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Women Crusaders

From late January 2001 LOST WORLDS continues compiling this special feature on Women Crusaders . This article will carry a bibliography as well, since new attention is being given to the family histories of the Crusaders. We're sure you'll appreciate this feature, so stay posted! -Ed

Women Crusaders

The "spiritual father" of the European crusading movement (Christian holy war), is taken in Eric John's book of papal biographies to be Pope Leo IX, (1049-1054), (held to be a saint from his death) who was Bruno, Count of Egisheim-Dagsburg. He was a Lorrainer, earlier Bishop of Toul, and was related to the Imperial family. (A matter we have not yet further explored.) He had gathered experience in dealing with the French and the German kingdoms, and had conflict with the counts of Champagne on money matters.

Leo IX was of a reforming spirit (Cluny-ite), and wanted less lay interference in spiritual appointments. Leo IX failed by 1054 to heal the schismatic breach with the Greek Church. As for "crusading spirit", he late in his life undertook a campaign against the Normans of southern Italy. (See below on the De Hautevilles.) These Normans were Catholics (that is, descendants of Christianized Vikings), but they saw little reason for the temporal claims of a pope.

These De Hautevilles had their eyes on the duchy of Benevento, to which the papacy claimed title from a succession of emperors. Leo led an army against the Normans, not without criticism from those who felt priests should not be involved in war. The Normans captured him and he died in 1054 soon after they released him.

However, Leo IX had "called his campaign a Holy War. He had attracted knights to his service with promises of spiritual reward, and he had fought a sacred cause in the name of the Church. Every element of the crusading theory was present. Some think, that the real origins of the crusading movement lie in the pontificate of Leo IX." (Eric John, p. 180).

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Genealogy here is entertaining. (We call the family surname of Leo IX here, Equisheim, not Egisheim). The Equisheim progenitor will provide the following as descendants... the unnamed parents of Pope Leo IX. Adele (Alice) Equisheim (active 989AD) who married Count Rainer III of Hainault (Holland), whose son Rainer IV (950-1013) of Hainault married Adwige Capet (972-1013) of France. Adwige's daughter was Beatrice, Countess of Hainault, who married Ebles I Roucy, (994-1033), and also Hildouin Montdidier. In the same line falls Lambert II of Hainault, Count Louvain, (active 1011).

Where "Lorrainers" are concerned here, a Lorraine progenitor will give Charles, Prince of Franks, Duke of Lower Lorraine, (died 991), who married Adelaide (Bonne), Duchess of Lorraine; their daughter was Gerberga of Lorraine, who married Lambert II of Hainault, Count Louvain; Lambert II had a son Henry of Hainault the father of Frederick of Hainault (died 1058), Pope Stephen IX. This pope was brother of Godfrey of Hainault, Duke Lorraine, (1058-1060), who married the widow, Beatrice of Tuscany, Beatrice whose lands became subject of long-term rivalries. Part of this family group from the Lorraine progenitor is Lambert de Lens -Bouillon (1022-1054), who married Adeliza (Adelaide) De Conteville.

If we now consider a Hainault progenitor here, we find in the genealogies, Rainer II of Hainault, (active 960AD), married to Alice of Burgundy, Countess of Equisheim; their son Rainer IV (Reginar IV) of Hainault producing, later, some descendants or linkages such as Sancho V Pamplona (1067-1094), King of Aragon, Pope Stephen IX, Matilda of Hainault and Tuscany who married Welf Hohenstaufer Duke of Bavaria, (1101-1120), Saint Ida of Lorraine and Provence, (1040-1113), and Waltheof of Northampton (1046-1076) (England), Earl of Huntingdon.

Pope Stephen IX, a reformist, was pope for only a year. His brother Godfrey of Hainault was "an enemy of the German Imperial house". Stephen IX's rule however helped the papacy move out of the control of the factions of the Roman aristocrats, the families known as Tusculum and Crescentti.

Adelaide De Conteville named above was probably the daughter of a directly-descended Thorfinn; the Vikings surnamed "Thorfinn" who settled in Normandy, became the De Contevilles, and produced William the Conqueror of England.

The pope who called the First Crusade at Clermont, France, in late 1085 was Urban II (1088-1099), known as Odo of Chatillan, with parents unnamed, "of a French noble family". He is named as Odo Lagery, born 1042, in one book. He was a reforming Cluny-ite, and feared the further rise of Moslem power as well as needing the help of the De Hauteville Normans in southern Italy. Urban II recruited the first notable aristocratic Crusader, Raymond of Toulouse.

And so, given that the De Contevilles of Normandy, former Vikings, were of the same ethnic and cultural stock as the De Hautevilles, Normans of Southern Italy, it seems that the spirit of the Crusades arose within in a wide family grouping - a grouping which produced two popes who had a role in crystallising the views of their people - after the aristocrats of Rome had their grip broken on the Papacy.

