Moore, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Jackal - English registry, schooner, trader; William Brown, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Prince Lee Boo - English registry, Capt. Gordon, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1794: Lady Washington - American registry; Capt. John Kendrick, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

February 1794: Anthony Calvert, Convict transport Surprize. Shelton´s Accounts No. 10. (Re ¨Scotch convicts¨.)

NB: In the 1790s, as convict transportation took up to Australia, a variety of Lords Mayor of Dublin offered to the Irish government to contract for convict transportations, though they mostly had Canada in mind.

Year 1795

1795: May. Eber Bunker had just gotten back from Fleet 3 to London. Went out whaling on Pomona for Alexander and Benjamin. Champion. May 1795, see June 1794, same.

1795: Betsy of 1795. Owner, Edward Faning. Captain Edward Faning. 1795 to Canton, seal skins.

1795: Young William, British owned, Capt James Mortlock, 4 Oct 1795, 29 Oct 1795, Storeship to NSW, to Canton. Cumpston's Register. Said by Gary Sturgess to have been owned by Sir William Leighton (died 1826, see above).

1795: Experiment of 1796. British. Captain Edward M'Clennan. 1795 - 24 Jan 1796 - April 1796. India goods. Cumpston's Register

1795: Endeavour. Master/Owner Captain W. W. Bampton. 1795. 31 May 1795 - 18 Sep 1795. Trading to Sydney NSW from India. M/O? Cumpston's Register.

1795: Ceres. Owners British. Captain Thomas Hedley. 1795 - 23 Jan 1796 - 3 Apr 1796. Trade, to Canton. Cumpston's Register.

1795: Arthur of 1796. Owners Notknown. Captain Barber. 1 Jan 1796 - 3 Apr 1796. To Calcutta, Bengal, Trade, speculation. Cumpston's Register.

1795: Tom Thumb. RN. Capt Matthew Flinders. With George Bass to circumnavigate Tasmania. Sails again in March 1796, Cumpston's Register as Tom Thumb IIb.

At right: Matthew Flinders

1795: Indispensable. Owner, Daniel Bennett. Captain William Wilkinson. 30 Apr 1795-8 June 1794. Convict transport, trade China, Bengal. Cumpston's Register seems to have her arrive April 1796.

1795: HM Providence of 1795. RN. Captain William Robert Boughton. 26 Aug 1795- 13 Oct 1795. Exploration, Nootka Sound. Cumpston's Register.

1795: Another convict ship for Australia - Surprize 2:
Departing 2 May 1794 - Arriving Sydney 25 October, 1795. Capt. Patrick Campbell. Ship carried the "Scottish Martyrs".
Michael Flynn, Settlers and Seditionists: The People of the Convict Ship Surprize, 1794. Sydney, Angela Lind, 1994.

September 1795: Via India, Capt. W. W. Bampton's Endeavour from India ran aground at Dusky Bay, New Zealand South Island. He presumably was on sealing business there. Americans seemed to express no interest in the Dusky Bay area, which had first been mapped by Cook. (Note: See J. C. Garran, 'William Wright Bampton and the Australian Merino', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 58, Parts 1&2, March 1, 1972., pp. 1-12. J. C. Garran, 'Indian Sheep in early New South Wales’, Newsletter, Royal Australian Historical Society, April 1974. J. C., Garran, 'Sheep and other livestock in New South Wales, 1788-1805’, Canberra and District Historical Society Journal, March 1970., pp. 1-17. J. C. Garran and Leslie White, Merinos, Myths and Macarthurs: Australian Graziers and their sheep, 1788-1900. Canberra, Australian National University Press, 1985.

At Canton 1795: American Edward Fanning, on 93-ton Betsy, with sealskins. And John Jay, Capt Samuel Hill, at Canton.

1795, Delight, owned by?, Capt. Sturgis.

22 May, 1795: Roe - Charles Bishop on Ruby reached north of Columbia River trading about North-West America, (see October).

1795: HM Reliance. RN. Owners Not given. 7 Sep 1795 - 21 Jan 1796. Govt, Norfolk Island. Cumpston's Register.

1795: Ruby - Charles Bishop, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1795: Mercury - Capt. Barnett, master. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1795: HM Reliance. RN. Owners Not given. 7 Sep 1795 - 21 Jan 1796. Govt, Norfolk Island. Cumpston's Register.

27 January 1795: For Alexander Towers (his first contract). Convict transport Sovereign. Shelton´s Accounts No. 11. A still-untraceable name.

Alexander Towers

Pathway to convict contractor Alexander Towers active maybe 1795 - little information so far. Still a problem person for research by October 2012. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism).

James Colnett

James Colnett. More to come.

17 October 1795: For whaler Daniel Bennett of Blackheath (his first contract), re convict transport Indispensable. Shelton´s Accounts No. 12.

Daniel Bennett

Daniel Bennett - whaler -

For some information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection.

Year 1796

1796: Providence - Capt. William Robert Broughton; arrived 1 Jan., 1796, departed 20 Feb., 1796. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

January 1796: Re ship Providence. She was launched in January 1796 at Dusky Sound, New Zealand. Her building began 1792-1793 by a sealing vessel who found their own ship would be wrecked at Dusky Bay in 1795. (Aspects of NZ Maritime History)

1796: Arthur - Henry Barber, master (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1796: 21 June, London whaler Daniel Bennett had out whaler Lord Hawkesbury.

1796: Prince of Wales (transport). British. Captain Unknown. 1 Nov 1796 - 23 Nov 1796. Transport/victualler. To China. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Grand Turk. Supercargo Megee. Captain Unknown. Unknown. 23 Aug 1796. Food and supplies. Cumpston's Register. (Is she owned still by her original owner, Elias Haskett Derby?) To Manila and Canton

1796: Sovereign. British. Captain George Storey. 5 Nov 1796. Storeship, Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Marquis Cornwallis. Owners Hogan and Co. Captain Michael Hogan. 9 Aug 1795 - 11 Feb 1796. 5 May 1796. Convict transport, then to India. Cumpston's Register

1796: L'Atrevida (Intrepid). Spanish Navy. Captain Jose de Bustamenta y Guerra. 1795. 12 March 1792 - 20 April 1792. Exploration about Australia. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Assistance. British. Not given. 17 Mar 1796 - 1796. To Dusky Sound, find castaways, whaling. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Atlantic (of 1796) Owners, S., C. and S. Enderby. Captain Henry Delano. 1796. Captured by Spain. Whaling. Enderby, Paul's Wharf. AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 196.

1796: Sylph. British owned. Captain Unknown. 17 Nov 1796 - 6 Dec 1796. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1796: Susan (of 1796). Owners of Rhode Island. Captain Trotter. 1796. 19 April 1796. Trader speculative to Sydney, to Canton. From Providence, RI. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1796: Washington. US Owners Notknown. Capt Roger Simpson. Exploration. At Sandwich Island meets Britisher Charles Bishop, the two captains become friends

1796: Indispensable (1) Owner Unknown. Captain Wilkinson. 30 Apr 1796. Convict transport. See Bateson. Another convict ship for Australia - Indispensable: Capt. Wilkinson.
Arriving Sydney 30 April, 1796. Carrying female prisoners.

1796: Campbell and Co. of Calcutta in 1796 are beginning to deal to Sydney, New South Wales. Campbells also wanted to ship saltpetre to Sydney for salting meat, which was allowed.
Singh, Agency Houses, p. 154-158.

1796: Another convict ship for Australia - Sovereign: Capt. George Storey.
Arriving Sydney 5 November, 1796.

1795: Another convict ship for Australia - Marquis Cornwallis: Capt. Michael Hogan, Master/owner.
Departing Cork, 9 August, 1795. Arriving Sydney 11 February, 1796. Had risk of mutiny by prisoners-guards (part of the NSW Corps).

The latest on Hogan is as per this e-mail to The Blackheath Connection of 14 January 2004 from Virginia, USA
Dear Dan, I was a frequent user of your Blackheath Connection when researching a non-fiction book now published as Captain Hogan: Sailor, Merchant, Diplomat on Six Continents.
It tells the true story of Michael Hogan (1766-1833) who traveled the world's oceans and lived in and traded with all six continents. Among other things, it tells the full story of his carriage of Irish convicts to New South Wales on his ship, the Marquis Cornwallis, in 1796. Full details are at: (now a broken link): http://SixContinents.home.att.net/
Kind regards, Michael H. Styles, 7004 Sylvan Glen Lane, Fairfax Station, VA 22039 USA
Follows some detail on the book: Captain Hogan: Sailor, Merchant, Diplomat on Six Continents, by Michael H. Styles - The true story of Michael Hogan, an adventurous "seaman, merchant and diplomat" who traveled the world's oceans and lived on six continents during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Set in the rich historical context of the times, the action takes place in Ireland, London, Bombay, Calcutta, Canton, New South Wales, Cape of Good Hope, New York, Havana, Valparaiso and Washington, D.C.
Critically acclaimed - ISBN 0-9744347-0-1 * 434 pages * Bibliography/Index Biography/18th & 19th Century History * Paper * US$22.95
Also by Michael H. Styles - Michael Hogan: A Family Addendum: A companion booklet with additional background about the book, Capt. Michael Hogan's children and grandchildren through about 1900, and a genealogical record of all his descendants. Of principal interest to Hogan family descendants. ISBN 0-9744347-2-8 * 71 pages * Second Edition * Paper * US$6.00 JUST PUBLISHED! (January 2004). Email to Six Continent Horizons, at: SixContinents@att.net

1796++: A dark horse in trading matters was surgeon Augustus Beyer, on Capt. Dennot's Britannia 1796-1797. Rather mysteriously, Beyer became agent for the NSW Corps Officers at Calcutta until 1801. What Beyer actually did remains very hard to say.

1796: Grand Turk. American ship. William Fairchild Magee owner or supercargo, Capt. Francis Mallaby. Another report is: 1796: From Boston/Salem: Capt Francis Mallaby in August-Sep 1796 is on trader Grand Turk, supercargo being Megee, to Sydney thence Canton.

1796: Otter, owned Ebenezer Dorr, sealer, to China, American ship. 18 February, 1796, Otter, Capt. Ebenezer Dorr, departed Sydney. 1796: From Boston, Capt. Ebenezer Dorr in Jan-Feb 1796 is on sealer Otter, to Sydney. (And in 1811, one Capt. Dorr for unnamed owners had the ship or brig Brutus from Boston to Launceston and Hobart.)

1796: Lady Washington, owned by John Howel and Co., Capt. Robert or Roger Simpson.

1796: Grand Turk, William Fairchild Magee, owner or supercargo, Capt. Francis Mallaby.

19 February, 1796: Charles Bishop in Ruby (damaged), reaches the Sandwich Islands, and there met the American snow Washington Capt Roger Simpson. And the two captains became close friends. Roe, p. 10, see June. Meanwhile, in 1796, the earliest US vessel to sail the Californian coast was the Otter, see below, visiting Monterey. Seven years later the Lelia Bird, (referred to by sailors as "Lily Bird") the first US otter-fur sealer, put into San Diego. Such US sealers had to compete with a growing Russian presence on that coast, as well as dealing with the Mexican government. (Note: K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways. University of South Carolina Press, 1988., p. 57.

1796: As the British take the Cape of Good Hope, EICo fears a rise of illicit trade, so that deputy-chairman David Scott discounted ideas that Botany Bay (convict) ships might engage in smuggling; he noted that such ships had a freight out with government, freights for EICo if any were regulated by the Court of Directors.
(See Alan Frost, Convicts and Empire: A Naval Question, 1776-1811. Oxford University Press, 1980., p. 192.)

On the international trading of David Scott Snr see B. R. Tomlinson, 'From Campsie to Kedgeree: Scottish Enterprise, Asian Trade and the Company Raj', Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 36, No. 4, October 2002, pp. 769-791. (From jstor at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3876474 – On David Scott Snr.) Also, B. R. Tomlinson, (School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London), ‘Notes on Current Research: The Empire of Enterprise: Scottish business networks in Asian Trade, 1765-1832’, available online, 2001.

Image at right: Thought to be David Scott Snr, East Indies merchant, adviser to Henry Melville Lord Dundas.

Thought to be Merchant David Scott Snr

1796-1802: Publication of a Report (1796) on Providing Accommodation for the Trade and Shipping of the Port of London: Capt. Thomas King (earlier of slaver firm Camden, Calvert and King and said to be of Blackheath, London, with a wife, Sarah Unknown), an Elder Brother of Trinity House, pp. 274-283; John St Barbe (of Blackheath), pp. 280ff. King, p. 283, deposing to a committee of inquiry, said he had been acquainted with the River Thames for more than 30 years, the last 12 of which he had been residing in London and concerned with shipping. St. Barbe deposed on 18 April, 1796, and was described as a ship broker. A ship owner, Mellish, also concerned with whaling, gave evidence on 18 April.
(In Reports From Committees of The House of Commons, Vol. XIV. 1793-1802. Reprinted by Order of the House in 1802., Port of London Authority Library, Poplar, Isle of Dogs, from p. 276.)

1796: Another convict ship for Australia - Britannia, 500 tons:
Capt. Thomas Dennott. Departing Cork 10 December 1796 - Arriving Sydney 27 May 1797. Dennot was admonished for harsh treatment of convicts. Ship regarded as "a hell ship" with mutiny risks, a high death rate. Surgeon was Augustus Jacob Beyer, who by now has his third voyage on a convict ship to Australia, and his last.

9 August 1796: For Thomas Patrickson (his first contract). Convict transport Ganges 700 tons. Shelton´s Accounts No. 13.

Thomas Patrickson

Thomas Patrickson master/owner of the 1797 convict transport Ganges (see a Wikipedia page on her arriving to Sydney on 2 June 1797). Ganges was launched in India in 1794, owned by Patrickson. Ganges left Sydney in December 1797 for China. Still a problem person for research by October 2012. Patrickson has been on an American trader Philadelphia to Sydney then Norfolk Island thence China in 1792. Earlier, Governor King had seen Patrickson at Cape of Good Hope and asked him to bring supplies to Sydney, which Patrickson did, from Philadelphia, including 569 barrells of American beef, wine, run, gin, tobacco, pitch, tar. Some of Patrickson´s cargo was bought by officers of the NSW Corps. Patrickson then took supplies to Norfolk Island.

The ship Sylph of 1796 has been associated by Prof. Sturgess with (as owners?) John White (no information), Joshua Roome (no information) and John Green (no information), and/or with Faith and Co. of London. (George Faith?)

The ship Young William was perhaps owned by Aspinall and Co., suggests Prof. Gary Sturgess.

Year 1797

1797: Barwell of 1798. British. Captain John Cameron. Probably owned by Sir Richard Neave (?). Arrived Sydney 18 May 1798 - 17 Sep 1798. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register. Risks of convict mutiny arose her voyage. Website material on her indicates she was usually in East India Company employ, owners still unknown. She embarked her convicts on the Thames on 15-18 October 1797 and left Portsmouth on 7 Nov 1797. She was thence China and apparently she took home 300 French prisoners from Madras. Follows material lifted from a wikipedia page on John Buyers - John Buyers was the first officer of the brig Barwell in 1799 on her voyage to China. John Turnbull was second officer. On their return to London, Buyers and Turnbull contacted regrettably unnamed London mechants with an eye to scouting the Pacific in more detail in a ship they'd acquire. Later Buyers was the first officer of the brig Margaret as an investment he and John Turnbull made in Turnbull / Buyers and Co. John Turnbull being his second officer and historian.[Note 1] Margaret, of ten guns, sailed under Buyers with Turnbull as supercargo,The Margaret, after some delay, left England on 2 July, 1800, and sailing by way of the Cape of Good Hope, reached Sydney in February 1801. They reached the Society Islands in September 1802. After trading with various islands in the group, the ship sailed for the Hawaiian Islands, arriving at Oahu on 17 December. After trading for salt at Oahu, Kauai, Niihau, and Hawaii island, Margaret sailed south on 21 January, 1803. The ship sailed in among the Tuamotuan atolls and, on 6 March, 1803, Nukutepipi, one of the Duke of Gloucester Islands, was visited and named Margaret Island, after the ship, though previously discovered in 1767. On March 10, Makemo was discovered and named Phillips Island, after a late sheriff of London (Sheriff in 1807), Sir Richard Phillips (1767-1840 who was a colourful if not eccentric fellow who died at Brighton). On the same day, Taenga was discovered and named Holts Island. Some other islands were sighted but they had been previously "discovered" and were not landed on. Once in Tahiti, Turnbull set up an establishment ashore for buying pigs and salting them down with the salt obtained in the Hawaiian Islands. All round, Turnbull visited Sydney/Port Jackson twice in two years, during which Hobart had been established.
Margaret set out to trade for hogs with the neighboring islands, but she ran onto a reef in the Palliser Islands and was wrecked. Buyers and his crew, after considerable hardship, managed to reach Tahiti on a roughly constructed barge made of planks from the wreck. A ship which called at Tahiti afforded passage to Sydney for both Turnbull and Buyers. They left Sydney on 16 March, 1804, in Calcutta and reached England via Cape Horn. Though a financial failure, the voyage obtained interesting information about the Society and Hawaiian Islands and the discovery of the islands Margaret, Phillips, and Holt in the Tuamotu Archipelago.
Foonote 1. ^ John Turnbull (1805). A voyage round the world: in the years 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803, and 1804, in which the author visited the principal islands in the Pacific Ocean and the English settlements of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island. 1. R. Phillips by T. Gillet. http://books.google.com/books?id=Fqj_SJuA3_oC. Meanwhile, from the Internet, Barwell seems to have no owners and none of John Cameron, Sir Richard Phillips, Buyers or Turnbull seem to have any family at all. -Ed

1797: whaleboat, RN. With explorer George Bass. 1798. Discover Western Port Bay. See notes.

1797: Sydney Cove (of 1797). Owners, Campbell, Clarke and Co. Captain Guy Hamilton. 1796-8 Feb 1797. Wrecked at Preservation Island. Commercial, shipwreck. Associated is Robert Campbell Snr later of Sydney. Cumpston's Register.