Crusader Raymond IV Count Toulouse

First Crusader, Raymond IV St. Gilles, Count Toulouse, (1042-1105), Marquis Provence, Raymond I as Count Tripoli, Lord Provence by marriage. Son of Pons St. Gilles, Count Toulouse, and Almodis de la Marche. The first wife of Raymond IV was an unnamed first cousin (St Gilles/Toulouse) with unnamed parents. (She had a son, Bertrand, Count Toulouse and Count Tripoli, and this Bertrand by Ela/Alice Borell has a son Pons who married Cecilia Capet). Raymond IV and his cousin were divorced due to consanguinity. The second wife of Raymond IV was Matilda 1 De Hauteville of Sicily, who had no issue to him; she was daughter of Roger I De Hauteville, Count of Sicily, (who had two daughters, Matilda I and Matilda II; Matilda II married Rainulf of Alife - this Roger De Hauteville was married to Eremburge de Mortain.) The third wife of Raymond IV was Elvira Pamplona (mother of Alfonso-Jordan died 1148, Count Toulouse), daughter of Alfonso VI The Valiant (Pamplona) of Castile/Aragon and Princess Constance Capet of France; Constance daughter of Robert I Capet, Duke Bourgogne and Duke Burgundy. (In Runciman, Vol. 1, p. 319 the wife of Raymond IV is Elvira of Aragon who is at his side crusading just after the death of Godfrey of Bouillon. Raymond IV is sometimes known as "Isangeles".

Raymond IV was 55 when he began crusading, in the east. He had power over 19 counties . The Crusaders marching with Raymond IV came from Southern France, Provencals. (Toulouse is on the Garonne.)

Raymond IV was the only knight at the Council of Clermont to volunteer quickly for a Crusade. He later refused the title of King of Jerusalem.

However, in 1063AD, Pope Alexander II had given a blessing to Knights of Aquitaine to fight in Aragon (Spain) against the Moors. Of the leaders of Crusade I, Bohemond had fought in Sicily, and Raymond of Toulouse had fought in Spain, so in a sense, Raymond of St. Gilles was earlier involved in "crusades before the Crusades".
References: Mayer, Crusades, pp. 45-47. Mills, Crusades, table. Norwich, Normans of the South, table. Runciman, Outremer tables. Warren on Henry II, tables.

Crusader Godfrey of Boulogne (1060-July 1100), De Bouillon, Duke of Lower Lorraine, later King of Jerusalem, De Bouillon. Son of Eustace, Count Boulogne and Saint Ida of Provence. (There are difficulties with suitably numbering the Counts of Boulogne). It is not mentioned that Godfrey was married. Godfrey had a sister (or half-sister) named Matilda. Godfrey had Crusader brothers, Baldwin (Baldwin I of Jerusalem) and Eustace III. Godfrey is tall with yellow beard and hair. He raises Crusading money by blackmailing Jews. One source says, (see Runciman, Vol. 1, p. 145.) Godfrey is buried beside his brother Baldwin. Godfrey, a pious man, was not a greatly successful Duke of Lower Lorraine, which title he had by appointment from Henry IV. (Mayer, Crusades, p. 45) Before he went Crusading, Godfrey was convinced he would do well in the Holy Land, so he "burned his bridges at home", and sold his castle of Bouillon. Godfrey's crusaders were from Flanders and Lorraine. He was chosen Protector of the Holy Sepulchre, and he was chosen/elected by Crusaders as King of Jerusalem in 1099, an honour he declined.
References: Godfrey appears in Duggan's novel on Count Bohemond (De Hauteville). See Dennys on Heraldry, p. 87. Gardner, Holy Bloodline, p. 228, pp. 255ff. Robinson on Templars, pp. 11-22ff. A. Sinclair, p. 19. Runciman, Outremer tables. Slocombe, on William the Conqueror of England, p. 178. Vasiliev, p. 405.

Crusader Eustace IV (1059-1125), Count of Boulogne, brother of Godfrey above, also of Pas-de-Calais. Spouse, Mary Canmore Stuart (died 1116), daughter of Malcolm III Canmore/Stuart (died 1093), King Scotland, and Saint Margaret of Wessex (died 1093). (Her death date here in Runciman, Vol. 2, p. 143 and Outremer tables.)
References on Mary: Barlow, Feudal Kingdom, tables . Caroline Bingham, Warren, Henry II, table.
Eustace IV and Mary had a daughter Matilda (died 1152), Countess Boulogne, who married Stephen, King of England. However, he is given as Eustace III, Count Boulogne in a website by David Beckwith website and is Eustace III in Runciman, Vol. 1, p. 145. Discrepancy as in Runciman, Vol. 2, p. 143 and table. Is he Eustace IV as his father is Eustace III?
References: Williston Walker, History of Christianity, pp. 220-211.

Crusader Baldwin of Boulogne (1100-1118), De Bouillon, Count Edessa, Baldwin I, first King of Jerusalem (crowned 9 November, 1100, ruling to 1118); son of Saint Ida of Provence. He had three wives, being Miss Unknown Melitene of Armenia; Adelaide or Adelasia De Savona/Salona (as from a website) Countess of Sicily), and Godvere of Tosny. (He has three wives in an Outremer table by Runciman, Vol. 2, table, being Godvere of Tosni; daughter of Thatoul (Armenia?); Adelaide, Countess of Sicily. He is a cousin of Baldwin II de Bourg, who succeeds him. He is crowned first King of Jerusalem on 9 November, 1100. He also became a co-ruler of Armenia.
References: Dennys, Heraldry, p. 88. Duggan's novel on Count Bohemond, p. 111. Gardner, Bloodline, table, p. 228. Mills, Crusades, table. Norwich on Byzantium. Robinson on Templars. Slocombe, William the Conqueror. Vasiliev, p. 405.

Note: Over time, some of the Crusaders' Women to be treated below will be (in roughly chronological order):

Sichelgaita of Salerno born 1031; married into the De Hautevilles.

Queen of Aragon, Felicia Montdidier (1069-1086), (married Sancho V Jiminez, King of Aragon), in about 1063 has a brother, Count Ebles of Roucy, who gathers an anti-Arab army from Northern France to fight on the Iberian peninsula. Ebles gathered another military force in 1073; he was the son of Hildouin IV, Count Montidier and Alice/Adela of Roucy. Felicia's great-grandparents included people from families such as Montdidier, Roucy, Milhaud, Hainault, Equisheim, Capet and De Conteville.

Constanza Borell born 1037;
Stephanie Capet of Burgundy (1045-1092);
Eleanor of Aquitaine, (1122-1204);
Ida of Boulogne;
Maria Arpad (1175-1223);
Alice Montlhery;
Elizabeth Courtenay circa 1168;
Villehardouin of Greece, circa 1180 (a very broken genealogy);
Sibylla Anjou died 1190;
Petrouille Comminges; 1190-1251;
Alberia De Hauteville c 1200;
Alix Montmorency (circa 1209)
Elvira Pamplona nd;
Eleanor Borell circa 1209
Eleanor Capet Princess of Leon/Castile (1244-1290)
Yolande Arpad, died 1251;
Lucienne Conti/Segni circa 1252:

Plaisance de Poitiers St Gilles (of the line of the Counts of Toulouse). Plaisance, the sister of Bohemond VI, toward 1258 found her marriage to the Constable of Jerusalem, Balian Ibelin (died 1277), annulled. Her lack of children seemed to make her less interesting, Balian was of Arsuf, and his three children, John III, Joanna and Nicola were by his second wife, the widow, Lucia of Gouvain/Gauvain. Balian Ibelin was of a ruling Palestinian family which decided to intermarry with European Crusaders. (The Byzantine name Comnena appears in the list of Balkan's forebears). Amongst Plaisance's family earlier are the names Borell (Counts Provence/Barcelona), De Conteville, Savoy, Anjou, Capet, Milhaud and Jiminez.
Maria Borell, Queen of Sicily (1362-1402);
Catarina Zaccaria circa 1430;

Matilda of Tuscany (died 1115). Matilda Canossa, the only survivor of three children, was a great friend to the Holy See in its struggles with secular powers. Her family history is constricted in most historical accounts, so it needs outlining.
Her Father... was Boniface Canossa, Duke Spoleto, whose forebears had confronted Moorish invaders in Southern Italy. He however became distrusted by Henry III and in what seems a political murder, ended assassinated in 1052. Boniface was a traditional family name.
His background... Boniface, Duke Spoleto, was son of Tedaldo (died 1012), Count of the Northern March with his father's titles plus Ferrara and Brescia; son of Adalbert/Atto Canossa (died 988), Count Reggio of Modena/Mantua. Canossa was a great house of Lombardy, loyal to the causes of the Holy Roman Emperor. Henry III however began to distrust Boniface when Boniface married Beatrice of Bar/Upper Lorraine (see below).
Matilda's marriages: Matilda Canossa had no children and her marriages were formalities of little personal concern. Her mother gave her a good education, and she could speak Italian, French and German and write Latin. She married first to Godfrey HAINAULT, a hunchback ended murdered in 1076. He was son of Godfrey HAINAULT, Duke Lower Lorraine, and Beatrice of Bar (PROVENCE/Upper Lorraine). This Beatrice of Bar/Upper Lorraine was daughter of Frederick II (PROVENCE/Upper Lorraine) and an unknown mother. Boniface's son Frederick and daughter Beatrice died, leaving Matilda the heiress. Boniface's widow Beatrice remarried Godfrey Hainault the Bearded of Lower Lorraine (who had been dispossessed by Henry III); not surprisingly, Matilda married her step-brother Godfrey. When Frederick the brother of Godfrey The Bearded became Pope Stephen IX/X, the Canossa house sided with the papacy against Henry III on the question of lay investiture of clergy. Matilda sided with successive popes, which included aiding the papacy against the Normans in Italy (De Hautevilles). She also encouraged Conrad to rebel against his father, Henry IV. Via warfare, her lands were plundered and she lost Pisa and Lucca, which she regained by help of a league of Lombardy cities. In 1077 she donated lands to the papacy, a matter later revoked, leading to conflict over her donations.
Matilda married secondly and cynically, much younger than herself, Welf V HOHENSTAUFER The Fat, Duke Bavaria (1101-1120), son of Welf IV HOHENSTAUFER and Ethelinda VON NORDHEIM.
Comments: Matilda's husband Godfrey the Hunchback (died 1076) came from the Hainault line (from what is modern Belgium, Mons, Charleroi, earlier part of Metz and Lotharingia, by 916 with Duchy of Lower Lorraine), a lineage which included Baldwin VI Hainault (died 1070), Adwige/Avoise Capet (972-1013) Princess of France, Ebles I Count Roucy (994-1033), the Crusader son of this Ebles, also known as Montdidier and some Counts Montdidier; Sancho V Jiminez (1063-1094), King of Aragon, Geoffrey II (1067-1100) Count Perche; and Pope Stephen IX (1057-1058), who was Frederick Hainault, brother of Godfrey the Bearded (1-58-1060), Duke Lorraine, sons of Henry of Hainault of Lorraine. Also in this line is the English name, Waltheof (1046-1076) Earl Huntingdon and Earl Northampton, providing a link to David I (1080-1153) (Canmore) Stuart, King of Scotland.
Pope Stephen X (IX by some numbering systems), Frederick Hainault, died 1058, was younger brother of Godfrey the Bearded, Duke Lorraine and Marquis of Tuscany. Frederick had seen at first hand the waste the Normans (De Hautevilles) could lay on the Byzantine Emperor. He was a clerical reformer, supported by the family of Matilda of Tuscany.
(Pope Stephen IX-VIII [died 942] (not of the line of Hainault) was a Roman, incumbent only a year. His period was dominated by the Roman, Prince Alberic. Stephen IX supported the last power-plays of the Carolingians.)
References: Matilda of Tuscany:
Encyclopedia Britannica, Columbia Encyclopedia, Gardner, Holy Bloodline, p. 432. Eric John, on Popes, Barraclough, pp. 77ff on Popes. Morby, p. 127. Runciman, Vol. 1, p. 101. Table in James Westfall Thompson.