1797: Abigail (US), from Rhode Island, Capt. Chris Thornton, Feb 1798, to Sydney, Manila, Canton. (From Wace and Lovett.)

1797: Ganges. Owner, Captain Thomas Patrickson. 1796-1797. 2 June 1797-Aug 1797. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1797: Mercury of 1797. Owners not given (US). Captain Not given. 1796-11 Jan 1797. Feb 1797. Sealer at Dusky Bay, Manila, N/w America, China. Cumpston's Register.

1796-1797: - Howay lists Sally a Boston brig Capt Joseph Pierpont. Howay lists Lady Washington in n/w trade, owned John Howel and Assocs, Capt Roger/Robert Simpson. Howay at some point has Otter of Boston Ebenezer Dorr for Dorr and Sons with aboard, Muir of the Scottish Martyrs.

1797: Reference item: Michael Nash, Cargo for the Colony: The 1797 Wreck of the Merchant Ship Sydney Cove. Navarine Publishing Co., Woden, ACT, 2002, 199pp.

1797: Another convict ship for Australia - Lady Shore, Capt. James Willcocks, probably a master/owner.
Ship had mutiny and did not arrive Sydney in 1797. Carried the notorious swindler, Major Semple/Major Semple Lisle (who later ended in Australia as a convict). Departing May 1797. Had earlier been used as an East Indiaman. Owned or part-owned by her master, James Willcocks, who was killed by a Frenchman, Jean Baptist Prevot. Ship seized by military guard and sailed to South America (ended at Montevideo). Carried one male and 66 women convicts.

1797: Sailed Abigail, from Rhode Island, Capt. Chris Thornton. 15-23 February, 1796, at Sydney, ship Abigail, Capt Christopher Thornton, merchants on speculation, thence Manila and Canton. (Hao pp. 13ff in 1795, Samuel Shaw was a supercargo on Ann and Hope, by 1800 he had established as a resident commission agent in China on his own account, and in p. 19 of Hao, T. H. Perkins and Co. of Boston opened a branch at Canton, with John P. Cushing in charge. Cushing in Hao, pp. 29ff came home with a fortune of $600,000, retired by 1828 and let William Sturgis manage the funds. Cushing withdrew from China trade and went into railroads, textiles and various “modern” investments). Then resident agents acted for B. C. Wilcocks of Philadelphia, and Daniel Stansbury of Baltimore.

19 February, 1796: Chas Bishop in Ruby (damaged), reaches the Sandwich Islands, and there met the American snow Washington Capt Roger Simpson. and the two captains became close friends. (Roe, p. 10.)

1797-1798: Convict transport for Australia - Ganges, 700 tons: Capt. Thomas Patrickson.
Arriving Sydney 2 June 1798.

1797-1798: Convict transport for Australia - Barwell, 796 tons: Capt. John Cameron.
An attempted mutiny. Departed Portsmouth 7 November, 1797 - Arriving Sydney 18 May 1798.

1797-1798: Convict transport for Australia - Britannia, 301 tons:
Capt. Robert Turnbull. A whaler owned by Enderbys. Arriving Sydney 19 July 1798.

1797: Britannia (2). Owners British. Captain Thomas Dennott. 1796- 27 May 1797- 2 Aug 1797. Convict transport. Owner Enderby maybe. Cumpston's Register.

1797: HM Reliance (2). RN. Captain Henry Waterhouse RN. 26 June 1797. Storeship to Sydney via CGH. Cumpston's Register.

1797: Nautilus. Owner Sydenham Teast of Bristol. Captain Charles Bishop. 14 May 1798 - 7 Oct 1798. To VDL, Tahiti, Missionaries, pork, sealing. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register

1797: Lady Shore. Owner James Willcocks (part or full). Captain James Willcocks. May 1797. Lost by mutiny. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1797: 1/2 July 1798 -- 20 Aug 1798. Whaler, South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1797: Deptford brig. British. Owner Not given. 1797- 20 Sep 1797. Dec 1797. Goods on speculation, Madras, Coromandel Coast. Cumpston's Register. NB: Not a convict transport.

1797: 1/2 July 1798 -- 20 Aug 1798. Whaler, South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

On Joseph Lachlan, agent for convict contractors (and so far, very badly explained indeed). But relevant Information can turn up eventually.

Joseph Lachlan Jnr. (Or, The Younger). In 1828 he was of 22 Great Aile Street, London which mysteriously (according to Tracey Treloar in 2017) was also an address given by Convict Contractor Thomas Ward qv. He was also of Goodman's Fields in Middlesex, as a ship broker, by 1832. See in Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 389, he is maybe linked to ship Amphitrite by 1833. (Byrnes, Blackheath Connection. Broeze on Brooks.) Lachlan connected with Joseph Somes (see below), and Lachlan in 1828 negotiated with the Admiralty over chartering of the Parmelia, owned by Somes, the ship that brought Governor Stirling to WA in 1829. Lachlan was once the executor of the Will of [Samuel] Moates, qv, an ancestor of a correspondent of long ago, Ian Berryman. (Per letters of March 1996 from Ian Berryman in WA. Item online, London Gazette, 24 January 1890, Notice re dissolving of partnership between Joseph Lachlan and William Henry Carrington, as ship and insurance brokers, as Lachlan and Carrington, was dissolved mutually on 31 December 1890, Joseph Lachlan to meet the debts and he will continue as Lachlan and Co.)
Online is a blacksheep index with a Joseph Lachlan of Dartmouth. Lachlan and Co. arranged the ship Boyne of 1838 re the Admiralty, 619 tons, a barque ship which was 22 years old, built at Calcutta in 1807, embarked emigrants at Cromarty Scotland and later renamed Moffatt to South Australia as Moffatt. Lachlan as a ship broker at 77 Cornhill has something to do as an executor with the Will of Robert Lachlan of Calcutta, then of 14 Salisbury Street, Strand Midx., or 4 Grosvenor Place, Brixton; this Robert Lachlan died 11 November 1870.

On Joseph Lachlan the Younger as a convict contractor. He wrote to J. Coghill in Sydney on 3 Aug 1829 to recommend young Mr Samuel Tyssen Royes for employment as a clerk or farm manager, Lachlan had known Coghill's father for 30 years. Lachlan in the ShipList website was active with bulk convict contracting to 1846 at least. In Internet IGI is a Joseph Lachlan batch C097431 christened 8 July 1774 London Wall, Scotch Church, son of Robert and Sarah. In 1828 he is of 22 Great Aile Street, Goodmans Fields, London as Lachlan, Sons and and a partner [Norman] MacLeod. A convict contractor had also been at this address 22 Great Alie St. He was operating as a ship broker by 1832 or earlier and may have been linked to a convict ship Amphitrite in 1833? (See in Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 389>) See Byrnes, Blackheath Connection. Broeze on Brooks. Lachlan at some point connected with Joseph Somes, and Lachlan in 1828 negotiated with the Admiralty over chartering of the Parmelia, owned by Somes, the ship that brought Gov Stirling to WA in 1829. Lachlan here was once the executor of the Will of Moates. Item online, London Gazette, 24 January 1890, Notice re dissolving of partnership between Joseph Lachlan and William Henry Carrington, as ship and insurance brokers, as Lachlan and Carrington, was dissolved mutally on 31 Dec 1890, Joseph Lachlan to meet the debts and he will continue as Lachlan and Co. Lachlan and Co. arranged the ship Boyne of 1838 re Admiralty, 619 tons, barque ship was 22 yrs old, built in Calcutta in 1807, and embarked emigrants at Cromarty Scotland and was later renamed Moffatt and went to Sth Australia as Moffatt. He as a ship broker at 77 Cornhill has something to do as executor with the Will of Robert Lachlan of Calcutta, then of 14 Salisbury Street, Strand, Midx., or 4 Grosvenor Place, Brixton; this Rbt Lachlan died 11 November 1870. Joseph Lachlan had solicitors Rickards and Walker at 29 Lincoln´s Inn Fields. From a NZ website we find, a notice appeared in the “N.Z. Journal.” 17/9/1842, reading thus:—“For Nelson and Wellington, N.Z. direct; under engagement to the N.Z. Company. To sail, 1st Oct. (1842), ship “Indus,” 425 tons. D. McKenzie, master. Lachlan and McLeod, agents, 62 Cornhill. See online the Edinburgh Gazette, for Friday 24 April to Tuesday 28 April 1818, List of Bankruptcies including Joseph Lachlan (maybe re Solicitors Dennets and Co?) of 22 Great Alie Street, Goodmans Fields London, Midx ship broker. UK National archives webpage, Lachlan and Macleod were insured at 22 Great Alie St (Goodman's Fields) in 1806; Lachlan was at this address as a partner with Macleod. In 1840 per NZ registers (maybe re a ship, Java. This Lachlan seems in 1834 to be executor with Thomas Ward of Captain William Harrison of ship Strathfieldsay, with Ward giving the same address as Lachlan (?) There was a James Lachlan and an A. Lachlan also of Great Alie Street. There is a marriage notice in Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany, Vol. 25, p. 709. There is an image of relationships of persons represented in The James Duncan Papers, William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, provided by late 2013 by Prof. Gary Sturgess.
----- Forwarded Message ----- From: tracey treloar To: "kencozens@yahoo.co.uk" Sent: Tuesday, 18 July 2017. Dear Mr Cozens, I was doing a little online research and came across your Merchant Networks site. I have a little information which may be useful to you. With regard to the ship brokering company Lachlans and MacLeod, the MacLeod half of the company was my great, great, grandfather's brother, Norman Turner MacLeod (1799-1885). He was also a member of The London Artillery Company HAC , for 62 years. He left no descendants. Unfortunately I have no information about Mr Lachlan, but if you would like further information regarding Norman MacLeod I am happy to supply it. Kind regards Tracey Treloar (née McLeod) South Australia.
Notes for Norman Turner Macleod as partner of Joseph Lachlan includes: He and wife Howse had no children. This man retired in 1869 but he left bequests to the Lachlan family, had a friend Thomas Tennant Lachlan, and Joseph his partner had children Eliza and George Lachlan. He was of Stepney, then of Newington, then of 8 Kennington Place, Lambeth Surrey, then of 24 Blenheim Road, St John's Wood London.
We also find that ... from directories/newspapers, Norman Turner was a partner in: 1837 Lachlans and Macleod located at 22 Great Alie St (was this with Joseph Lachlan Snr?).As we find that for 1840-1842, Lachlan, Sons and Macleod were located at 22 Great Alie St (I think this is Joseph Lachlan snr, Joseph Lachlan jnr (b.1804) and Thomas Tennant Lachlan (b.1814) - and for 1843-1861 Lachlans and Macleod were located at 62 Cornhill. Then 3 August, 1869, Lachlan, Macleod and Company had a partnership with Thomas Tennant Lachlan, Joseph Lachlan and William Henry Carrington, located at 77 Cornhill which was dissolved (Norman Turner Macleod withdrawing) and the company continued as Lachlan and Company; though 1873, Thomas Tennant Lachlan was declared bankrupt and withdrew from the partnership. The company became Lachlan and Carrington, located at 77 Cornhill.

From a New Zealand website we find, A notice appeared in the “N.Z. Journal.” 17/9/1842, reading thus: — “For Nelson and Wellington, N.Z. direct; under engagement to the N.Z. Company. To sail, 1st Oct. (1842), ship “Indus,” 425 tons. D. McKenzie, master. Lachlan and McLeod, agents, 62 Cornhill.
There was also in London at some time, an agency known as Lachlan, Sons and McLeod, who are difficult to trace. See the note below on Captain William Harrison of ship Ocean. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism.)

For more on Lachlan (still a major problem name for research by October 2012.) New information arises in July 2017 from Tracey Treloar (nee Macleod, of South Australia). Lachlan had a younger partner, Norman Turner Macleod (1798/1799-1883) of Mile End, London, who had married Rebecca Louise Howse (1818-1899 died Ramsgate) but had no children. This Norman Turner Macleod (who retired in 1869 having joined Lachlan in the late 1830s after being an apprentice to convict contractor, Thomas Ward) was son of Normand Macleod sometime of Jamaica (no parents given, Normand being an archaic Scottish form of Norman) and husband of Catherine Ann Lithgow, daughter of Hamilton Lithgow died 1793 and Elizabeth Wotton. This Catherine Lithgow also had an unmarried daughter Ann and a ship's captain, son William Lithgow Macleod married to Helen Calock. (Helen Calock had 7-8 children, maybe four girls and four boys, and she, husband and family emigrated to New South Wales in the 1850s.) Meanwhile, Norman T. Macleod (died 1883), left 100 pounds to his former partner, Joseph Lachlan; and to Lachlan's children Eliza (not so far retraced) and George (not so far retraced). He when he died had a friend, Thomas Tennant Lachlan. Norman Turner Macleod retired in 1869. (Per Tracey Treloar in 2017 re Will of Normand Macleod.) NTM had been successively of Stepney, then of Newington, then of 8 Kennington Place, then of 24 Blenheim Road, St John's Wood, London. NTM was also a member of London Artillery Company for up to 62 years.

William Henry Carrington

On William Henry Carrington. (Still a problem person for research by October 2012.) The question has arisen: Does he become a ship broker/convict contractor with Joseph Lachlan the Younger? On the Internet are several genealogies which mention a man of this name, but so far it is impossible to tell which of them might be the man in question.

Lachlan: Citation: Data from the website www.theshipslist.com on the Net since 1999 by S. Swiggum and M. Kohli, file for Vessels Carrying Convicts from Great Britain, 1839-1846, A Return of all ships or Vessels hired for the conveyance of Convicts from Great Britain and Ireland, between the Ist January 1839 and the 30th June 1846, stating the Ships´ Names, Tonnage, Owner´s Name, Broker´s or Agent´s Name, Class of Ship, Rate of Freight, and when the same commenced, Number of Convicts taken on Board, when Sailed, when Sailed, Amount of Demurrage (if any), and whether engaged by Public Tender or otherwise- (in Continuation of Parliamentary Paper, No. 244, of Session 1839). All vessels were engaged by Public Tender. The original information for 1839-1846 came to government from James Meek, Comptroller of Victualling and Transport Services. The data derives from British Parliamentary Papers (BPP), LXV, (573).

Year 1798

1798: Hunter (of 1798). Owners, Campbell, Clarke and Co of India. Captain Fern. 10 Jun 1798 - 20 Aug 1798. Speculative trade to NSW. Robert Campbell Snr. Cumpston's Register. (See James Broadbent, Suzanne Rickardand Maergaret Steven, India, China Australia: Trade and Society, 1788-1850. Sydney, Historic Houses Trust of NSW, 2003., p. 68.)

1798: Francis (Reed). Local NSW ship. Sailed by William Reed. 20 Jan 1798 - 20 Jan 1798. To Preservation Island. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Diana. Whaler. Owner/Captain. John Lock. 1797 - 20 Aug 1798. Whaler via CGH to South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register. NB: Not a convict transport.

1798: Cornwall. Whaler, British. Details not given.

1798: Semiramis (of 1798). Owners, Wm. Handy and Jacob Smith. Captain Jacob Smith. Trader, to China from Newport, Rhode Island. From Wace and Lovett.

1798: US ship, Unknown owners, Captain Jacob Smith. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney - 1 Oct 1798 - 7 Oct 1798 and in 1799. Fishery, to China. From Rhode Island. Cumpston's Register

1798: Norfolk (of 1798).

1798: Pomona. Whaler, British. Owner Unknown. 1797 - 20 Aug 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Nautilus brig. Unknown. Unknown. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney.

27 February 1797: For James Willcocks (his first contract), master/owner. Convict transport Lady Shore. Shelton´s Accounts No. 14.

On James Willcocks

This file remains Work-in-Progress

Re merchant ship Lady Shore c1797. She was built 1793 in Hull, 316 tons, barque-rigged, for East India service. Willcocks was her captain in 1796 when she was captured of CGH by a French corvette Le Moineau Capt. Tayeau. By strange sets of circumstances, Willcocks retained possession of her, though as a prize ship she was no longer EICo property. A known painting of her was probably commissioned by Willcocks.

The ship Prince of Wales (2) was perhaps owned by Staniforth and Co, suggests Gary Sturgess.

22 September 1797: For William Lennox (his first contract) and Captain Edward Redman. Convict transport Barwell and later for China. Shelton´s Accounts No. 15. Barwell was owned or part-owned by Sir Richard Neave, Gary Sturgess suggests. Used at least once to Bombay. A Wikipedia page on this ship notes she was a 796-ton merchantman, built by the shipyard of John and William Wells at Deptford the East India Co. work. In 1804 she was bought by Fletcher and Co. of London for the Lisbon run and apparently in 1811 was stolen by her commander, Captain John Poole. This website has received e-mail from parties named Hughes wanting to find an image of Barwell.

William Lennox

William Lennox died at Hornfey in 1802 in a Gentleman´s Magazine Obituary where he is regarded as a very capable man. He dealt with Michael Hogan, a sometime Convict contractor. Began with crews of EICo ships, became managing partner of David Scott Jnr and Co. See B. R. Tomlinson, 'From Campsie to Kedgeree: Scottish Enterprise, Asian Trade and the Company Raj', Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 36, No. 4, October 2002, pp.769-791 from jstor at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3876474 - Is his son William George Illegit? His heir is his daughter. Of 8 New Bond Street London. Possibly a banker in Edinburgh then manager of David Scott Jnr and Co. of which William Fairlie was a partner. See also re info from David Gibbon re Maj-General William Lennox. Byrnes, The Blackheath Connection, p. 97. There is still no easy explanation of why a senior associate of any David Scott company (Snr. or Jnr), which would have had East India business, would be involved in convict contracting to Australia.

Follows an impression of the Lennox genealogy.