Ends the list

Follows a partial DESCENDANCY CHART of the De Hautevilles, Normans of Southern Italy, for five generations from the unknown progenitor. (Listed 12 February 2001)

The De Hautevilles were presumably former Vikings. They sprang from almost nowhere in Norman-dominated France, and were remarkably successful at war in Southern Italy and the Middle East, and also with the dynastic marriage game. Their genealogy well indicates how the noble families of Europe intermarried across vast tracts of territory, from Poland to Spain, from Spain to the newly-opened "baronies" of the Middle East as occupied by European Christians. As to their origins in Normandy, it is thought that perhaps, the mother, Muriella (Unknown) of Drogo De Hauteville (-1035), Drogo who lodged descendants in England, was a relative of Robert I of Normandy.

Among the De Hauteville descendants, or associates of descendants, from the original and little-known Tancred De Hauteville, active by 995AD, were kings of Jerusalem.

Tancred De Hauteville (1076-1112), of Antioch, who married the illegitimate Cecilia Capet, daughter of Philip Capet (1053-1108), de Courtenay, Philip the Fair, King of France. King Philip also married his legitimate daughter, Constance, to the Prince of Antioch and Duke Apulia, Bohemond I De Hauteville (1056-1111).

Roger I De Hauteville (1031-1101), Count Sicily, who married Adelaide (Adelasia) (de Savona) of Salona, daughter of Manfredo of Salona. This Adelaide also married Baldwin I of Boulogne, Count Edessa, King of Jerusalem.

Roger II De Hauteville (1095-1152), King of Sicily, who married Beatrice of Rethel as third wife. Beatrice was daughter of Count Rethel, Vuiton (Withier), and Beatrice of Namur. The Counts Rethel were also intermarried with the De Bourgs.

Roger III De Hauteville, (-1194), King of Sicily, who married Hodierna (or Hodernia) De Bourg, the daughter of Count Hugh I De Bourg and Melesinde of Montlhery. Alice, the sister of this Beatrice married Bohemond II De Hauteville (died 1130), Duke Aquitaine, who was killed in battle aged only 22. Melesinde De Bourg (died 1150-1152), murdered by poisoning, was Queen of Jerusalem. As well, Alice De Bourg, of Antioch, daughter of Baldwin and Morphia, married Bohemond II De Hauteville.

Tancred I De Hauteville (1189-1194), Count Lecce, who married Sibylla of Acerra.

Constance De Hauteville (1184-1198), daughter of Beatrice of Rethel above, who married Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI Hohenstaufer (1190-1197), father of Frederick II Hohenstaufer (-1250), Holy Roman Emperor, King of Jerusalem.

Alberia De Hauteville of Sicily, who married Walter III Brienne (died 1205), Count Lecce, son of Erard Brienne and Agnes of Montbeliard. This Walter III was relative of a King of Jerusalem, John of Brienne, died (1260).

Constanza De Hauteville, who in 1216 married Doge of Venice, Sebastiano Ziani (active 1172), and Gualrada De Hauteville, who married Doge of Venice, Giacomo Tiepolo, father of a later Doge.