Descendants of John Lennox of Ballacorach
1. Of Ballacorach Lennox John I (d.1755) sp: Stewart Margaret
2. Of India Lennox Alexander (d.1797) sp: LNotknown Miss
3. Lennox Ann sp: Pauling Richard (c.1813;m.1809)
3. Lennox Elizabeth sp: Harwood Joseph
2. Emigrant to America Lennox Robert (d.1785)
2. Of Antermony Lennox John (d.1804)
2. Lennox Hugh (d.1770)
2. Lennox James (d.1770)
2. Managed Woodhead estate in Scotland Lennox William (b.1722;d.1800) sp: Robertson Margaret
3. Managing partner David Scott Jnr and Co Lennox William (c.1797;d.1802) sp: LNotknown Miss
4. Major-General Lennox William George of HEIC0 (b.1798;d.1884) sp: deLaval Marie Hyacinth Oclanis (b.1806;m.1822) 5. Lennox Margaret Oclanis sp: Lamb William Burges
5. Lennox Charles William sp: Oliver Rosalia
6. Lennox Ermentine Helen sp: Mackenzie-Hughes Edward W.
6. Lennox Mathilda Oclanis Rosalia sp: McCreary J.
6. Lennox Malcolm George sp: McNamara Mary
5. Lennox Isabelle Oclanis sp: Bost Timothy
4. Lennox Miss heiress
3. Of Woodhead wife2 Lennox Cecilia sp: Of Kincaid Kincaid John (d.1832)
4. Kincaid John Lennox (b.1802;d.1892) sp: Of Craigends Maxwell Frances
5. Kincaid Margaret sp: MP Conservative Bateman-Hanbury Charles (b.1827;d.1912) sp: Baron7 Strangford Smythe George Augustus Frederick Percy Sidney (b.1818;d.1857)
6. Baron8 Strangford Smythe Percy Ellen Algernon (b.1825;d.1869)
3. Lennox Margaret (d.1833)
2. Lennox Margaret heir
2. heiress of Lennox Lennox Cecilia
2. Lennox Jane.

This file remains Work-in-Progress

London: Pathway to convict contractor William Lennox (died 1802). (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism.)

Robert Charnock

For so far minimal information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection.

Further on Robert Charnock: Some doubts arise on Charnock´s genealogy as to any correct identification of the convict contractor in question. The doubts arise due to a major discrepancy with genealogies available on the Internet regarding a Scots academic, Sir Daniel Keyte Sandford (1798 1838), a professor of Greek at Edinburgh University. Sandford was son of Rev. Daniel Sandford and Helen Frances Catherine Douglas, who were parents also of Frances Catherine Sandford (died 1875) wife of Rev Charles Lane (died 1879). This Helen Douglas has six known children. Professor Sandford is taken to have married Henrietta Cecilia Charnock (1800-1878) who had two daughters, Cecilia Catherine Charlotte Sandford and Eliza Helen Charnock Sandford; and the middle-naming of Eliza as Charnock would seem to specify her mother´s maiden name. However, a discrepant website gives the professor´s wife as Cecilia Catherine Charnock, daughter of a little-known John Charnock. This Cecilia Catherine Charnock is taken to be mother of first and last Baron Sandford, Francis Sandford (1824-1893 who married Margaret Buchanan Finlay), Sir Herbert Bruce Sandford (1826-1892) and Rev. Daniel Fox Sandford (1831-1906). There is no suggestion yet found however which suggests that the Professor had two wives both named Charnock, which is not of course impossible.
However, the alternative name given for a wife of the professor, Henrietta Cecilia Charnock, is taken to be the only daughter of Robert Charock (the convict contractor died about 1805, and no parent-names given) and Elizabeth Parish, the only daughter of Scots-British financier in Hamburg, John Parish (1742-1829) and Henrietta Tod from South Leith. There are, however, few hints that any grand-daughter of John Parish married any Professor Sandford, the available Parish genealogy does NOT indicate this.
And so problems arise of cross-connecting several Scots genealogies here. These problems will be followed up here in due course. Firstly, the present writer will have to re-research the genealogies concerned.

1798-1800: David Scott Snr, director of EICo, his son David Scott Jnr, traded 1800-1810 with Robert Campbell at Port Jackson/Sydney.

1798, David Scott Jnr a director, EICo. 1800-1810, in London, David Scott Jnr dealt with Robert Campbell.

1798: Hunter (of 1798). Owners, Campbell, Clarke and Co. of India. Captain Fern. 10 Jun 1798 - 20 Aug 1798. Speculative trade to NSW. Robert Campbell Snr. Cumpston's Register. (See James Broadbent, Suzanne Rickard and Margaret Steven, India, China Australia: Trade and Society, 1788-1850. Sydney, Historic Houses Trust of NSW, 2003., p. 68.)

1798: Francis (Reed). Local NSW ship. Sailed by William Reed. 20 Jan 1798 - 20 Jan 1798. To Preservation Island. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Eliza of 1798. Whaler, British. Owner Unknown. 1797 -- 4 July 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Diana. Whaler. Owner/Captain. John Lock. 1797 - 20 Aug 1798. Whaler via CGH to South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Cornwall. Whaler, British. Details not given.

1798: Semiramis (of 1798). Owners, Wm. Handy and Jacob Smith. Captain Jacob Smith. Trader, to China from Newport, Rhode Island. From Wace and Lovett.

1798: US ship, Unknown owners, Captain Jacob Smith. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney - 1 Oct 1798 - 7 Oct 1798 and in 1799. Fishery, to China. From Rhode Island. Cumpston's Register

1798: Norfolk (of 1798).

1798: Pomona. Whaler, British. Owner Unknown. 1797 - 20 Aug 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Nautilus brig. Unknown. Unknown. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney.

1798: Sally. Whaler, British. Owners Unknown. 1797 - 8 July 1798. Whaler via CGH. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Britannia (3). Owner unknown or Enderby probably. Whaler. Capain Robert Turnbull. 1797- 18 July 1798 - 7 Oct 1798. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register. Britannia of 1798. Whaler. Unknown. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney.

1798: Argo schooner. Owner Unknown. Captain Unknown. 7 Oct 1798 from Sydney - 7 Jul 1798 - 7 Oct 1798. From Isle of France, speculative trade, liquor, China. Cumpston's Register.

1798: -- 1 Oct 1798 - 23 Oct 1798. Trader, Sydney, China. From Providence, Rhode Island. Cumpston's Register, From Wace and Lovett

1798: Indispensable of 1798. British whaler. Capt William Wilkinson. 27 Oct 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register, it is Wilkinson's third visit to Sydney.

1798 - RA Swan, Botany Bay, p. 168, not until 1798 with the passing of another Act of Parliament, 38 Geo III c.57, that British whalers were permitted to exploit Australian waters. Finally, late in 1800 they were permitted to carry goods to Sydney under bond for sale to the settlers. (See also R. A. Swan, To Botany Bay: If Policy Warrants the Measure: A Re-Appraisal. Canberra, Roebuck Society, 1973. This last achievement destroyed the EICo's monopoly over the carriage and sale of goods to the NSW settlement, a monopoly that had been granted, together with one for the transport of convicts, by the government in 1792. See HRA Vol. ?, p. 354.

1798: Notably, in 1798, the discovery of Bass Strait between Tasmania (Van Diemens Land) and the Australian mainland allowed further development of sealing. In 1798, George Bass discovered Phillip Island. Early in the year 1798, in London, the whalers Cornwall, Eliza, Sally, Bligh etc., were got together to go to the whale fishery off Sydney. The flotilla was comprised of Sally, Bligh, Cornwall, Swain, Pomona, Clark, Diana, Lock, Britannia and Nautilus. On Nautilus there was probably Capt. Charles Bishop, sailing afresh for Sydenham Teast, South Whaler of Bristol. At that time, 1799, whalers apparently were working around the Pacific Fishery, New Zealand, past Tahiti, about the Philippines (being a source of conflict with Spain) and in South East Asian waters generally. (London whalers once suggested Formosa [Taiwan] be opened to them as a port.) This whaling flotilla was about Sydney during July, 1798.

1798: Early in the year 1798, in London, the whalers Cornwall, Eliza, Sally, Bligh etc., were got together to go to the whale fishery off Sydney. The flotilla was comprised of Sally, Bligh, Cornwall, Swain, Pomona, Clark, Diana, Lock, Britannia and Nautilus. On Nautilus there was probably Capt. Charles Bishop, sailing afresh for Sydenham Teast, South Whaler of Bristol. (Teast remains Littleiknown.) At that time, 1799, whalers apparently were working around the Pacific Fishery, New Zealand, past Tahiti, about the Philippines (being a source of conflict with Spain) and in South East Asian waters generally. (London whalers once suggested Formosa [Taiwan] be opened to them as a port.) The flotilla was about Sydney during July, 1798.

Between 1799-1801, from New Bedford in USA; Capt. Andrew Gardner (in March 1799) was on whaler and trader Rebecca, owners not-named, for Sydney thence China. In 1800, Jared Gardner had the sealer Diana from New Bedford for Rodman and Co., to Sydney then China. And about mid-1801 Diana was a sealer/trader from New York, Capt. Jas. McCall - she "passed n./w point of New Holland", to Whampoa, China.

1797: Alert. An American ship of Boston, owned by J. and T. Lamb, R. Sturgis and associates, commanded by William Bowles. She cleared from Boston in 1797 with a cargo of trading goods for the Northwest Coast, valued at $13,090. Nothing further has been found, regarding this voyage. She was doubtless on the coast in 1798. References: Bancroft's History of the North West Coast (1884), Vol. 1, p. 306; Solid Men of Boston, MS. p. 76.

1798: Providence: Benjamin Page is captain in October 1798, of trader Ann and Hope for Brown and Ives, to Sydney, then China. (And in December 1807 and April 1808, Brown and Ives are owners for trader Eliza, from Providence, Capt. E. Hill Correy, to Fiji, wrecked.)

1798: Newport: Capt Jacob Smith is for owners William Handy and Jacob Smith in October 1798 on the trader Semiramis, to China.

1798: Hunter (of 1798). Owners, Campbell, Clarke and Co. of India. Captain Fern. 10 Jun 1798 - 20 Aug 1798. Speculative trade to NSW. Robert Campbell Snr. Cumpston's Register. (See James Broadbent, Suzanne Rickard and Margaret Steven, India, China Australia: Trade and Society, 1788-1850. Sydney, Historic Houses Trust of NSW, 2003., p. 68.)

1798: Francis (Reed). Local NSW ship. Sailed by William Reed. 20 Jan 1798. To Preservation Island. Cumpston's Register.

1798: Eliza of 1798. Whaler, British. Owner Unknown. 1797 - 4 July 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register. NB: Not a convict transport.

1798: Indispensable of 1798. British whaler. Capt William Wilkinson. 27 Oct 1798. Whaler. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register. It is Wilkinson's third visit to Sydney.

1798: Diana. Whaler. Owner/Captain. John Lock. 1797 - 20 Aug 1798. Whaler via CGH to South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register. NB: Not a convict transport.

1798: Cornwall. Whaler, British. Details not given. NB: Not a convict transport.

January 1798: For Samuel Enderby (and his sureties, second contract to Enderbys). Convict transport Brittannia (sic). Shelton´s Accounts No. 16. Ship Britannia Captain Thomas Dennett has been associated by Prof. Sturgess with owners John Prinsep and Thomas Saunders in London and Calcutta merchants Anthony and Charles Lambert and David Ross of the agency house Lambert and Ross of Calcutta.

John Prinsep

More to come

Pathway to convict contractor John Prinsep. Of the firm Lambert, Prinsep and Saunders. For so far minimal information see also Dan Byrnes´s production, on Prinsep Genealogy. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism.)

On the firm, Lambert, Prinsep and Saunders. Part of the firm was Andrew Lambert (1758-1800), who was not born to money, but was rather self-educated and became an East India Co. cadet by 1781. Later he became a merchant and commercial agent, part of an agency house at Calcutta. He had an uncle Anthony Snr. Andrew had a sister Mary married to Ovans and a sister Jane married to Gilchrist, plus brothers Thomas and Charles. Amongst Andrew´s business correspondents were John Prinsep, Gabriel Gillette, Major Samuel Shaw (1751-1794) the USA´s first consul to China/Canton. Andrews´s Letterbooks survive, unpublished. Andrew returned to England with poor health in 1798. He died at Devonshire Street, Portland Place, London. There is data online on his portrait by Robert Home.

Andrew was an opium trader with the firm Lambert and Ross. By 1784 he was writing to James Scott. When Governor Phillip at Sydney sent Lt. Bowen on the Third Fleet ship Atlantic from Sydney to Calcutta, he dealt with Lambert and Ross for food, plus he made arrangements for buffaloes, sheep and goats from Bengal to NSW. Meanwhile, his brother Charles (1767-1837) married Louisa Elizabeth Poignard.

On Charles Lambert: Charles Lambert was a partner with his brother Andrew of Lambert and Ross, Calcutta traders. Charles lived at Osborne House, Cowes, Isle of Wight (probably renting it, 1825-1839). He also had addresses at Blendon Hall, Bexley, Kent and Fitzroy Square, London. There was also a firm Lambert, Ross and Biddulph worthy of inspection here. Charles´ Letterbook is held at India Office Select Materials and includes letters to relatives of the Berwick-on-Tweed area. Charles and Poignard had two sons, Robert an architect and Charles (d.1824 at age 17, drowned while bathing).

1870: Henry Charles Prinsep of WA, (1844-1922). (Wikipedia page on Prinseps.) He left behind diaries, and had three daughters, and an uncle, Henry Toby Prinsep, with wife Sara. (See De Vries-Evans on pioneer women, pp. 165ff). He was later protector of Aborigines at Western Australia. In 1870 he lost money on horses going to India when a ship was wrecked near India. He had arrived in West Australia from Singapore 25 May, 1866. See also, http://www.groserfamilies.com/page - &c.

December 1798: Contract with Daniel Bennett of High Street Wapping, Merchant (and his sureties) to transport such Convicts &c. Second contract for Bennett. For Captain William Hingston. Convict transport Hillsborough, 764 tons, known as a ¨fever ship¨. Shelton´s Accounts No. 17. (Notation: Instructions to prepare Assignment of the several Convicts from Mr Bennett to Governor Hunter for the remainder of the terms of their sentences.) Hillsborough was probably owned by Mr Bennett and/or Messrs Perry. The Mr Bennett was probably the London whaler Daniel Bennett. Departing after 17 November 1798, arriving Sydney 26 July 1799. Voyage organised by London Missionary Society (LMS). A noted convict aboard was William Noah.

1798: Notably, in 1798, the discovery of Bass Strait between Tasmania (Van Diemens Land) and the Australian mainland allowed further development of sealing. In 1798, George Bass discovered Phillip Island. Early in the year 1798, in London, the whalers Cornwall, Eliza, Sally, Bligh etc., were got together to go to the whale fishery off Sydney. The flotilla was comprised of Sally, Bligh, Cornwall, Swain, Pomona, Clark, Diana, Lock, Britannia and Nautilus. On Nautilus there was probably Capt. Charles Bishop, sailing afresh for Sydenham Teast, South Whaler of Bristol. At that time, 1799, whalers apparently were working around the Pacific Fishery, New Zealand, past Tahiti, about the Philippines (being a source of conflict with Spain) and in South East Asian waters generally. (London whalers once suggested Formosa [Taiwan] be opened to them as a port.) This whaling flotilla was about Sydney during July, 1798.

Year 1799

1799: HM Reliance of 1799. RN. Cmdr Henry Waterhouse. 24 October 1799 - 3 March 1800. Detachment of NSW Corps, discovers Penantipodes Island. Cumpston's Register.

1799: Hillsborough. British. Captain William Hingston. 17 Nov 1798 - 26 July 1799. October 1799. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register.

1799: El Plumier prize

. Owner, Spanish. Captain, not given. 1799. 2 Dec 1799. Captured by British whalers. Cumpston's Register. NB: Not a convict transport.

1799: Britannia of 1799. Owners, Saml Anderbury (Enderby?) and Sons. Captain Robert Turnbull. 3 Nov 1799. Whaler of Bridport. Cumpston's Register

1799: Albion of 1799. Owners, Champions. Captain Eber Bunker. 1798 - 29 Jun 1799. Whaler, storeship for NSW. South Whale Fishery. Cumpston's Register.

1799: Swallow packet. Owner, EICo. Captain John Suard. 8 Dec 1799 - 3 Jan, 3 Jun 1800. Speculative trader. Cumpston's Register. NB: Not a convict transport.

1799: Walker. Owner, Robert Wigram of London. Capt John Nicol. By 3 Nov 1799. 2 Dec 1799. Storeship. Robert Wigram and Co of London. See Cumpston's Register, p. 9, p. 35.
In 1823, Marchioness of Ely was owned by Octavius Wigram. (In 1830, the British government made an examination of ships let from 1811 to the service of the East India Co. Amongst the shipowner and ship names listed, some are noted as ships carrying convicts to Australia. Follows an extraction from the list, which is on a webpage provided by www.british-history.ac.uk - an aspx-generated report.)

In 1825 Roxburgh Castle owned by Wigrams and Green.

1799: Thynne. Owner, George Tyler. Capt Owen Terral. 1799-11 Jan 1800. Trader from Calcutta to Sydney. Cumpston's Register. NB: Not a convict transport.

1799: Convict ship for Australia - Minerva, 558 tons: Capt. Joseph Salkeld.
Usually an East Indiaman, owned by Robert Charnock, an associate of the LMS, also of the EICo., assisting the LMS arrange voyages to the Pacific. Departing Cork 24 August 1799 (delayed by rebellion in Ireland) - Arriving Sydney 11 January 1800.