Busilla De Hauteville (daughter of Roger I De Hauteville died 1101), who married Coloman Arpad, King of Hungary (1095-1116).

Fressenda De Hauteville (alive 1031), who married Richard (1049-1078), Prince Capua, Count Aversa.

Drogo (Dreux) De Hauteville (1030-1035), Count Vexin, who married Goda (Godgifu) of Wessex in England. (On Drogo, see GEC, The Complete Peerage (of Britain), for Sudeley, pp. 411ff). Drogo died on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land with Robert I of Normandy.

Geoffrey De Hauteville, father of Robert the rebel in Southern Italy of 1155-1156, Robert Count Loritello.

Joscelin I Courtenay (-1161), Count Edessa, Lord Courtenay, who married Maria De Hauteville, of Salerno and Antioch.

Also, Humphrey II, Constable of Toron, the Byzantine Manual 1 Comnena (1143-1180), Bela III Arpad (1173-1196), King of Hungary. Maris de Vivar, the daughter of the famed Spanish hero, El Cid. Roger III, Count Foix. Urraca Jiminez (1082-1126), Queen of Castile. Ryska, Princess of Poland. Baldwin II Capet, Emperor of Constantinople about 1130. Hugh II Le Puiset, active 1134, Count Jaffa.

2--Crusader Tancred DE HAUTEVILLE Progenitor (995)
sp-Fressenda NOTKNOWN wife2 (995)
3-- Robert (Guiscard, "The Crafty" DE HAUTEVILLE Duke Apulia (1025-1085)
sp-Alberada BUONALBERGO wife1
4--Crusader Bohemond I DE HAUTEVILLE Prince Antioch (1056-1111)
sp-Constance CAPET
5-- John DE HAUTEVILLE of Antioch
5-- Bohemond II DE HAUTEVILLE (1118-1130)
sp-Alice DE BOURG of Antioch, of Jerusalem
4-- Helen (betrothed) DE HAUTEVILLE
sp-Constantine (Emperor Romania) DUCAS (1070)
sp-Sigelgaita (Sichelgaita) of SALERNO, Princess of Salerno, of Lombardy (1031)
4-- Roger I (Borsa) DE HAUTEVILLE Duke Apulia (1085-1111)
sp-Adela (Adelaide) of FLANDERS Queen Denmark (1065-1115)
5-- William I DE HAUTEVILLE King Sicily (1120-1166)
sp-Margaret of NAVARRE
4-- Simon DE HAUTEVILLE Heir (1085)
4-- Matilda (Maud) DE HAUTEVILLE (1055-1108)
sp-Raymond Ramon II Raymond III BORELL (1055-1082)
5-- Raymond III CAPET (1055-1082)
sp-Dolca MILHAUD of Provence (uncertain origins) ( -1127)
sp-Almodis of MORTAIN wife2 ( -1110)
sp-Maris de Vivar daughter of "El Cid". ( -1106)
5-- Stephanie CAPET of Burgundy (1045-1092)
sp-William I of BURGUNDY Count Arques (1040-1087)
5-- Alfonso VII CAPET King Castile (1105-1157)
sp-Berengaria Berenguela (Courtenay) BORELL Queen (1108-1138)
sp-Matilda of SAVOY wife2
sp-Ryska Princess of POLAND
5-- Baldwin II CAPET Emperor of Constantinople ( -1130)
sp-Dulce Aldonza Countess MILHAUD of Provence (1095-1190)
5-- Raymond IV BORELL (1080-1131)
sp-Countess Dulce Aldonza MILHAUD of Provence (1095-1190)
sp-Hugh of ROUCY
5-- Mabilla of ROUCY
sp- Hugh I Le Puy of Le Puiset (1115)
sp-Odo of Antioch
5-- Tancred DE HAUTEVILLE of Antioch (1076-1112)
sp-Cecilia CAPET of France Illegit, widow
5-- Miss Notknown DE HAUTEVILLE
sp-Richard DE HAUTEVILLE of the Principate
3-- Roger I DE HAUTEVILLE Count Sicily (1031-1101)
sp-Adelaide Adelasia De Savona, Count Savona ( -1118)
4-- Simon (Heir Died Young) DE HAUTEVILLE (1093-1105)
sp-Judith Delieri EVREUX wife1 ( -1076)
sp-Eremburge de Mortain (Eremberga) wife2 (1080)
4-- Roger II DE HAUTEVILLE King Sicily (1095-1152)
sp-Beatrice RETHEL wife3 (1130-1185)
5-- Constance DE HAUTEVILLE Heir of Sicily (1184-1198)

sp- Henry VI HOHENSTAUFER Holy Roman Emperor (1190-1197)
sp-Elvira Alberia JIMINEZ wife1 of Portugal ( -1135)
sp-Sybylla De Bourgogne CAPET Lover (1126-1150)
4-- Matilda II DE HAUTEVILLE (two daughters named Matilda, correct, see below)
sp-Rainulf ALIFE (1135-1139)
4-- Geoffrey DE HAUTEVILLE
4-- Matilda I DE HAUTEVILLE wife2
sp-Crusader Raymond IV ST GILLES Count Toulouse (1042-1105)
4-- Constance DE HAUTEVILLE
3-- Notknown Miss DE HAUTEVILLE (1031)
sp-Senior CONVERSANO (1031)
4-- Geoffrey of Conversano
5-- Sibylla CONVERSANO
sp-Robert II (Curthose) DE CONTEVILLE (1053-1134)
3-- Mauger DE HAUTEVILLE (1031)
3-- Aubrey DE HAUTEVILLE (1031)
3-- Tancred DE HAUTEVILLE (1031)
3-- Humbert DE HAUTEVILLE (1031)
3-- Fressenda DE HAUTEVILLE (1031)
sp-Richard AVERSA Prince Capua, Count Aversa (1049-1078)
4-- Jordan I AVERSA Prince Capua ( -1090)
5-- Richard II AVERSA Prince Capua ( -1106)
5-- Robert I AVERSA Prince Capua (1106-1120)
5-- Jordan II AVERSA Prince Capua (1120-1127)
3-- William DE HAUTEVILLE of the Principate (1031)
sp-Muriella NOTKNOWN wife1
3--Crusader William DE HAUTEVILLE Ironarm (1043-1046)
4-- Richard DE HAUTEVILLE of The Principate (views on his parentage vary)
sp-Miss Notknown DE HAUTEVILLE
3-- Drogo Dreux DE HAUTEVILLE Count Vexin (1030-1035)
sp-Goda (Goda Godgifu) of Wessex (1030) (Note, British connections are seldom mentioned in writing on the De Hautevilles)
4-- Ralf DE HAUTEVILLE The Timid Earl Hereford
sp-Gytha (Getha) BRITISH
4--Crusader Walter DE HAUTEVILLE Count Vexin ( -1063)
sp-Biota MAINE ( -1063)
sp-Alberada BUONALBERGO wife1
3-- Humphrey DE HAUTEVILLE Lord Apulia (1043-1057)
3-- Geoffrey DE HAUTEVILLE

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The Counts of Barcelona

If the De Hauteville lineage is complicated, even more complicated is the lineage of The Counts of Barcelona, with whom the De Hautevilles and their descendants later intermarried. The name Borell (including the Counts of Barcelona) can be regarded as a Crusading name, in that they fought with the Moors of Spain and Portugal.

Regarding the line of the Counts of Barcelona earlier given), two women from Southern Italy married into the Borell family. One was Almodis de la Marche (d.1071), the other was Matilda (Maud) De Hauteville (d.1108). Almodis ended murdered. Her father gave two daughters - the other daughter was Lucia - to Borell men, far more than a peace offering; and this represented probably a comfortable trading arrangement between Barcelona and the mid-eastern Italian coasts. Almodis also had three marriages, to Borell, to Pons of Toulouse, from near Carcassone, and to Hugh V Lusignan. The Lusignan family was to produce notable Crusaders, and Amalric II, King of Jerusalem. Of Matilda's children, Stephanie married William I, Count Burgundy (which given his background, entailed closer family proximity to the De Contevilles). Matilda had one son a king of Castile. And another son becoming a Latin Emperor.

Displaced Normans have been trying to conquer Southern Italy from 1016 - a set of ambitions little-commented - and here the family name to note is De Hauteville. These were highly energetic but rapacious Normans (of Viking background?), not the first to try to shift Moslems from Southern Italy and take over rich provinces. When the De Hautevilles came to Southern Italy, Sicily, they found other Normans there rather disorganised, an early Italian "condottieri". The first-mentioned De Hauteville is Tancred, with several sons and daughters, who seems to have an untraceable background. Probably, Tancred and other Normans who went into Sicily had earlier missed out on pickings in Normandy due to the dominance of the family of William the Conqueror, the De Contevilles. Roger (Guiscard) De Hauteville, son of Tancred, became a Norman driving force. He organised a band of mercenaries and sold their services to Byzantine Emperordom. (In the 1040s-1090s.)

Finally, the sons of De Hauteville, between 1040-1060, gained the confidence of the Papacy, and the politics here from the papal point of view are far more complex than the more violent politics of the De Hautevilles.

It seems, the De Hautevilles were from Northern France, and Taranto in Italy, both.

During and after the time of William the Conqueror, The Honhenstaufers of Germany had linked with Guelf (Welf) plus Tuscany and "Italy", also with Poland. The French Capetians had intermarried with the Pamplonas of Spain, and the Normans, De Conteville, plus the House of Anjou (Angevines). Also with the notable houses of France, Flanders, Hainault, Aquitaine, Burgundy, Vermandoise, and via links with Hohenstaufers, with Kievian (Russian) and Swedish rulers. (At a time when Kiev also was subject to significant new Viking influences.) Anna of Kiev (1036-1076) married Henry I Capet (1031-1108), King of France.