1799: Another convict ship for Australia - Friendship, 430 tons: Capt. Hugh Reed.
Owned by "prominent London shipowners", John and James Mangles. Departing Cork with Minerva, August 1799 - Arriving Sydney 16 February 1800. It is not generally appreciated that the first governor of Western Australia, James Stirling, had married to this same Mangles family, who thus had more connections to Australian pioneering than has been realised!
From an e-mailer of May 2010, Dear Merchant Neworks team, following up your last re any image of the convict ship Minerva, I note that the surgeon aboard was John Washington Price who produced an illustrated journal of his travels. Is it possible that he may have made a watercolour or sketch of the ship. Also it is noted that Price was taught how to draw etc by the artist John William Lewin among whose works, apart from the superb illustrations of flora and fauna, there may also lurk a painting of the ship, in a general scene perhaps? Cheers, Peter.

Robert Mangles (1731-1788) of London was of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, and had sons John and James. About 1750 he went to London and set up as a ships chandler. (In litt per Ian Berryman in WA in March 1996.)
The Mangles genealogy given here has been sourced from the following references: ADB entry for James Stirling, governor of Western Australia. The IGI. Burke's Landed Gentryfor Norman of Bromley Common. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Onslow. Cameron, Ambition's Fire, pp. 38-44. Hasluck, Thomas Peel, pp. 18-21ff. Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 421 and elsewhere. Stenton, British Parliamentarians, Vol. 1, pp. 258-259. On the banker family, Norman; Sir Henry Clay, Lord Norman. London, Macmillan, 1957. pp. 1-12. Youssef Cassis, `Bankers in English Society in the late eighteenth century', p. 215. Cassis, City Bankers, p. 226. Kynaston, City of London, p. 29, p. 84. Burke's Landed Gentry for Lubbock formerly Bonham-Carter. ADB entry for General Sir Henry Wylie Norman, (1826-1904), governor of Queensland. Autobiography of George Wade Norman, Completed 3 September, 1857, Kent County Archives, Microfilm U310-F69. [Copy, Dixson Library, UNE]. On the genealogy of bankers Stone, see Clay, Norman, pp. 6-7. Lennard Bickel, Australia's First Lady: The Story of Elizabeth Macarthur. North Sydney, Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1991., pp. 175ff. Ralph W. Hidy, The House of Baring in American Trade and Finance: English Merchant Bankers at Work, 17630-1861. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1949., p. 15. Burke's Landed Gentry for Holland-Martin of Overbury.

In 1825 Guildford owned by James Mangles. (In 1830, the British government made an examination of ships let from 1811 to the service of the East India Co. Amongst the shipowner and ship names listed, some are noted as ships carrying convicts to Australia. Follows an extraction from the list, which is on a webpage provided by www.british-history.ac.uk - an aspx-generated report.)

1832++ James Mangles, a Whig MP For Guildford 1832-1837, son of Robert Mangles, was a ships chandler and an East India proprietor, also a director of the East India Company. He was part of the firm, F&C. Mangles of London. (From a discursive citation we find that in Trevelyan's life of Macaulay, Vol. 1, p. 431, some of Macaulay's circle in India included Cameron and MacLeod the law commissioners, Mangles, Colvin and John Peter Grant, the latter three of a younger circle.) James Mangles seems to have married a woman Camden, who was maybe related to the family of Camden linked to the early convict contractors, Camden, Calvert and King? James the MP, married to Mary Hughes, had a nephew, Capt. [John?] Mangles, RN. James' address was 6 Cannon Row, London, and Woodbridge, Surrey. He was high sheriff for Surrey in 1808. This family, Mangles, is supposed to have once have had much discussion with James Stirling, later governor of Western Australia, on "colonising matters".
Some arcane ship-buying matters on Mangles' part are noted in Bateson, The Convict Ships, pp. 232ff and notes thereto. Confusingly, from 1816, the convict transport Mangles was owned not by Mangles, but by the London firm (and convict contractors) Buckle, Buckle, Bagster and Buchanan.

Charles Edward Mangles, MP, "of the Australia trade" (1798-1873) also pursued East India interests. He was son of MP James Mangles, of F. G. Mangles and Mary Hughes, and was married to Rose Newcombe. Broeze, Brooks, p. 80, has Charles on the Board of the Union Bank of Australia (UBA), and as a senior partner of Mangles, Price and Co. (From 1834, Mangles Price and Co. were at New Broad St as names with Lloyd's.) It should be noted that the bank, Herries/Farquhar, became part of the UBA. Broeze, Brooks, p. 314, Note 56, has a man Mangles as treasurer of the Australasian Church Missionary Society by 1838. Pemberton, London Connection, p. 421. Charles was also chairman of the London and South-Eastern Railway, 1859-1872. Butlin, Australia and New Zealand Bank, p. 56 has him on the early board of the UBA.
I am grateful to Ian Berryman for discussion of some points here in litt. Broeze, Brooks, p. 80: by the 1830s the WA trade was dominated by Mangles Price and Co. and the firm's senior partner Charles Edward Mangles was on the board of Union Bank of Australia.

1833: Circa: One element in the Mangles family story is of the "small world" variety, since two Mangles men married to sisters Newcombe - who were daughters of George Newcombe of the Audit Office. If working at the Audit Office by 1830, Newcombe may well have known of the auditing of the papers associated with the contract-making for transportation by Thomas Shelton, and of the bureaucratic arguments on that strange matter. Emily Mangles married to Norman, of the Norman banking family of Bromley Common, London. The Norman family connection meant some connection to the family Stone, of the bankers Stone-Martin, whose (financial) history is linked to the origins of the bank begun by Francis Baring - although this financial history is not yet in useful detail. Further to the mysteries of the Stone banker family, Caroline Mangles married Rev. Arthur Onslow, who by his second wife, Marianna Campbell, had a son, Arthur Alexander Onslow, who married Elizabeth Macarthur, daughter of James II Macarthur and Emily Stone. Emily was from the same Stone family; Emily was of banker, Henry Stone.
Here, in brief, one Harriet Herring married the later Sir Francis Baring. Her sister Mary married banker Richard Stone. Richard had a son, Henry Stone, banker of Lombard Street. In Clay's book on the bankers Norman, Henry Stone seems to be a partner in the bank Stone and Martin, later Martin and Co. From 1764, Francis Baring banked with his brother-in-law, Richard Stone. Later, John Martin MP can be noticed in these family linkages, since the name Martin became linked with that of the Norman banker family of Bromley Common.

To 1833: Ross Donnelly Mangles (1801-1877) was an India Merchant, director of the East India Company, MP, son of MP James Mangles and Mary Hughes; he married Harriet Newcombe. Ross Donnelly was of 9 Henrietta St., Cavendish Sq., London, and of Woodbridge, Surrey. He had spent time in the Bengal Civil Service. He became a director of the New Zealand Co. and once visited New Zealand on banking matters, about 1841. He was a deputy-lieutenant of London. A liberal, he was also anti-Papist. He was appointed a Member for the Council of India in September 1858, to 1866. (Of the Mangles family, Vice-Admiral of White Sir Ross Donnelly had contributed his name. Donnelly had service in the American Revolutionary War. (See his own wikipedia page.) The Donnelly River of Western Australia is named for him, see a Wikipedia entry on Donnelly River, WA. He was of Sussex House, Hammersmith. the peerage.com.)
Ellen Mangles of Woodbridge, Surrey, (1807-1874), married James Stirling, first governor of Western Australia. She once offered her own money to help failing Stirling businesses. She had five sons and six daughters.
Rev. Arthur Onslow (b.1773), rector of Crayford, Kent, was son of Lt-Col George Onslow MP and Jane Thorp. Arthur's first wife was Marianna Campbell, his second, Caroline Mangles.

1833: George Mangles is noticed in Catalogue of the Australian Historical Exhibition, 1-26 Feb., 1938. Australia's 150th Anniversary Celebrations Council. 1938. Copy Dixson Library, UNE. The West Australian settler arriving 1829, a stock manager, George Mangles was a cousin of Ellen Mangles, wife of Sir James Stirling. George left WA in 1833-34 to begin a shipping service.
Pamela Statham, (Compiler), Dictionary of Western Australians, 1829-1914. Two Vols. Vol. 1, Early Settlers, 1829-1850. Nedlands, Western Australia, University of Western Australia, August, 1979.

On the West Australian coast is a spot called Mangles Bay. Why is this? It is due to the marriage between Stirling, the first governor of Western Australia - as follows:

At first sight, it appears merely that the first governor of Western Australia, James Stirling, instrumental in moves to establish a colony there, had married Ellen Mangles. There was more to it than that, and the well-connected Mangles interests, mainly known as "an East India house", became a large investor in Australasia. Follows an impression of Mangles family history:
1. Robert MANGLES of London (b.1731;d.1788) sp: NOTKNOWN
2. Shipowner John MANGLES (b.1760;d.1837) married (probably) Harriet CAMDEN (c.1781;m.1781)
3. Capt RN James MANGLES (b.1786;d.1867)
2. MP for Guildford, James MANGLES (c.1800;d.1837) sp: Mary HUGHES (c.1823); 3. Australia trade merchant Charles Edward MANGLES (UBA) (b.1798;d.1873) sp: Rose NEWCOMBE (m.1832)l 4. Rose MANGLES (b.1835), 4. James Henry MANGLES (b.1832);
3. New Zealand Co member, Ross Donnelly MANGLES (b.1801;d.1877) sp: Harriet NEWCOMBE (m.1830), child, Louisa Malkyn MANGLES (b.1840) who married sp: Rev Henry Alexander MACNAGHTEN (b.1850;m.1873);
4. Emily MANGLES wife2 (d.1927) who married banker Charles Lloyd NORMAN (b.1833;d.1889);
4. Ellen MANGLES sp: John FENDALL (of a family active in British India) (b.1827;m.1854), child, 5. Louisa FENDALL who married Member of Supreme Court of India John LOWIS (d.1870), child 6. John Mangles LOWIS;
3. Ellen MANGLES of Woodbridge, Surrey, (b.1807;d.1874) sp: Governor WA Sir James STIRLING (b.1791;m.1823;d.1865), children including 4. Australian naval commander Frederick STIRLING (b.1829), 4. Andrew STIRLING (b.1826), 4. William STIRLING (b.1831), 4. Agnes STIRLING (b.1835), 4. Elenor STIRLING (b.1838) who married sp: James Alexander GUTHRIE (b.1823;m.1856;d.1873) and also to Orientalist/Writer, Forster Fitzgerald ARBUTHNOT (b.1833;m.1879;d.1901);
4. Soldier in India, Walter Albert STIRLING (b.1837;d.1857);
3. Emily MANGLES (b.1799), 3. Caroline MANGLES (c.1793) wh married Rev. Arthur ONSLOW (b.1773;m.1815), child (?) 4. Rev. Thomas George ONSLOW (b.1826) who married Edith Augusta HAWKINS wife1 (m.1853;d.1857) (Earlier, Lt-General Richard Onslow (1697-1760) was governor 1752-1759 of Fort St William in India His wife1 was Rose Bridges (died 8 Feb 1827-28) daughter of John Bridges. (Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Onslow. Namier/Brooke, Vol. 3, p. 230);
5. Edith Fanny HAWKINS (d.1944), sp: Charles Constable CURTIS (m.1882;d.1936)
3. MANGLES Hamilla Mary sp: William PRESTON RN, child 4. Ellen Jane PRESTON who married Stannard MCADAM;
4. D'Arcy Harrington PRESTON (b.1844), sp: Harriet UPAN; 4. Rev. (Prebendary of York), John D'Arcy Jervis PRESTON (b.1738) who married Jane CONSETT; 5. Admiral D'Arcy PRESTON (d.1847), sp: Sophia NARES; 6. RN, Unm, Edward Preston;
6. William PRESTON RN, sp: Hamilla Mary MANGLES, child, 7. Ellen Jane PRESTON;
7. D'Arcy Harrington PRESTON (b.1844), 7. Rev, Prebend York PRESTON John D'Arcy Jervis-108876 (b.1738);
6. John D'Arcy Jervis PRESTON (b.1795), sp: Wife1 Elizabeth SPENCE (m.1821), child, 7. John D'Arcy Warcop PRESTON (b.1795), sp: Emily Anne Augusta BROWNLOW; 7. Major Charles Edward PRESTON, sp: Ennisline MARTIN (m.1875);
7. Rear Admiral D'Arcy Spence PRESTON (b.1827), 7. JP William Warcop Peter PRESTON (b.1823) sp: Harriet Georgina Edith KERR (m.1864);
8. D'Arcy PRESTON, 8. Montague PRESTON;
7. Sophia Elizabeth PRESTON, sp: Rev. John BLOMEFIELD, 7. PRESTON Margaret Laura PRESTON, 7. Emily Ann PRESTON; and 7. Fanny PRESTON who married Sir Rev. Thoms Eardley BLOMEFIELD Bart3, (b.1820;m.1853). There was also a Western Australia settler, 3. George W. MANGLES, active about 1829.
//////// Ends listing on Mangles family ////////

Notes on ships: Mangles: we find from data on the convict transport Mangles that one of her part-owners was once John Bannister Hudson, of St Helens, Bishopsgate, late of Hackney Grove, also once of Old City Chambers, London. He bankrupted in 1818, and creditors matters were disputed legally between his assignee, Gabriel Gillett (noted elsewhere on this webpage), and a brother-in-law, Mr. Bacon.

1799: Dallas' writings, Enderbys proposed to PM Pitt for an expedition against Peru and Chile using Port Jackson, Sydney, as a main base and using convicts as recruits for a landing force. (Note: 1799, November: W. J. Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers in Southern Waters. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1977. [Angus and Robertson Non-Fiction Classics Edition], p. 17: London was informed that fifteen whalers off the Pacific Coast of South America had been captured by the Spaniards.

Such was the will of an affluent, energetic man - Enderby - who had done something to provide ships to government for convict transportation. But the whalers would largely abandon the NSW fishery. For 8-9 November, 1799, Saunders Newsletter in London reported on 15 whalers "taken by Spanish cruisers" off the coast of South America.
HRNSW, Vol. 3, p. 741. See also Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers, p. 17: London was informed that fifteen whalers off the Pacific Coast of South America had been captured by the Spaniards.

This newsletter had reported that early in 1799, the whalers Sally, Bligh, Cornwall, Swain, Pomona, Clark, Diana, Lock, Britannia and Nautilus had left Sydney for employment in the NSW fishery. There were far more vessels working west of South America... About the time Enderby Senior died, only one more fleet of whalers would visit Sydney Harbour.
NB: Mention of Nautilus suggests Teast had her properly listed by the London-based whalers.

30 October 1799: For Samuel Enderby (third contract for Enderbys). And Captain George Quested. Convict transport Speedy. Shelton´s Accounts No. 18. 1799-1800: Another convict ship for Australia - Speedy, 313 tons: Capt. George Quested. Whaler owned by Enderbys. Arriving Sydney 15 April 1800.

The ship Walker of 1799 was owned by Robert Wigram and Co., Prof. Gary Sturgess suggests.

Robert Wigram


The Bruxner Highway pathway. West from Ballina past Lismore on the north-east coast of NSW runs the Bruxner Highway, said to be one of the most obscure highways in NSW. It is named for Country Party politician Sir Michael Frederick Bruxner (1882-1970), a descendant of an Anglo-Russia merchant. Amongst Sir Michael´s forebears was Rev. George Edward Bruxner (1812-1891) who married Anne Mary Arkwright (1821-1854) a daughter of Anne Wigram (d.1863 and Rev. Joseph Arkwright (1791-1864), Anne Wigram being a daughter of Sir Robert Wigram (Fitzwigram) (1843-1830) of the Green and Wigram consortium which owned Blackwall Yard (shipyard). And Wigram´s second wife, Eleanor Watts (d.1841). Wigrams were not large convict contractors. (Robert Wigram is noted in Bateson, Convict Ships, as owner of convict transport Tottenham (1818). But Wigrams were anyway such a part of London maritime life that they (and their associates) cannot be overlooked. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

On James Duncan

James Duncan (ship), Broker, according to a London directory for 1794 was of 3 George Street, Tower Hill. Not much more is known. See the website londonancestor.com. He perhaps lived at Blackheath.

For some information on James Duncan see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. Also the file, thebc47.htm.

1794: James Duncan, probably died 1803. Convict Contractor, East India broker. Being interestingly re-researched in November 2012 by Gary Sturgess. Sturgess finds that this James Duncan (died 1803) was not another name arising (see below), James Beveridge Duncan. There was a James Duncan a broker of 3 George St Tower Hill in Kent's Directory of 1794. Nil of use on this name arises on the Internet. He is noted in Bateson. Possibly noted on the londonancestor.com website.

This James Duncan remains a conundrum. From some research angles he seems to have assumed the surname Duncan for inheritance reasons. We find a case of a man with an original name, James Beveridge (no known parents) who married Isabel Marshall, daughter of a Thomas Marshall. This James Beveridge was an East India broker of Great Tower Hill. He is found as such on a known list of Blackheath residents. (See also a website being stirnet.com file on Lake of Aston Clinton and of Canons.) Item, Saturday, 9 December 1815, Caledonian Mercury - MARRIAGES – At Lewisham in Kent, on the 28th ultimate, the Honourable Warwick Lake, to Elizabeth, only daughter of James Beveridge DUNCAN, Esq, of Damside. The property of Damside passed into the hands of the Duncans of Galloford, Perthshire; Patrick Duncan of Damside having died in 1798 leaving no children, his heir Mr James Beveridge of Blackheath, Kent, assumed the name of Duncan in compliance with his cousin's will; Mr Beveridge Duncan left issue, a son and one daughter; Elizabeth who married Warwick Lake, third and last Viscount Lake of Delhi, had issue, two daughters. Mr Beveridge Duncan's only son married 1829 Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Ross of Oakbank; their only child and heiress Elizabeth married in 1856 Hector C. R. Macduff, Esq., and has issue besides daughters, a son, Hector Macduff Duncan of Kirklands, Aberuthven. It is not at all clear if any of these details refer to the actual convict contractor James Duncan.
Warwick Lake (1781-1848) son of first Viscount Lake of Delhi had siblings such as Anna Maria who married Sir Richard Borough Baronet1. Lt-General Francis Gerard Lake (1772-1836). Amabel who married Lt-General Joseph Brooks of Everton and had a son Gerard Lake Brooks who married Louisa Barbara Pakenham daughter of Admiral John Pakenahm (died 1878) and his wife, Caroline Emily Popham, daughter of Admiral Sir Home Riggs Popham (died 1820 at Cheltenham). Elizabeth Lake who married a Lt-General and governor in Canada, John Harvey. And Ann Lake, who married Lt-General John Wardlaw. (See data from histfam.familysearch.org.)

London Missionary Society

London: Pathway to London Missionary Society as a convict contractor - For some information here see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

Michael Hogan

Michael Hogan is worth his own page on this website. Click now to: The Michael Hogan. This page by the way utilises a new system for automatic self-re-numbering of footnotes as they are placed in a text. Readers are welcome to a copy of this code via e-mail. -Ed.


Year 1800

1800: Lloyd's Green Book, Underwriters. Committee is Angerstein, William Bell, John Bourke, John Campbell, Alexr Champion, George Curling, Charles H. Dubois, William Hamilton. Rbt Hunter, Rbt Pulsford. Edward Vaux. Members include: Angerstein and Rivaz, Thomas Backhouse and Co., Baillie Thornton and Campbell, Leonard Barnard, John Barnes, Thomas Bell and Son, William Borradale, James Boydell, Brown Welbank and Petyt, Richard Buller and Co., John Campbell, A. & B. Champion, George Curling, EICo, Rbt Hamilton, Rt Hon Thomas Harley, Hibbert, Fuhr and Purrier, Rbt Hunter, Yves Hurry and Co., James Inglis, Robert Ingram, J. P. Larkins, Paul Le Mesurier and Haviland. London Assurance Co. William Lushington and Co. Thos Plummer Jnr and Barry. St Barbe Green and Bignell. Smith, St Barbe and Marten, John Shoolbred; Turnbull, Forbes and Co., Brook Watson.

1800: Lloyd's Register (Green Book), Underwriters 1800. 19 June, 1799, Asia Capt. R. Wardlaw for coast and bay built Liverpool in 1798 for R. Charnock, 819 tons. G. Gillette husband, sent 6 Nov, 1797 ship Bengal Capt. Andrew Cumine, 818 tons. 8 June, 1798, R. Charnock sent Calcutta Capt W Maxwell, to St Hels and Bengal, 819 tons, and Caledonian, Capt. S. Hawies, China and Bengal. Husband W. Curtis, 8 Jan sent ship City of London Capt. A. Green, to Bengal and Bombay, 800 tons. 1 Feb, 1798, J. Duncan sent Earl Spencer, Capt. C. Raitt, 645 tons but not taken up. J. Prinsep on 18 June, 1799 sent Lady Burgess Capt. A Swinton to coast and china, 820 tons. R. Charnock 24 April, 1799 sent Lord Nelson Capt. R. Spottiswood, coast and china, 819 tons. T. Curtis sent Nottingham as usual, but not taken up.

1800: Minerva. Owner, Robert Charnock. Captain Joseph Salkeld. 11 January 1800-April 1800. Convict transport. Cumpston´s Register.

1800: Harbinger Brig renamed. Owner Michael Hogan. Captain John Black. General trader to Sydney. Cumpston´s Register. 1800-1801> Reporting the second vessel to pass through Bass Strait, after Grant had traversed it in Lady Nelson was the Harbinger, commanded by John Black; he arrived at Sydney on 11 January 1801. Black named a group of islands after his employer, Michael Hogan. See Andrew Sharp, Discovery, p. 228.

On Peter Evet Mestaer

Peter Evet/Everitt Mestaer: Once of Bethnal Green, London, and/or of King and Queen Dock, otherwise an imortant Rotherhithe shipbuilder. He is once listed as a ships chandler in Wapping. Convict Contractor, London alderman. In 1778-1780 built ship Mercury an enterprise-class frigate for the navy. In 1794 he built the Duff which later sailed for the London Missionary Society but was then said to be owned by J. Cox and Co. Mestaers is said to have been prominent, had a small shipyard which built East Indiamen at Rotherhithe on the waterfront opposite Shadwell Dock; when Mestaers died his yard was taken over by William Elias Evans (who had poor hearing), a poor businessman who built steamers. Mestaer´s ship Experiment made only one voyage with convicts and she disappeared from the records. Mestaer´s shipyard is shown on a 1799 London map published by Horwood. His area was later known as Princess Dock and by 1923 as Bellamy´s. One view is that he died 1818, another in 1819. He was Of 28 New Broad Street, or of 225 near King and Queen Stairs, Rotherhithe where he also had Mestaers Buildings. (See Bateson, p. 187). See Hainsworth, Builders, p. 97. With John Lock(e) of America Square re eg., convict ship Fortune c.1806 Captain Henry Moore (Lt RN who had bought 1/3 share in Fortune). See webpages re case of Solomon Wiseman and also re ship of 1806 Alexander Captain Richard Brookes. There was also a Joseph Everitt Mestaer, a solicitor of Montague Place Russell Square, who had a daughter Jane who married Arthur Riley Gilman (?), son of Rev James Gilman, and had children Arthur Charles (b.1881), Martin Alexander Aldridge b.1887, Warren Riley b.1890 and Barbara (b.1895).
Clarendon was a ship built by Wilson, Walker and Co. for Peter Everitt Mestaer who sailed her to the Far East, and later sold her to Porcher and Co., then was with Whitehaven, for W. Stitt and Co., Capt W. Atkinson. Captured off CGH 14 guns and 50 men, in Jan 1815 while Batavia-London by American privateer Young Wasp. Lloyd´s Register for 1815-1816 has a ship Clarendon, 507 tons, built at Whitehaven, 8 years old, owned by Mestaers. Item re Captain George Gooch (1761-1832, born Great Yarmouth) of EICo marine service, first commanded Sir Stephen Lushington, in 1796, and had four voyages on her 1796-1803, ship Sir Stephen Lushington had principal managing owners PE Mestaer and William Mayor, plus John Mayor. Gooch later shared ownership of several Indiamen, was an Elder of Trinity House, buried at St Peter Isle, Thanet; Gooch also once sailed Princess Charlotte, launched in 1795, 610 tons, which had four voyages before being captured by the French, in 1804, built and part-owned by Peter Everitt Mestaers, who had four-sevenths of Sir Stephen Lushingon. Gooch was an executor of Mestaer´s Will (PROB 11/1613) in 1819. Mestaer also used an EICo Capt. John Price. Mestaers in 1794 built Duff, later to Australia with the LMS, but she was first sailed to Gibraltar by Captain P. Gordon. When she went to Australia, she was listed as owned by J. Cox and Co. Capt James Wilson of 1796, later at Typa Harbour, sailed with an EICo convoy to arrive 11 July 1798, and she sailed again for Tahiti with Capt Robson. An action was brought against P. E. Mestaer in 1802 for bribery re a Hedon election, with evidence against him from his colleague, Christopher Saville (earlier named Atkinson). In this July 1802 election, Randle Jackson (the expert on EICo freight rates) got 77 votes, Mestaer got 83/84. Mestaer´s Will re a New Broad Street address is noted in UK National Archives, Probate HB/E/013 dated 1809 with executors Robert Paulsford of Great St Helens, George Gooch of Brunswick Square and William Lewis of Walbrook. The Whitehaven shipbuilders Wilson Walker and Co once built a ship Clarendon for Mestaer´s firm, for Far East trade, later sold to Porcher and Co. In 1811 she was registered in Whitehaven for W. Stitt and Co.

On John Lock(e)

Is he the whaling captain John Lock about Australia in the late 1790s?. In 1811 does he have ship Herefordshire? Is he associated with the EICo ship 1803-1804 Sovereign Capt Richard Meriton, sailed from Paris. East India Co shipowner. His death date in Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India. See stirnet files Walthamstow and London and www.geni.com. Also Burke's Landed Gentry for Dobree of the Priory. Associated with P. E. Mestaer re 1806 convict transports Fortune and Alexander. Convict contractor. One entry for him in an 1816 journal also mentions EICo director John Manship.

Gabriel Gillett

29 March 1800: For Gabriel Gillett (with William Wilson). Gillett´s first contract. Convict transport Royal Admiral II. Shelton´s Accounts No. 19. Prof. Gary Sturgess has found (so far) she was owned by Gabriel Gillett (c.1760-1848), Nicholas Cheminant and William Wlson. Cheminant is known as a name from the Isle of Jersey, Channel Isles.

For some information see Dan Byrnes´s production, The Blackheath Connection.

1800: Royal Admiral (2). Owners Wilson and Gillette. Captain William Wilson. 23 May 1800-20 Nov 1800. Convict transport. Former owner of the ship, Thomas Larkins of Blackheath, London. Gillette and Co. Cumpston's Register of shipping.

1800: Shelton's Accounts, No. 19, Contract taken 29 March, 1800, with Mr Gabriel Gillett in the Royal Admiral (2). (Note re Scotland, procuring and perusing the documents and writings related to seven convicts sentenced to be transported at the Courts of Justiciary respectively for Perth, Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Ayr.) 426 convicts, Shelton charged £309 plus tuppence, By 1800, Gabriel Gillett, 1 contract (with William Wilson). (See H. E. Maude, Of Islands and Men: Studies in Pacific History. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1968., p. 185), Royal Admiral II got 400-500 hogs at Tahiti (cites HRA, III: p. 334; p. 432.) 29 March, 1800, re Royal Admiral II, the voyage of Royal Admiral I is detailed in:
E. W. Bovill, 'Some Chronicles of the Larkins Family - The Convict Ship, 1792', Mariner's Mirror,, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1954.
John Pascal Larkins lived at alderman George Macaulay's former residence, Dartmouth Hill House, from 1798. Thomas Larkins was a Blackheath resident.
(Bateson, Convict Ships, variously, on this ship, which was later bought by William Wilson; and Gabriel Gillette of Blackheath. On Gillette, see HRNSW, Vol. 4, p. 469; HRA, Series 1, Vol. 2, pp. 470, 483. Gabriel Gillette is listed in Shelton's Accounts as being the contract taker for Royal Admiral II: Contract No 19, dated 29 March, 1800.)
See also, H. E. Maude, 'In Search of a Home: from the mutiny to Pitcairn Island (1789-1790)', Journal of The Polynesian Society, Vol. 67, 1956., pp. 104-131.

1800: Another convict ship for Australia - Royal Admiral 2, 914 tons: Owned and commanded by Capt. William Wilson, earlier an associate of the LMS, having been nephew and employee of Capt. James Wilson of the first-sailing LMS ship carrying missionaries to Tahiti, Duff. Departing 23 May 1800 - Arriving Sydney 20 November 1800. Regarded as a "fever ship"; surgeon was Samuel Turner, earlier to Tahiti on the first LMS into the Pacific, Duff. William Wilson later became a commercial associate of Sydney merchant, Robert Campbell. Royal Admiral (2) carried eleven missionaries. She had mostly been used by the Larkins family as an East Indiaman, she had been bought from them by William Wilson and his partner Gabriel Gillette, who were recorded as her owners by authorities at Sydney. There is an incorrect legend that when she returned to London she was used as a prison hulk on the Thames, but her name turns up in no listings of such prison hulks.


Gabriel Gillette may have had some connections to a family named Cardin, as one Robert Edward Cardin was born at sea on Bengal in 1805. The Gillette genealogy cannot be given with any confidence here. (See Byrnes, The Blackheath Connection, p. 97.) On The Blackheath Connection website he is discussed in terms of proximity to shipping names such as William Wilson, Abel Chapman, George Green, Joseph Huddart and John Pascal Larkins, most of whom moved in EICo circles. Gabriel probably had an older brother, William. Gabriel was owner of the Indiaman Bengal and seems to have had an address at 25 (or 35?) Guildford Street, St Pancras, London. He was an early subscriber to East India Docks Co. He was living at St Pancras London in 1818. Or at 25 and maybe later 35 Guildford St Guildford Street, St Pancras. website on Powys-Libbe forebears. - greenwood_files\wga24.htm If he owns the Indiaman Bengal which wrecked in 1809 parted in a gale, and which mostly was under command of Captain Adam Cumine, built 1799 by Perry Wells and Green, 819 tons, Gabriel Gillett seems to deal with (Andrew) Lambert and Saunders, Andrew Lambert (see below) being a merchant and commercial agent.

Information Gillett was only found on the Internet in February 2012 and may not be entirely accurate; the main clue is his name being associated with Guildford Street, St Pancras London. Gabriel was son of Jonathan Gillett (son of William and Martha) and Elizabeth Stedman (d.1767). Gabriel´s siblings were William (married Elizabeth Coward) who was possibly in East India Company shipping, Thomas, Robert, and Jonathan (who was possibly in India in 1793 and possibly married Elizabeth Childs).

Gabriel (d.1848) married Mary Ann Hodgson (c.1780-1868), daughter of George H. Hodgson (died 1802) and Elizabeth Cushong (sic). Mary Ann´s children were: Southampton landowner William Stedman Gillett who married Eliza Coster; Rev. Gabriel Edwards who married Elizabeth Woodall, the mother of Admiral Arthur Woodall Gillett (1830-1913).

Eliza Coster had one child who married a man from a family in proximity to the name Welbank, who may have been related to the Welbank of Welbank, Brown and Petyt, who are a firm difficult to research, the firm which had sold to government the ship which became HMAV Bounty.

26 August 1800: For John Wilsone (sic). Wilsone´s first contract. Convict transport Earl Cornwallis. Shelton´s Accounts No. 20. (¨Scotch convicts.)

On John Wilsone

Pathway to convict contractor John Wilsone - little information so far. Still a problem person for research by October 2012. (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

Re convict transport Minerva, said on one website to be the first East Indiaman to be chartered from the EICo (as owned by the Company) for use as a convict transport, and intended to trade to Bengal once she had dropped her convicts. She carried 200 prisoners, mostly United Irishmen from the 1798 uprising in Ireland. Minerva sailed in company with Friendship to arrive at Sydney 11 January 1800.

1800: HM Porpoise Captain William Scott. 6 November 1800-16 February 1801. Convicts, detachment of NSW Corps. Cumpston´s Register.

1800: Greenwich. Owner Enderby. Captain Alexander Law. 1800 (and in 1802 similar). 29 May 1801-18 July 1801. Waling. Miscellaneous. Cumpston´s Register.

1800: Elligood. Owner unknown but possibly whaler Daniel Bennet of London. Captain Chr. Dixon. 1800. Whaler to King George´s Sound. From Wace and Lovett. NB: not a convict transport.

1800: Chance. Owner, Michael Hogan. Captain William White. Privateer, French ship, a prize. Cumpston´s Register.

1800: HM Buffalo. RN. Captain William Kent. Stores, animal stock, Governor Hunter embarks on her. Cumpston´s Register.

1800: Britannia of 1801. Owners, Enderbys whalers. Captain Robert Turnbull. Whaler, general merchandise. Cumpston´s Register.

1800: Anne St Luz. Owner John Prinsep. Captain James Stewart. Convict transport for Lambert Prinsep and Saunders. See Bateson, Cumpston´s Register. Arriving Sydney 21 February 1801. br>Note: 1800: To 1830, one Robert Saunders, probably of Mincing Lane, with partners, was a London-Calcutta indigo dealer; he was probably son of the otherwise-unknown partner, Saunders, of John Prinsep, from about 1800. To 1826, a J. Saunders appears as a wool trader and is listed by Le Coteur as a member of the Van Diemens Land Company; but there is no proof that he was connected with the original partner, Saunders, with Prinsep.

1800: Friendship. (1) Owners, Mangles. Captain Hugh Reed. Convict transport. (See Bateson.)

1800: Greenwich. Owner Enderbys. Captain Alexander Law. 1800 (and in 1802 similar). 29 May 1801 - 18 July 1801. Whaling, Miscellaneous. And in 1802. Cumpston's Register.

1800: 1 August, Re whalers Greenwich, Venus, Britannia. Enderbys and Champions wrote to Lord Liverpool that they had established there was a valuable sperm whale fishery on the NSW coast; suggesting that the frequency of visits of whaling ships to there would assist the colony; that exorbitance in the colony might be avoided if whaling ships were used to there; that the Americans were taking advantage of the restrictions they knew the English whalers were bound by.
W. J. Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers in Southern Waters. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1977. [Angus and Robertson Non-Fiction Classics Edition], p. 15; Margaret Steven, Trade, Tactics and Territory: Britain in the Pacific, 1783-1823. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press, 1983., p. 98.

1800: November. Delivery of copper coinage to the colony at Sydney.

Year 1801

1801: Ocean of 1801: 1800-1801. Owners, Enderby. Captain Abraham Bristow. Whaler. Cumpston´s Register.

18 June 1801: For Thomas Hurry. (His first contract.) Convict transports Minorca, Canada and Nile. Shelton´s Accounts No. 21. More to come

1801: Canda, Minorca, Nile, owned/managed by Reeve and Green, who are almost impossible to trace despite often being linked to John St Barbe in matters of the use of convict shipping.

Yves Hurry

Pathway to convict contractor Yves Hurry - (Pathways through the Labyrinth of Convictism)

1801: Earl Cornwallis. Owners Hogan or Wilson. Captain James Tennant. Convict transport. For Wilson, Tennant and Co. Cumpston´s Register. Sydney then Bengal.

1801: Harriot whaler. Owners, T. & J. Mather. Captain Samuel Chace. Whaler, general merchandise. Similar in 1802. Cumpston´s Register.

1801: General Boyd. Owners, Watson and Co. Captain George Hales. Whaler. Cumpston´s Register.

1801: Canada (1). Owners, F. & T. Hurry or Reeve and Green. Captain William Wilkinson. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1801: Nile: Owners F. & T. Hurry or Reeve and Green. Captain Jas. Sunter. Convict transport. See Cumpston´s Register for Owners.

1801: Nile. Owners F&T Hurry or Reeve and Green. Capt Jas. Sunter. 14 Dec 1801. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register re owners.