Capets also had links with Guelf and the Wessex kings of England. The name Anjou later helped provide the English Plantagenets. To the east of Germany, to the north of the Byzantines at Constantinople, were troublesome, migrating, people (in roughly the Balkans) not yet Christianized, who moved each other about, producing instability. By 1000 and later, also, Portuguese rulers became more inclined to deal with Spanish rulers, and here the name "Borell" is notable, originally from France, but settling at Barcelona, to become the Counts of Barcelona.

Bellon (Borell) (780-812AD) , progenitor of the line of the Counts of Barcelona. Based in the Carcassonne area of Provence, France. His descendants included: Count Oliva I (Borell - Carcassone). Two of Oliva I's sons were Oliva II (d.879), and Count Acfredo (d.906). Acfredo married Adelina Plantevelue, of the Plantevelue family of Septimania. Acfredo's uncle, son of Bellon, Sunifred (d. 848), became a rebel against the Plantevelues, and presumably against the De Contevilles. Sunifred was killed in a counter attack on his forces by the Dukes of Aquitaine, probably under William I (De Conteville), Duke Aquitaine (Longsword). Sunifred can be numbered as a Count of Barcelona, so it seems as though that the Borrels of Carcassone in his time had decided to shift south. Sunifred's first son was Wilfrid I (d.897). Wilfrid I's son, Wilfrid II, married Gersende of Toulouse, from closer to his own region. Wilfrid II's daughter Riquilda married Odon or Odo, Count/Viscount Narbonne, again from closer to the Barrels' home region. But we also find that a son of Adelina Plantevelue and Acfredo was William II Duke Aquitaine, wife notknown, who had a son, Acfredo, a "Duke Aquitaine". Little of this is explained, but there was conflict over the Duchy of Aquitaine, and presumably the De Contevilles won it.

Borell intermarried surprisingly rapidly with the "names" Flanders, Toulouse, Pamplona of Spain, and Leon-Castile also. Also with houses such De La Marche, Provence, Arles and Capet of France, plus the Crusader family, De Hauteville. The De Hautevilles had determined to take Southern Italy from the Arabs; and it seems to be never asked, who let them do that, by which agreement?

Bellon (Borell) (780-812AD) , progenitor of the line of the Counts of Barcelona. Based in the Carcassonne area of Provence, France. His descendants included: Count Oliva I (Borell - Carcassone). Two of Oliva I's sons were Oliva II (d.879), and Count Acfredo (d.906). Acfredo married Adelina Plantevelue, of the Plantevelue family of Septimania. Acfredo's uncle, son of Bellon, Sunifred (d. 848), became a rebel against the Plantevelues, and presumably against the De Contevilles. Sunifred was killed in a counter attack on his forces by the Dukes of Aquitaine, probably under William I (De Conteville), Duke Aquitaine (Longsword). Sunifred can be numbered as a Count of Barcelona, so it seems as though that the Borrels of Carcassone in his time had decided to shift south. Sunifred's first son was Wilfrid I (d.897). Wilfrid I's son, Wilfrid II, married Gersende of Toulouse, from closer to his own region. Wilfrid II's daughter Riquilda married Odon or Odo, Count/Viscount Narbonne, again from closer to the Borrells' home region. But we also find that a son of Adelina Plantevelue and Acfredo was William II Duke Aquitaine, wife notknown, who had a son, Acfredo, a "Duke Aquitaine". Little of this is explained, but there was conflict over the Duchy of Aquitaine, and presumably the De Contevilles won that battle (after 1000AD).

The Lusignan Family

Partial DESCENDANCY CHART of the Lusignan family of Crusaders (13 generations)

The surprise with this Lusignan family tree is the number of descendants today listed as part of English aristocracy.