1801: Active (whaler2), Owner Daniel Bennett of Blackheath, London, Capt John Dunn. Taken by French. Whaling. (See AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 193)

1801: Albion, Owners Champions. Captain Eber Bunker. 1798 from Deptford, 26 Aug 1801, Whaler, (see Cumpston's Register).

1801: Venus brig. Owners, Bass (the explorer), Bishop and Co. Capt Charles Bishop. 20 Aug 1801-23 Nov 1801. General merchandise. For Creighton, Bass and Bishop. (Cumpston's Register.) She is again about Sydney 4 Nov 1802, re Creighton and Co., Bengal-London, and re Charles Bishop.

1801: Venus whaler. Owners, Champions. Capt B. Gardner. 16 Sep 1801-3 Oct 1801. Whaler. Similar by March 1803. Cumpston's Register.

1801: Convict ship Canada I, 393 tons, built Shields in 1800, Capt Wm Wilkinson, surgeon John Kelly. Departing Spithead 21 June 1801 via Rio 176 days to arrive Sydney 14 December, 1810, possibly maiden voyage, possibly owned by Hurry and Co. (a whaling firm, see below re settling of Hobart) and later sold to Reeve and Green (asociates of St Barbe), and re-entered in convict service thus in 1810.

1801: George Bass's trading ship Venus was at Sydney on 29 August 1801. Bass' London agent was James Sykes of London, naval agent for most of the naval officers at Port Jackson.

1801: 25 September 1801, George Shee at Whitehall to Transport Board re idea that South whalers will be (regularly) employed as convict transports - an idea which did not eventuate.
Historical Records of NSW, Vol. 4, p. 523.

1801: Whalers begin to frequent coast of New Zealand (Bay of Islands). A trade begins between NSW, New Zealand and the South Sea Islands. Dakin suggests Norfolk Island is a useful sperm whale ground. Lord Pelham has suggestions, unsuccessful, that whalers carry out convicts to Australia.
Dakin, Whalemen Adventurers, pp. 19-23; Dallas, Trading Posts or Penal Colonies, p. 86.)

1801: 4 October, 1801, from Sydney sails convict transport Earl Cornwallis for Bengal, with first shipment sent of Newcastle coal.
Historical Records of Australia I, Vol. II.

1801-1824: A long-time Macarthur contact is W. S. Clarke, former master of East Indiaman Wexford, and by 1824 an EICo Director. He met John Macarthur Snr and Jnr at Ambon in 1801. This Clarke from 1824 becomes an investor in Australian Agricultural Co.
Pemberton, London Connection, p. 52.)

1801: Joseph Somes has three vessels in South Whaler Fishery but by 1801 was getting out as it did not pay. Somes later took contracts to send many convict transports to Australia. (Jackson, Whale, p. 141.)

1801: London sends 60 vessels into its whale fishery, Bristol sends 1, Yarmouth 1. 1801: Charnock, (See Parkinson on the East, p. 188.) lists some chief managing owners of EICo shipping, as Robert Charnock, William Fraser, Robert Wigram and John Woolmore. (From A. G. E. Jones, whaling historian, various writings).

1801: Hugh Inglis an EICo director writes to to Sir Joseph Banks re hemp supplies.

1801-1802: Convict ship Coromandel 1, owned Reeve and Green or Brown, Welbank and Petyt. Arriving Sydney 13 June, 1802.

1801: Coromandel (1). Owners Reeve and Green. Captain Alex Sterling. 13 June 1802- 22 July 1802. Convict transport. Via China. Cumpston's Register. Other information is: 1801-1802: Hercules 1, Probably owned by John St Barbe. Arriving Sydney 26 June 1802.

1801-1802: Convict ship Atlas 1, (I), Arriving Sydney 7 July 1802.

1801: Cumberland of 1801. Local Sydney ship. Captain Not given. 26 May 1801 launched. Cumpston's Register. In late 1802 she is sailed by J. Rushworth.

Year 1802

Joshua Reeve

30 January 1802: For Joshua Reeve. (His first contract.) Convict transports Perseus and Coromandel. Shelton´s Accounts No. 22.

Convict contractor Joshua Reeve. Still a problem person for research by October 2012. Byrnes, The Blackheath Connection article, p. 97. There is a Josh Reeve of North Shields noted in Cumpston's Register p. 97, who was not this man. He does not appear to be a link to Reeve and Green, London shipbrokers, who were of 30 Canterbury Square, Southwark in 1794 Kents Directory. We find that from a webpage at www.nationalarchives.gov.uk re 4 October 1817 and a matter concerning Joshua Reeve of 3 Chatham Place Blackfriars London plus George Faith of Little Tower Hill London ship owner and Daniel Rowland of Lincoln´s Inn Fields Midx. This Joshua Reeve has a Will noted online dated 10 October 1829, ref: PROB 11/1762/53 at Kew, London.

1802: General Boyd of 1802. Owner Watson and Co. Captain Owen Bunker. 1801. 26 June 1802 - 10 Aug 1802. Whaler. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Fanny of 1802. Owner Harris and Smith, Captain E. Smith. 9 July 1802. 7 Nov 1802. To Batavia, trader. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Duff. Owners, London Missionary Society. Captain William Wilson. 12 Feb 1802. 1802. Missionaries to Tahiti. (See also, Byrnes, in a chapter of The Blackheath Connection.)

1802: Duke of Portland (of 1802). Owners Unknown. Captain Lovat Mellon. 1802. Trader from Boston. From Wace and Lovett.

1802: Surprise schooner wrecked. Owners Not given. Captain Alexr Le Corre. 9 Sep 1802 - 4 Oct 1802. Merchandise, sealing, China, wrecked in Bass Strait. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Lady Nelson (of 1802). RN. Captain John Murray. 1802. Exploration. Surveys Bass Strait area.

1802: Endeavour schooner of 1802. Owners Not given. Captain J. Oliphant. Nov 1802. Sealer. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Hercules. Owners John St Barbe or Robert Brooks. Captain Luckyn Betts. 26 June 1802 - 12 Aug 1802. Convict transport. Simn Semple. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Fly of 1802. Owners, EICo. Captain Turner. 1 Jan 1802 - 6 Feb 1802. From Bombay, EICo cruiser. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Caledonia whaler of 1802. Owner Daniel Bennett. Captain John Page. 1802. Whaling.

1802: About 1802, AGE Jones writing in 1968 on Bennet -- Daniel Bennet bought from Mr Bush the oil wharf by the King's Mill, Rotherhithe, there he had, Jones writes, for another forty years or more, by the entrance to the Grand Surrey Canal, warehouses, a cooperage, sheds, a dwelling house, cottage and gardens. In 1806 he was assured at 220 pounds for land tax. Today it is site for a ballast merchant's yard. He moved to Blackheath, where there is still a road called Bennet Park, then one of the best residential districts south of the river, convenient to his works. Bennet's wife Elizabeth. In 1818 he moved out of London, as less active in business, he died in 1826. His son William (died 1844) was bequeathed the Blackheath and Rotherhithe Estates and a house at West Cowes. sums etc amounting to 13,000 pounds. AGE Jones in Appendix IV gives following list of Daniel Bennett's whalers out: 1787, Lively 240 tons to Trinidad, 1790-1792, the Lord Hawkesbury 229 tons on Guinea Coast, 1794, Lord Hawkesbury to Walvis Bay, 1794, the Lively to Brazil, 1794, the Kingston 293 tons to Brazils, 1796 the Indispensable 351 tons to NSW, 1797 the Sally to Brazil, 1797, the Fanny 242 tons, captured, 1797, Young William, South Georgia, 1799, Diana 230 tons to Falklands Islands, 1800 the Betsy 326 tons to Port Jackson, 1801 the Diana to Delagon Bay, 1801 Indispensable to Walvis Bay, 1801 the Flirt 189 tons to Walvis bay, 1801 the Favourite 323 tons to Walvis Bay, 1801 the Caledonia 250 tons to Walvis Bay, 1803 the Sally to Walvis Bay, 1804, the Betsy 230 tons to Kergeluen, 1804, the Ferrett 207 tons to NSW and Norfolk Island, 1805 the Indispensable to Peru, 1805 the Kingston to Kergeluen, 1805, the Active 400 tons to Kergeluen, 1805 the Ferrett to New Zealand, 1807 the Young William to NSW, 1807, the Indispensable to New Zealand. 1808, the New Zealander 258 tons to New Zealand, 1810, Indispensable to Norfolk Island.

1802: Castle of Good Hope. 1000 tons. Owners were David Scott Snr and Company of London as we find from a book by Styles on Captain Michael Hogan (p. 385, Note 32)] Her owner is not given by Cumpston´s Register. Arrived NSW on 14 February, 1803. Captain A. McAskill. 1802- 12 Feb 1803. Livestock import to NSW from Calcutta. Departed in ballast for Calcutta on 21 March 1803. (HRNSW 5, 165, 270.) Cumpston's Register. McAskill was in London by 1805.

1802: Casuarina. French navy. Captain Lt Louis de Freycinet. 17 Nov 1802. Exploration, Bass Strait. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Caroline (of 1802, Boston). Owners Russell Sturgis, J. &T. Lamb and others. Captain William Sturgis. 1802. Sealer of Boston. Proceeds of sale is more than $72,000.

1802: Alexander of 1802. Owner John Locke, maybe. Captain James Norman. 16 Oct 1802 - 3 Jan 1803. Prisoners. Cumpston's Register. Does she appear in other records?
In 1811, Herefordshire owned by John Locke. (In 1830, the British government made an examination of ships let from 1811 to the service of the East India Co. Amongst the shipowner and ship names listed, some are noted as ships carrying convicts to Australia. Follows an extraction from the list, which is on a webpage provided by www.british-history.ac.uk - an aspx-generated report.)

1802: Atlas (Brooks). Owners Messrs Clays. Captain Richard Brooks. 1801 - 6 July 1802 - 7 Oct 1802. Convict transport. Bateson. Cumpston's Register.
In 1816, Windsor owned by George Clay. (In 1830, the British government made an examination of ships let from 1811 to the service of the East India Co. Amongst the shipowner and ship names listed, some are noted as ships carrying convicts to Australia. Follows an extraction from the list, which is on a webpage provided by www.british-history.ac.uk - an aspx-generated report.)

1802: Atlas (Musgrave). Owners Beatson and Co. Captain Thomas Musgrave. 30 Oct 1802 - >3-8 Jan 1803. Convict transport. Bateson. Extra from Cumpston's Register.

1802: Arthur (US snow or brig). Owners Brown and Ives. Captain Scott Jenckes. 1802, Sydney, to China. 22 July 1802. Trader from Providence, RI. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett, p. 45.

1802: Arthur (US-1) snow or brig. Owners Brown and Ives. Captain Henry Barber. 1793? 1794-1796 at Sydney. Trader, Sydney, Bengal, from Providence, RI. Cumpston's Register.

1802: Arthur (US-2). Owners Brown and Ives. Captain Scott Jenckes. 1801? 1802 at Sydney, to China. Trader, wrecked off Hawaii, from Providence, RI. From Wace and Lovett, p. 45.

1802: Arthur, US snow, owned by Brown and Ives, Capt. Henry Bate (?) Alternatively, 1802, Arthur, owned by Brown and Ives, Capt. Scott Jenckes.

1802: Perseus of 1802. Owners Reeve and Green. Captain John Davison. 12 Feb 1802. 4 Aug 1802. 7 Oct 1802. Convict transport,later to China. Cumpston's Register.

1801-1802: Swain and Co. in 12/01 - 3/02 have trader/schooner Caroline from Boston Captain S. Tuckerman, to Sydney to New Bedford;

1802: US Capt. Lovat Mellon is on trader Duke of Portland, from Boston, owners not-named, in 1802, for Norfolk Island and Tongabatu; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1802: British Southern whaler General Boyd, Capt. Owen Bunker, owned by Watson and Co. See Australian Encyclopaedia, Whales, p. 275. See also 14 February, 1805.)

1802: Lloyd''s Green Book - Register. Usual names include: George Curling, NO; W, Curtis, EICo; George Forbes; Turnbull Forbes and Co.; Rt Hon Thomas Harley; J. P. Larkins; Plummer; Barry and Upham; St Barbe, Green and Bignell; John Shoolbred (Africa Co.); Smith; St Barbe, and Marten; Thorntons; New 1802 Green members included: Benjamin Bunn Jnr; Campbell and Geddes; and Thos Powditch.

1802: Perseus, owned Reeve and Green or Brown, Welbank and Petyt (once owners of Bethia which became HM Bounty). Arriving Sydney 4 August, 1802.

1802: March: Peace of Amiens, ending war between Britain and France. Britain retains Ceylon. Cape of Good Hope retained by Dutch.

1802: Convict ship Atlas 2. Arriving Sydney 30 October, 1802.

1802: Sir Robert Wigram ... had started life as surgeon's mate in the EICo's service etc. Twice a surgeon on ships. The next stage in his career was the opening of a small shop for the supply of drugs to ships, and by buying shares in Indiamen he laid the foundation for a fortune, which when Farrington writes of him in 1809 was "thought to be more than half a million". He owned most of the shares in Meux's brewery (UK) and was head of a great agency in Crosby Square, Bishopgate. Three fourths of the shares in the Blackwall Docks of London were also his, acquired about the year 1802 from William Wells, a retired" Company's captain" and his brother. Here, Wigram built the numerous Indiamen which he chartered to the Company, and which were the forerunner of the celebrated 'Money Wigram clippers".
From "East Indiamen" by Sir Evan Cotton and edited by Sir Charles Fawcett.)

Reference item 1802: Rhys Richards, `The Cruise of the Kingston and the Elligood in 1800 and the Wreck Found on King Island in 1802', The Great Circle, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1991., pp. 35-53. (Note 28).

1802-1803: HMS Glatton, arriving Sydney 11 March, 1803.

1802-1803: Rolla, arriving Sydney 12 May, 1803.

1802: Margaret - British registry; John Buyers, master; arrived Dec 17, 1802, departed Jan. 21, 1803. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1802: Southern whaler General Boyd, Capt. Owen Bunker, owned by Watson and Co. See Australian Encyclopaedia, Whales, p. 275. See also 14 Feb, 1805.

20 September 1802: For James Colnett. (His first contract.) Convict transport Glatton. Shelton´s Accounts No. 23.

Year 1804

???: To Messrs Reeve and Wigram (Second contract for Reeve). Convict transports Coromandel and Experiment. Shelton´s Accounts No. 25. (¨Three Scotch convicts¨.) The name Reeve here remains a problem person for research. These are presumably Joshua Reeve and Robert Wigram.

1804: HM Buffalo of 1804. RN. Lt William Kent. 12 June 1804 - 15 October 1804. Cattle, horses. Cumpston's Register, p. 5

1804: Contest (44 tons). Owners, Kable and Underwood. Captain not given. Launched May 1804. Local Sydney ship. Cumpston's Register, p. 49.

1804: Coromandel (2). Owners, Reeve and Green. Captain John Robinson then George Blakey. 1803 - 7-8 May 1804 - 19 July 1804. Convict transport. Reeve and Co. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Rose. Owner P. Gardner. Captain James Carey. Sealer, trader to China from Nantucket Island. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1804: Fair American of 1804. Owner, J. E. Farrell M/O. Captain J. E. Farrell. 26 March 1804 - 12 Nov 1804. Also to Manila. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Hannah and Eliza. Owner, W. Rotch. Captain Micajah Gardner. 1806. Whaler, sealer from New Bedford. From Wace and Lovett.

1804: Raven. (11 tons). Owner, Thomas Raby of Sydney. Captain not given. New by 1804. 23 May 1804. Light coals, cedar timber. Cumpston's Register, p. 49.

1804: Surprise sealer. Owner, Kable and Underwood of Sydney. Capt Rushworth. 19 April 1804 - 9 April 1804. Bass Strait sealing. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Sophia of 1804. Owners, Not given. Captain William Collins. 1804- 16 Jan 1805. Convicts, stores. Cumpston's Register, p. 51

1804: Policy whaler. Owners, Hurrys. Captain C. S. Foster, Rbt. Sparrow. 1804 - 17 Nov 1804 - 10 May 1805. Timor, Mollucccas, England, seal/whale oil. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Richard and Mary of 1804. Owners, Spencer and Co. Captain James Lucas. 1804 - 5 January 1805 - 26 January 1805. Whaling, to England and Moluccas. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Mandarin (of 1804). Owners, Notknown. Captain James Magee. 1804 - Trader. Letter T. H. Perkins by Mandarain Capt James Magee to E. Bumstead at Canton on Madeira wine, other goods, by which time the Perkins firm has ships on N/w coast America, Malay coast, Isle of France/Mauritius. In 1804, TH Perkins to Grant, Forbes and Co. in London who are still unidentified.

1804: Lady Barlow Owners, Campbell and Co. Captain A. McAskill. 21 Jan 1804. Skins, timber, curios, for Campbell Family. Robert Campbell, Sydney. Cumpston's Register, p. 51, has her to Pegu, Bengal, England via Derwent.

1804: Experiment (1). Owner, Wigram and Co., of London. Captain Francis J. Withers. 24 June 1804. Convict transport. Cumpston's Register, p. 51. Presumably, Robert Wigram.

1804: Mary Owners, Boardman and Co. Captain Samuel Balch. Trader from Boston to Manila. From Wace and Lovett

1804: Mersey. James Wilson Master/Owner. Captain James Wilson. 16 April 1804 - 24 May 1804. Trader from Fort William. Cumpston's Register. Consignment for Robert Campbell Snr, Sydney.

1804: Pilgrim (of 1804). Owners Boardman and Co. Captain Samuel Delano. 22 Aug 1804 - 31 Aug 1804. Sealer. Boston, Bradbury and Co. Cumpston's Register, she is sealing in Bass Strait. From Wace and Lovett.

1804: Pilgrim of 1804. US-owned. Captain Unknown. Sealer. Sealing in Bass Strait by 1804. Aboard is O. F. Smith, an American, who applied to live at Sydney but was refused by Gov. King.

1804: Endeavour (of 1804). Owner not given. Captain Murrell. 1804 - 22 Jan 1805 to Bass Strait. Sealing, fine skins. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Marcia. Owners, Unknown. Captain J. Aicken. 5 July 1804. Wrecked, salvage, taking beche-de-mer. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Endeavour. Owners, Kable and Underwood of Sydney. Captain J. Oliphant. 17 Jan 1804 - 8 Feb 1804 - 17 Jan 1804. Sealing. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Myrtle. Owners, Wm. Kinlock and Co. Captain Henry Barber. 18 Oct 1804 - 31 Dec 1804. Misc, general, spirits, ordered to sea. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Edwin sloop. Sydney owned. Captain William Stewart. 8 Feb 1804. Bass Strait sealing. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Brook Watson. Owners, Goodall and Turner. Captain Obed Worth. Whaling. Goodall and Turner. AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 199.

1804: Antelope. Owner, Daniel Bennett. Captain James Mortlock, John Samuel Parker. Captured. AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 196.

1804: Aeolus (US). Champlin and Minturn. Captain Andrew Mather. 1804-1805. At Sydney 1804-1805. 9 Feb 1805 . Whaler, to China. Sumerset, New York. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1804: African (of 1804). Owner Daniel Bennett of Blackheath. Captain Ranson Jones. 1804. Whaling. Formerly Minerve, captured by HMS Circe in 1800. Other captain is John Brown, as in AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 194.

1804: Active (whaler3), Owner Daniel Bennet, Rotherhithe. Capt Louis Blair. Whaling, AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 193.

1804: Adonis of 1804. Owners Unknown. Captain Robert Turnbull (See above). 25 Aug 1804 - 19 Sep 1804. Whaling NZ. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Swift prize. Bought by Campbell and Co. J. Lawrence. 1804, taken as prize. 17 Nov 1804. Beef, clothing, wine, arrack. Earlier owned by Dutch. Cumpston's Register sees her condemned in Sydney.

1804: Perseverance. US-owned. Captain Unknown. Sealing in Bass Strait by 1804. 1804: Perseverance (of 1804). Owners Fanning and Co. Captain Amasa Delano. Sealer from Boston. From Wace and Lovett

1804: Integrity HMC. Sydney owned. Capt Rushworth. Feb 1804 maybe. Port Phillip, Derwent. Cumpston's Register, p. 48.

1804: Union of 1804. US Owners Fanning and Co. Captain J. Pendleton. 27 June 1804-29 August 1804. Sealing, Bass Strait, China. Cumpston's Register.

1804: P. Gardner is owner in 1804 for sealer/trader Rose, of Nantucket, Captain James Carey, to Sydney, Dampier Straits south of Tasmania, thence Canton, (note re R. Caldwell, Nantucket), see HRA, 1 (5), pp. 120-122;

1804-1805: Champlin and Minturn in December 1804 and 1805 have trader Aeolus from Sumerset (sic) NY, Capt Andrew Mather, to Sydney, thence China; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

In 1804-1805, for not-named owners, ship Herald of Salem, Captain Zachary Silsbee, to Tasmania, see Langdon, 1971;

1804: US Captain Amasa Delano, in March-November 1804 is on sealer Perseverance, of Boston, for Fanning and Co., to Cape Barren Island and Bass Strait then S/W coast of New Holland. (See HRA, 1 (5), pp. 168-173.)

1804: Capt Samuel Delano in late 1804 is on schooner/sealer Pilgrim, of Boston, for Boardman and Co., to Sydney and Bass Strait, then New Zealand, see HRA, 1 (5), pp. 173-176; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1804-1806: In 1804-1806 sails whaler/sealer Hannah and Eliza from New Bedford. Captain Micajah Gardner, for owner W. Rotch to Tasmania, Norfolk Island, Broken Bay, Norfolk Island, then New Zealand and Cape Horn. (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1804: US merchants Boardman and Co. in 1804 are owners for Mary (or Marion or Mary Ann), from Boston, Capt. Samuel Balch, to Sydney, thence Manila, see HRA I (5), pp. 151-152. (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1804: Circa: Date becomes relevant for the London-based Green-Wigram partnerships. Some information is extant on Wigrams, a large family with some men operating as convict contractors. Greens seem resistant to genealogical research, although they are referred to in E. Keble Chatterton, The Mercantile Marine. London, William Heinemann Ltd., 1923., pp. 94ff. On Wigrams, see Burke's Landed Gentry for Arkwright of Sutton Scarsdale and Long of Sydenham. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Wigram. There is no date in Shelton's Contracts No 25, for convict ships Coromandel and Experiment, contracts with Messrs Reeve and Wigram, 382 cons, Shelton charged £381/14/8d. with three Scotch convicts; as found in Byrnes, `The Blackheath Connection', p. 97, Note 156.

1804: 4 March, 1804, Sunday, Convict rebellion at Castle Hill, Sydney, the only battle (as reported) ever fought by the NSW Corps. Otherwise, soldiers' conflict with Aboriginals was not exactly "officially reported".

1804: Convict ship Coromandel 1 (2), probably owned as Coromandel I above. Arriving Sydney 7 May 1804.

1804: Convict shipExperiment 1, Arriving Sydney 24 June, 1804.

1804: Active at Penang by 1804: Robert Townsend Farquhar (1776-1830), governor at Penang, succeeding Leith, very energetic, and he reconstructs Fort Cornwallis. French privateers still sail about. Farquar is succeeded by Philip Dundas, brother of Henry Dundas (Lord Melville). In 1804, Acheen has a civil war, family squabble, the displaced sultan offers Penang a fort and settlement at Acheen, re pepper trade, but the EICo procrastinates. Then the EICo directors went for a Acheen fort, maybe to command northern approach to the Straits of Malacca. Philip Dundas also shilly-shallied. But in 1805, ambitions grew. EICo, Directors very keen, mentioning Pegu timber nearby as well.
Clodd, Francis Light, pp. 140-148.

1804: By 1804, New Zealand "did its bit" re providing naval timber. Captains had been enthusiastic about the woods of NSW and NZ, and by 1804, England was receiving masts of NZ kaurie or NSW jarrah. (But in 1809, New Zealand cannibals "ate the crew" of Boyd, loading NZ spars for the Cape Town dockyard. High freight rates precluded too much business here, but for many years the navy continued to draw masts from such remote sources.) See Albion also also re ships of Indian teak, Malabar coast, as EICo now already built many of its own ships in India, the Bombay shipbuilder, the Parsi, Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy being involved . Jeejeebhoy later becomes first Parsi Baronet and a freeman of City of London.
(Albion, Forests and Sea Power, p. 197, pp. 364-368.)

1804: John Prinsep in London by 1804 laid plans - interesting but premature - to import wool from eastern Australia. The plans involved John Maitland, John Macarthur, Mr. Coles, Mr. Wilson at Monument Yard, Capt. Waterhouse and Mr. Stewart. John Maitland, of Basinghall Street, was an influential wool merchant who had links with Sir Joseph Banks and Macarthur. (See Harold B. Carter, His Majesty's Spanish Flock: Sir Joseph Banks and the Merinoes of George III of England. Sydney, Angus And Robertson, 1964. Harold B. Carter, Sir Joseph Banks, 1743-1820. London, British Museum (Natural History), 1988.) At an 1804 auction of the King's sheep, Maitland was interested in Macarthur's proposal for a company to produce wool in New South Wales and supported it in company with Hulletts, who'd dummy-bought two ewes for Macarthur, and owned the Argo. At the sale, Banks warned Macarthur of the Obstructive Act of 1788 preventing export of sheep. Later, Macarthur suggested to Lord Camden a Treasury warrant be drawn for the export. A company with a capital of £10,000 was proposed, but the plan went awry. By July 1804, John Prinsep was examined in Council Chamber at Whitehall. (See Sibella Macarthur-Onslow, Some Early Records of the Macarthurs of Camden, pp. 92-95.)
1804: 11 July 1804, wool gentlemen meet inc. Hunter and Waterhouse, both RN, Capts Prentice and Townson of New South Wales Corps, William Wilson of Monument Yard, agent for Robert Campbell and Marsden, and William Stewart Master Mariner of Lambert, Prinsep and Saunders, shipping and East India agents of 147 Leadenhall St, owners of Anne to NSW in 1800. (See also, Sibella Macarthur-Onslow, Some Early Records of the Macarthurs of Camden. [Orig. 1914] Sydney, Rigby, 1973. Pemberton, London Connection, p. 121).

1804: Prinsep and Saunders tendered 16 ships to EICo, see July 1804, (Parkinson p. 143 on Eastern Trade.)

1804:Aurora US owned. Captain - Hussy. 1803? 1804, at "New Holland". Whaler from Nantucket Island. From Wace and Lovett, p. 45.

Year 1805

15 July 1805: To Peter Everitt Mestaer (sic) a Rotherhithe shipbuilder, merchant, London alderman. (His first contract.) Convict transport William Pitt. Shelton´s Accounts No. 26.

1805: Mr Dominicus, the EICO husband in the matter of the seizure of cargo of the Lady Barlow belonging to Robert Campbell. 1805, Lady Barlow affair, Sir Stephen Cottrell, at Council Office (EICO?).

1805: Ceres whaler of 1805. Owner, D. Stevens. Captain Ed Sharp(e). 1804 -- 10 Apr 1805 - 18 June 1805. South whaler. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Aurora. Owners, Daniel Starbuck/Sterbeck. Captain Andrew Merrick/Meryck. 1805 - 21 Apr 1806 - 24 Apr 1806. Whaler. Milford, Bideford. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Eagle brig of 1805. Owners, Campbell and Co. Captain Thomas Graham. 5 Apr 1805 - 28 Jun 1805. To Calcutta. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Honduras packet. Owners, Hurry and Co. Captain Owen Bunker. 1804 - 20 July 1805 - 20 Sep 1805. Seal skins, 7000. Also re William Edwards. Ship a Spanish prize. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Myrtle. Owners, Kinlock and Co. Captain Henry Barber. 4 March 1805- 7 March 1805. Rum, sugar, sundry, to Fort William, East Indies. Also to n/w America. Cumpston's Register.

1804: Nancy. M/O. Captain A. Thompson. 14 Aug 1804. Oil, Bass Strait. Cumpston's Register, p. 50.

1805: Star ship. Owner, Birnie and Co. Captain James Birnie. 22 Feb 1806- 25 March 1806. Whaling off New Zealand. Of London. Plus J. Wilkinson. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Lucy privateer. Owner Daniel Bennett. Captain Alexander Ferguson. 21 April 1806. Whaling or sealing, Peru, a prize ship. Of London. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Sophia. Owners, Campbell and Co. of Sydney. Captain William Collins. 19 Apr 1805 - 12 July 1805. To Hobart, King Island, Bass Strait. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Lady Barlow. Owner, Robert Campbell. Captain A. McAskill probably. 1805 on Thames River. Sealer, trader. McAskill is ex-Castle of Good Hope. This ship about Sydney in May - July 1804, with cattle and stores. Cargo seized in London by London interests protecting their own investments in Australasia.

1805: Herald. Owner, Unknown, American. Captain Zachary T. Silsbee. 1804 - 1805. To Tasmania from Salem. From Wace and Lovett.

1805: Criterion. Owners, Hussey and Co. Captain Peter Chase/Chace. 23 Apr 1805- 28 May 1805. Sealer, trader to China. Tobacco. From Nantucket. She is back in Sydney May-July 806, China and teas, etc. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1805: Harrington5. Owners, Chace and Co. Captain William Campbell. 27 Jan 1805-27 Feb 1805. General merchandise, then whaling, Peru. Takes two prizes. Cumpston's Register.

1805 circa: King George. Owners, Henry Kable et al. Captain Unknown. Re James Underwood, Simeon Lord. Ship King George built in Sydney for Henry Kable, James Underwood, Simeon Lord and David Dickenson Mann and launched on 30 April 1805. Cumpston's Register, p. 8.

1805: HM Buffalo. RN. Lt. Houston. 27 Nov 1805 - 10 Feb 1806. To Hobart, carries Gov. King and family. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Elizabeth and Mary. Owners, Spencer and Co. Captain John Hingston. 27 Sep 1805 - 8 Nov 1805. Whaling, New Zealand. Cumpston's Register.

1805: More to come US owned. -- Unknown. 1805. Trader from Salem. From Wace and Lovett.

1805: Harriott whaler. Owners, Mathers and Co. Thaddeus Coffin. 1804 - 24 Apr 1805 - 29 May 1805. Whaling, sperm oil. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Hazard. American Owner, Wm. F. Megee. Captain Notknown. 1805. US Trader to EI and China. Supercargo is Saml III Nightingale.

1805: Favorite. American Owner, P. Gardner and D. Whitney. Captain Jonathan Paddock. 1805 - 24 Apr 1805 and 1806 - 11 Jun 1805. Whaler, sealer. New Zealand, Canton, general merchandise. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett.

1805: Britannia whaler of 1805. Owner, John T. Hill. Captain Amiel Hussey. 1805 - June 1806. Whaler, sealer, off California. Up to 20,000 skins, full whale oil. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Favourite. Owners, Gardiner and Co. Captain John Paddock. 10 March 1806 - 29 July 1806. Sealing, 60,000 skins. Of Nantucket. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Commerce brig. British Owners, James Birnie and Co., London. Captain John Wilkinson. 9 Oct 1805 - 7 Feb 1806. Sealing, timber. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Britannia South Sea whaler. 1805. Details not given. Re Nathaniel Goodspeed.

1805: Brothers (US). Owner, O. Mitchell. Captain Benjamin Worth. 1804-1805. 1805 to Sydney. Whaler from Nantucket Island. From Wace and Lovett, p. 48.

1805: Brothers whaler of 1805. Owner, O. Mitchell. Captain Benjamin Worth. 10 July 1805- 1 Nov 1805. Whaling, New Zealand coast. Driven back. Cumpston's Register. --- 1806: Brothers whaler of 1806. Owner O. Mitchell. Captain Benjamin Worth. 21 July 1806- 17 August 1806. Whaling, NZ coast. Re Obh Mitchell. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Amiante brig. Spanish, presumably. Captain A. Fisk. 1804-1805. 17 May 1805. Prize to Harrington. Sent by Chile, Kent's Group. Name was Santa Francisco y Santo Paulo. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Argo of 1805. Owners, Hulletts and Co. of London. John Baden/Bader. 7 Jun 1805- 15 Sep 1805. Whaling, probably, as by NZ. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Atlantic whaler. Owners, Enderby and Co. Captain William Swain. 3 May 1806 - 29 May 1806. Whaling. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Anne (US). Owner, William Rotch. Captain Jas. Gwinn/Gwynn. 1803 - 1805 to Sydney. Whaler, Sydney, China, England. From New Bedford Named in records is William Rock Jnr. To China. Cumpston's Register. From Wace and Lovett

1805: Sydney of 1805. Owners, Campbell and Co. Captain Austin Forrest. 18 Apr 1805 - 5 October 1805. Cattle for Port Dalrymple. Calcutta to Hobart. She is lost on coast of New Guinea by maybe Feb 1807. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Independence of 1805. Owners, Fanning and Co. Captain Jsh. Townsend. 21 Apr 1805 - 11 Jun 1805. Sealer, Kangaroo Island, Norfolk Island, Canton. Cumpston's Register.

1805: Venus small brig. Campbell and Co. of Sydney. Capt John Calder. 7 May 1805-29 July 1805. Sealing, Bass Strait, coast Peru, Calcutta. Link to William Stewart. Cumpston's Register. She is under Jas. Stewart to Derwent and Penantipodes, skins, by 24 Jan 1806.

1805: Vulture whaler. Owners Mathers and Co. Capt Thomas Folger. 22 Juy 1806-20 Aug 1806. Whaler, Chile and Peru. Cumpston's Register.

1805, US ship Hazard, Wm. F. Megee (probably supercargo), Capt ?

1805, US ship Catherine, Fanning and Co, Capt. Henry Fanning.

1805: and in 7-11/1805 and 7-8-1806, Captain Benjamin Worth is on whaler Brothers from Nantucket, for O. Mitchell, Sydney and New Zealand;

1805-1806: Salem: J. Pierce is owner in 1805/1806 of trader Eliza with Capt. William Richardson, with log keeper Philip Payn Pinel, to Sydney and Norfolk Island, thence China.

no date American William Richardson as master has brig trader Active, from Salem, owned by Jas Cooke, to Hobart, Sydney, Fiji, Canton, Manila in 12/10 and 2/11; William P. Richardson, Freeman Richmond, I. B. Richmond as owner in 2/42 and 7-8/42 has whaler Addison Capt Thos. West from New Bedford, Hobart.

1805: S. C. Phillips in a confused entry in 1805 and maybe 1806 has US trader/whaler (barque) Elizabeth, from Freetown, then Salem, no captain named on one trip, trip has Capt. Isaac Hodge/Hedge, with Jonathan P. Saunders as log keeper; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1805: US Capt. Henry Fanning in 1805 is on sealer Catherine from New York (by 1804?) for Fanning and Co., Sydney and King George Sound; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1805-1806: US merchants Hussey and Co. have sealer and trader Criterion from Nantucket, Capt. Peter Chase, to Sydney and Hobart, then Fiji, Canton and Nantucket. (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett.)

1805-1806: US merchant J. Pierce is owner in 1805/1806 of trader Eliza, from Salem, with Capt. Wm. Richardson, with log keeper Philip Payn Pinel, to Sydney and Norfolk Island, thence China; (Item extracted from Wace and Lovett)

1805: A smuggler from Boston, Massachusetts, Charles Cabot, attempts to purchase opium from the British, then smuggle it into China under the auspices of British smugglers. (From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth Simon & Schuster, Ltd., 1996.)

1805 and later: McLardie are traders at Calcutta, in the context of Robert Campbell's trading from Sydney.

1805: The prison on convict transport Tellicherry was insufficiently ventilated, it was complained at the Irish port involved. NB: This ship was owned by John St Barbe of Blackheath, London; she was lost, and was the last ship St Barbe ever sent to NSW.
Con Costello, Botany Bay: The Story of the Convicts Transported from Ireland to Australia, 1791-1853. Cork-Dublin, Mercier, 1987., p. 68

St Barbe's Tellicherry had aboard eight supporters of Robert Emmet. (Shaw, Convicts and the Colonies, pp. 170-171.) St Barbe lost Tellicherry about the Philippines about 1806. Bateson describes St. Barbe as "a prominent London merchant and shipowner", but not as an influential underwriter helping manage the Lloyd's Red Book. Tellicherry was to load China tea, a good indication that by 1805, a former whaler could deal with the East India Company without animosity.
Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 190.

1805: Chace, Chinnery and Co. of Madras, bankrupt in 1805. In 1805: Chace, Chinnery and Co. of Madras, send ships to Sydney.

1805: Patrick Colquhuon, LLD, when writing his major work, A Treatise On The Police Of The Metropolis, was acting as a magistrate for the counties of Middlesex, Surry, Kent and Essex. He recommended a water police be created for the Thames River. Patrick Colquhuon was agent for West Indies Nevis 1806-1821 as Patrick and James Colquhuon; and for Nevis, 1821-1848, James Colquhuon, 1825-1851; James Colquhuon agent for St Christopher; from 1802-1845 Patrick and James Colquhuon were the agents for Virgin Islands; from 1842-1850, James Colquhuon the agent for Tobago; from 1806-1844, Patrick and James Colquhuon agents for St Vincent; from 1845-1850, the agent for St Vincent is James Colquhuon; 1816-1826, Patrick and James Colquhuon agents for Dominica, James 1826 till 1852. James and Patrick Junior Colquhuon being nephews of Patrick LLD. See Lillian M. Penson, The Colonial Agents of the British West Indies: A Study in Colonial Administration mainly in the Eighteenth Century. Orig. 1924. London, Frank Cass and Co., reprint 1971., pp. 251ff. Patrick Colquhuon, LL.D., A Treatise On The Police Of The Metropolis. London, 1805.

1805: Sir John Hayes who annexed New Guinea, (New Albion), visits London and is deputised by EICo, made Deputy Master Attendant at Calcutta, succeeds to senior position in 1809, holds position for 21 years.

1805?: Sir Lionel Hook (d. 1810 or 1811) of EICo military Dept., secretary to Gov. of Bengal, brother of Charles Hook a sometime-trader at Sydney, NSW and once an agent for Robert Campbell the Sydney merchant.

1805: Captain Abraham Bristow discovered the Auckland Islands. Bristow later worked for the London based whalers, Mellishes.

1805: The impeachment of Henry Dundas, First Lord of Melville, who had "smeared the image of the admiralty with corruption". See DNB entry on Dundas.

1805: Convict ship William Pitt, owned by Peter Mestaers or Hulletts Bros, 604 tons, Capt. John Boyce. Departing 31 August 1805 from Cork, via Mad., S. Salvadore, Cape, 223 days to Sydney arriving 11 April, 1806. Contractor, Peter Everitt Mestaer. Shelton Contract No. 26, with Peter Everitt Mestaer, dated 15 July, 1805 for 142 convicts. (Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 338.)

1805: Hullett Bros, are partners with Macarthur in Argo, are partners with Blaxland Bros in ship William Pitt which sailed 1 September 1805, with Gregory Blaxland. (Pemberton, London Connection, p. 134).

1805: 18 December 18, 1805, Whitehall, (Under-sec) J. King to Commissioners for the Transport Service, King being directed by Lord Hawkesbury they shall permit Mrs Wiseman the wife of the convict Solomon Wiseman, for embarkation on the transport Alexander, to have passage with her husband in lieu of Mrs. Henshall who has declined such an indulgence. (HO 13/17, pp. 134-135, cited in David T. Hawkings, Bound for Australia. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1988., p. 13, pp. 23-27. (A book helpful for genealogists.)
1805: 19 December, Lord Hawkesbury to A. H. Bradley, Commissioner of Convicts, giving Bradley a list of convicts in his care and asking that he allow 150 free of any infectious disease to be selected from the list and put on board Alexander and Fortune. Hawkings writes that no logs for the Fortune or Alexander have ever been located.

1805: Re London Docks, First West India Docks, almost as large as the EICo docks then in existence. Finished in 1805, at a cost of £168,000. Note: Australian wool when sent in larger quantities to London was unloaded at London Dock, upriver from West India Docks. London Dock, was founded by private subscription, opened on 31 January, 1805; the first ship entering this dock is unknown.
Upriver of Limehouse Reach, the only docks on Thames southside were the Surrey Commercial Docks, which included Greenland Dock, Russian Dock (a small dock), Albion and Canada Docks. Joseph Moore about 1809 organised what became Lady Dock. Brunswick Dock at Blackwall was owned by Perry the shipbuilder, and used only by East Indiamen, Howland's Greenland Dock at Rotherhithe had been used by the South Sea Company.

1805-1806: The Hurry shipyard and complex at Howdon Pans [Newcastle, England], is declared bankrupt in 1806 and assets are gradually sold off. (Tony Barrow, 'The Newcastle Whaling Trade, 1752-1849, The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 75, 1989., pp. 231ff.

1805: Lelia Byrd - American registry; William Shaler, master; arrived Aug. 22, 1805. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1805: Tamana - John Hudson, master; built in Hawaii 1805

1805: Atahualpa - Boston; Capt. Adams, master; arrived Aug. 1805, departed Oct. 6, 1805. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

Yarmouth - arrived Dec. 8, 1805; Samuel Patterson; departed Dec. 22, 1805. (This item is from a website Hawaiian Roots on ships to Hawaii before 1819)

1805:: Southern whaler Ferrett, Capt. Skelton, been to Derwent.

1805: Sept., Sydney, Capt. John Hingston, whaler Elizabeth and Mary.

Year 1806

23 January 1806: To Messrs Mestaer and Locke. (Peter Evet Mestaer´s second contract.) Convict transports Alexander and Fortune. Shelton´s Accounts No. 27.

1806: Sophia. Owner, Campbell and Co. Captain James Lelohf. 14 Feb 1806-21 Feb 1806. Sealing, Bass Strait, a prize named Policy. (Cumpston's Register)

1806: General Wellesley. Owner and Captain not known. 1806 - 13 Feb 1807 - 24 April 1807. Merchant, to New Zealand for spars, Pulo Penang. For Dalrymple and Co. Cumpston's Register.

25 February 1806: Ship Lady Nelson leaves Sydney to return Maori Te Pahi and his sons to the Bay of Islands. The Maori have been given bricks, a house frame and other goods. Te Pahi becomes ill and is nursed by ex-convict George Bruce. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Dart of 1807. Owners, Hulletts and Co. Captain Richard Smith. 1806 - 8 March 1807 - 9 April 1807. Whaling. Cumpston's Register.

18 March 1806: New Zealand: Ship Argo Captain John Bader again visits Bay of Islands NZ. Maori Ruatara and some others are aboard. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Elizabeth of 1807. Captain J. Walker. Owner McArthur and Co. 1806 - March 1807. Sydney to Tahiti. Cumpston's Register.

1806: Brothers of 1807. British Owners, Hulletts and Blaxland. Captain Oliver Russell. 1806 - 3 April 1807 - 13 Jun 1807. London, fishery, schooner in frame. Re Blaxland. Cumpston's Register.

20 April 1806: New Zealand: Ex-convict George Bruce on Lady Nelson has been lately flogged. When the vessel reaches North Cape he jumps ship and goes to Bay of Islands. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

27 April 1806: London-New Zealand: Whaler Ferret reaches London with aboard Maori Te Mahanga (Morehanga). The first Maori known to have visited England. He meets John Savage again and in London also meets King George III and Queen Charlotte. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

Late April 1806: New Zealand: Lady Nelson again visits Bay of Islands and returns Maori Te Pahi and his sons. The ship's carpenter starts to erect Te Pahi's house. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Jefferson. Owner, B. Rotch. Captain Robert Barnes/Brock. 1806 - 1814 - 1813. Whaler from New Bedford. From Wace and Lovett

12 June 1806: Ship Alexander reaches Portsmouth with Maori Teina and Maki aboard. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

13 June 1806: Whaler Ferret leaves London for Sydney with Maori Te Mahanga aboard. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

17 June 1806: Ship Venus, Captain Samuel Chace, is taken piratically by convicts at Port Dalrymple (Launceston). Is sailed to New Zealand. Aboard her are two women, Charlotte Badger and Catherine Hagerty. The ship is about Bay of Islands July and August. Some of her people are left at Rangihoua Bay. The ship then went down the east coast of the North Island, kidnapping several Maori women who are sold to rival tribes who eventually killed them. These problems become subject of a retaliatory raid in 1818. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

27 June 1806: Ship Alexander arrives to London. Maori Teina and Maki come under the care of Rev. Joseph Hardcastle of the London Missionary Society and he tries to find them a passage back to Sydney. Unfortunately, Teina died and Maki was kidnapped by a criminal and became lost. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Fortune EICo extra ship. Owner, Mestier and Co. (Peter E. Mestaer?) Captain Henry Moore. 1805 - 12 July 1806 - 21 Aug 1806. Prize, carries pigs, coal, copper, timber. Cumpston's Register.

18 August 1806: Ship Ocean, Captain Bristow, discovers the Auckland Islands. (From a wikipedia page on Year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: Fortune. Owner, Peter Evet Mestaers (?), Captain Henry Moore. Convict transport. See Bateson.

1806: Sinclair extra ship. Owner William Osbourne? Captain J. H. Jackson. 1805 - 5 Aug 1806 - 5 Oct 1806. China, seal skins, coal, timber. Transport Hon Co's Extra Ship. (Cumpston's Register)

1806: More to come 25 August 1806 ship wrecked Middleton Reef. Name not given. (Cumpston's Register)

1806: Eliza (of 1806). Owner J. Pierce. Captain William Richardson. Trader to China. From Salem. Also to Norfolk Island.

1806: Alexander (2). Owner, John Locke. Captain Richard Brooks. 1805 - 20 Aug 1806 - 12 Nov 1806. Convict transport, then oil and skins. Earlier named Atlas. Cumpston's Register names Locke here. Bateson.

1806: Young William storeship, Owner Daniel Bennett, Capt William Watson. 7 July 1807, 14 Sep 1807. Govt storeship, whaling. Cumpston's Register.

1806: Adonis of 1806. Owners, Daniel Starbuck et al, Milford. Captain Robert Turnbull. 1806. Whaling. "And others". Also captains Robert Thomson and William Melville. (AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 194.)

1806: Adventure (of 1806). Owner, Daniel Bennett, Blackheath. Captain John Page, Wm Parker. Whaling. AGE Jones, Ships Employed, p. 194.

1806: Tellicherry. Owner, John St Barbe. Captain Thomas Cuzens. 15 Feb 1806 - 6 Apr 1806. Convict transport. Intended for China, Bengal. Lost about the Philippines, Bateson. (Cumpston's Register.)

1806: William Pitt of 1806. Owners, Hulletts. Captain John Boyce. 1805 - 11 Apr 1806 - 25 Jun 1806. Convict transport, then to China. Re Peter Everitt or Peter Evet Maesters. (Cumpston's Register. Bateson.)

1806: Parramatta of 1807. Owners Hulletts and Co. Capt John Glenn/Glynn. 3 April 1807-17 Jun 1807. Merchant, to Tahiti for pork. (Cumpston's Register.)

In 1805-1806: James Gwinn (sic), in 5-6/05, 2-3/06 is captain of whaler Anne from New Bedford, for owner William Rotch, Sydney and Norfolk Island, whaling, China and England and in 9-11/1808 Gwinn on same ship whaling for B. Rotch and in 1812 also similar by New Zealand.

1805-1806: in 7-11/1805 and 7-8-1806, Capt Benjamin Worth is on whaler Brothers from Nantucket, for O. Mitchell, Sydney and New Zealand.

By 1806, William Bignell (who remains little known), 1 contract for a convict ship with Shelton. By 1806, Messrs Mestaer and Locke, 2 contracts with Shelton for convict ships.
Note: It is known that the whaler investor John St Barbe had a sister Catharine who married William Bignell, but it is not known for certain if her husband was a partner of her brother John. He probably was, as part of a family firm.

1806: 9 January, 1806: Convicts Hawkins and Cording were sent on board Fortune, then to sail for NSW. Fortune's muster of convicts was mixed with the muster of Alexander. On Fortune was Capt Henry Moore (Lt, RN). These transports were to sail with a ship commanded by William Bligh, who was going out to become governor of NSW. Hawkings says the two transports had 306 convicts, which rather conflicts with Shelton's naming of 298 cons. Hawkings lists the other ships, which set sail on 28 January, 1806, with Henry Moore complaining he had not got all his guard aboard. The inventory of private goods sent in Fortune is printed in Sydney Gazette for 13 July, 1806. Fortune (1) departed England 28 January 1806, arriving Sydney 12 July, 1806. Convict Hawkins was put to government work at Castle Hill. (Hawkings, Bound for Australia, pp. 3-4, pp.27-32.
Shelton's Contracts No 27, dated 23 January, 1806, with Messrs Mestaer and Locke, with ships Alexander and Fortune for 298 convicts. Shelton charged £322/14/6d for this.
Departing 28 January 1806 from England, convict ship Fortune 1, 620 tons, possibly owned Mestaers, Capt. Henry Moore. Arriving Sydney 12 July, 1806. Contractors Mestaer and Locke. Shelton's Contract No. 27, with Messrs Mestaer and Locke, in the Alexander and Fortune, dated 23 January, 1806, for a total of 298 convicts.
Bateson, Convict Ships, p. 338. By now, see for example, J. D. Shearer, Bound for Botany Bay: Impressions of Transportation and Convict Life. Sydney, Summit Books, 1976.)

1806: Departing March 1806 from England, convict ship Alexander I, 278 tons. Capt. Richard Brooks. Contractors, Messrs Mestaer and Locke. Arriving Sydney 20 August, 1806. (Brooks had a descendant in Armidale, the writer Geoff Blomfield.)
By 1810, Captain Richard Brooks was using a trading ship, Simon Cock. By 1810, Birnies are said to be the only merchant and general agents regularly trading to NSW.

Convict transport William Pitt. Arriving Sydney 11 April, 1806.

8 September 1806: New Zealand: Ship Richard and Mary Captain Leikins leaves Port Jackson for England carrying Maori (Maa)Tara, son of Te Pahi. (From a wikipedia page on year 1806 in New Zealand).

September 1806: New Zealand: Ship Argo returns to Port Jackson. Captain Bader discharges Maori Ruatara without pay. Ruatara meets Rev. Samuel Marsden for the first time. (From a wikipedia page on year 1806 in New Zealand.)

1806: Noted traders at Calcutta are Ferguson and Fairlie; in October 1806 William Wilson, years before on the London Missionary Society ship Duff, and one William Fairlie offered to act as guarantors of Robert Campbell of Sydney (By about 1811, a firm was Fairlie Gilmore and Co. of Calcutta, and Robert Campbell had London agents, David Scott Jnr of London. )

1806: In October, 1806, in London, William Fairlie, of the India house Fairlie, Ferguson and Co., and William Wilson, offered themselves as security for the further financial good behaviour of Robert Campbell. (Fairlie was an associate of David Scott Snr from their mutual days in India. His connection with Campbell means that Robert Campbell in Sydney has several merchant networks to connect with, including the network of David Scott Snr, which was international. However, the Lady Barlow affair had destabilised Wilson's own affairs too much, and after Wilson's bankruptcy in February, 1811, he ceased to act as agent for Robert Campbell. (On the Lady Barlow affair see Margaret Steven, Trade, Tactics and Territory: Britain in the Pacific, 1783-1823. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press, 1983., p. 102.)

12 October 1806: Whaling ship Albion Captain Cuthbert Robertson, leaves Port Jackson. Maori Ruatara joins the crew. (From a wikipedia page on year 1806 in New Zealand)

1806: After 1806, female convicts were sent in separate ships, except for the Providence in 1811. (Shaw, Convicts and the Colonies, p. 125.)

1806: 18 December, 1806: Shelton's Contract No. 28, taken with William Bignell in ship Sydney Cove, Capt. William Edwards, re 113 convicts. Shelton charged £192/pounds, 15/4d. (Bignell was a sometime-associate of St Barbe.) Departing 11 January 1807 from Falmouth - Arriving Sydney 18 June, 1807.
However, 11 July, 1807, (See Hainsworth, Builders, pp. 82-91), re a letter from Sydney merchant Simeon Lord to Gov. Bligh, a suggestion Sydney Cove was technically owned by Thos. W. Plummer of London, and Bligh was inquisitive about this. (?)

December 1806: Whaler Ferret returns to Sydney from England with Maori Te Mahanga on board. (From a wikipedia page on year 1806 in New Zealand)

18 December 1806: To William Bignell (his first contract). Convict transport Sydney Cove. Shelton´s Accounts No. 28. Presuambly a partner with John St Barbe and John Green of the firm St Barbe, Green and Bignell. ships husbands and insurance brokers of 33 Seething Lane London. This firm was still operating by 17 November 1807 when Captain Liston on their ship Transit was bound for St Domingo and Liston had a brush with a French privateer as he informed his owners. The firm was involved in London re Sydney Cove in a deal with Kable and Co., a Sydney company formed by ex-convicts James Underwood Henry Kable and Simeon Lord, so the St Barbe applied for the contract to transport. Here then is a rare case of ex-convicts arranging a convict transport, to depart as it happened from Portsmouth. The convict contractor names St Barbe, Green and Bignell, and the Mangles family are mentioned as slavers as part of a syndicate operating about 1789-1793 in an online item, N. Draper, ´The City of London and slavery: evidence from the first dock companies, 1795-1800´, Economic History Review, 61, 2, 2008, pp. 432-466.

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