1-- Senior Progenitor LUSIGNAN
2-- Hugh I LUSIGNAN (c.900)
sp-Miss NOTKNOWN-37810
3-- Hugh II LUSIGNAN Seigneur (910-950)
4-- Hugh III LUSIGNAN (948-1010)
sp-Arsende/Arsendis NOTKNOWN (c.959)
5-- Hugh IV LUSIGNAN Seigneur (985-1030)
sp-Adelarde/ Adelgarde NOTKNOWN
6-- Hugh V LUSIGNAN (1015-1060)
sp-Almodis de la Marche Countess MARCHE wife3 (1000-1071) (Murdered, wife also of Raymond Ramon I Borell and Pons St. Gilles (d.1060-1061) Count Toulouse
7-- Hugh VI LUSIGNAN (1039-1110)
sp-Hildegarde NOTKNOWN (1058-1099)
8-- Hugh VII LUSIGNAN (1090-1151)
sp-Sarazine NOTKNOWN (1095-1144)
9-- Hugh VIII LUSIGNAN Count La Marche de Lusignan (The Brown, Le Brun) (1118-1165)
sp-Berbone RANCON de Rancon Bourgogne (1120-1169)
10--Amalric II (Aimery) LUSIGNAN King of Jerusalem (1197-1205)
sp-Isabella ANJOU Queen of Jerusalem (1170-1205) A daughter of Maria Comnena
11--Amaury LUSIGNAN ( -1205)
11--Melisinda /Melesinde LUSIGNAN ( -1249)
sp-Bohemond IV DE CONTEVILLE Prince Antioch Count Tripoli ( -1233)
12--Mary DE CONTEVILLE of Antioch
11--Isabella/ Sybilla LUSIGNAN of Antioch (1199-1225)
sp- Leo II BAGATRID King of Lesser Armenia ( -1219)
12--Stephanie/ Rita BAGATRID ( -1219)
sp-John/Jean (of Brienne) BRIENNE King of Jerusalem, (1148-1260) (He has four wives)
12--Isabella BAGATRID
sp-Philip of Antioch LUSIGNAN
sp-Hethoum I/ Haiton HETHOUMIA King Armenia (1226-1269)
13--Thoros HETHOUMIA
13--Sibyl/ Sibylla HETHOUMIA
sp- Bohemund VI DE CONTEVILLE Count Tripoli (1237-1275)
13--Leo III HETHOUMIA King of Armenia (1269-1289)
13--Euphemia HETHOUMIA
sp-Julian Garnier BOULOGNE of Sidon
sp-Eschiva /Eschive wife1 IBELIN d'Ibelin ( -1196)
11--Hugh I LUSIGNAN King of Cyprus (1195-1253)
sp-Alice /Adela CAPET Regent, Queen of Jerusalem ( -1246)
12--Henry I LUSIGNAN (Hugh) King of Cyprus (1217-1253)
sp-Plaisance DE CONTEVILLE, of Antioch, Regent of Cyprus, Queen Jerusalem (1258-1261)
13--Isabella LUSIGNAN Of Cyprus-14631
sp-Henry DE CONTEVILLE Regent of Jerusalem ( -1276)
sp-Alice /Adela MONTFERRAT Of Montferrat (1240-1247)
13--(Hugh) Henry I King Cyprus LUSIGNAN of Antioch, King of Cyprus, (1217-1276)
13--Maria/ Mary LUSIGNAN (1250-1307)
sp-Walter IV BRIENNE Count Jaffa, Count Lecce (1210-1244)
sp-Stephanie HETHOUMIA of Lampron, of Armenia ( -1249)
12--Isabella LUSIGNAN Of Cyprus ( -1264)
sp-Henry DE CONTEVILLE Count Tripoli, Prince Antioch ( -1276)
13--Marguerite LUSIGNAN Lady Tyre/Tyrus (1280-1308)
sp-John/Jean MONTFORT Lord Toron ( -1282)

13-- Hugh III LUSIGNAN King Cyprus, King Jerusalem (1252-1284)
sp-Isabel/ Isabelle IBELIN Lady Beirut (1286-1324)
11--Burgundia (Bourgogne) LUSIGNAN had issue
sp-Walter von Moempelgard MONTBELIARD-Guardian Cyprus ( -1212)
12--Eschiva von Moempelgard MONTBELIARD
sp-Balian IBELIN, Constable of Cyprus, Lord Beirut ( -1239)
13--John II Jean IBELIN Lord Beirut ( -1264)
sp-Alice/ Alix ROCHE Of Athens ( -1282)
13--Hugh /Hugues IBELIN (1231-1254)
sp-Marie von Moempelgard MONTBELIARD (Some links to Brienne family)
13--Isabelle IBELIN-3477
sp-Henry /Henri EMBRIACO De Giblet. De Gibelet ( -1271)
sp-Walter MONTAGU Montaigu had issue
13--Alice Montaigu MONTAGU
sp-John of CAESAREA (Brienne?)
11--Helvis/ Heloise LUSIGNAN Of Cyprus
sp-Raymond Roupen/ Rupin ST GILLES (Toulouse) Lord Toron ( -1222)
12--Maria ST GILLES Of Armenia, Heiress of Toron (1215)
sp-Philip de Montfort MONTFORT Lord Toron, Lord Tyre ( -1270)
13--Humphrey MONTFORT Lord Tyrus, Lord Tyre, LB ( -1283)
sp-Eschiva IBELIN Lady Beirut (1253-1312)
13--John/ Jean MONTFORT Lord Toron, ( -1282)
sp-Marguerite LUSIGNAN Lady Tyrus, Lady Tyre (1280-1308)
10--Crusader Geoffrey LUSIGNAN Count Jaffa (1191-1193)
sp-Mevrant NOTKNOWN
10--Crusader, Guy LUSIGNAN Le Brun, King of Jerusalem (1160-1190)
sp-Sibyl/ Sibylla ANJOU Heiress ( -1190)
11-- Miss1 LUSIGNAN ( -1190)
11--Miss2 LUSIGNAN ( -1190)
10--Hugh Viiia LUSIGNAN Count La Marche (This man is a "recently discovered" interpolation into the lineage, not agreed to by all writers) ( -1169)
sp-Orengarde NOTKNOWN
11--Hugh IX LUSIGNAN Count La Marche ( -1219)
sp-Matilda /Maud DE CONTEVILLE of Angouleme
12--Hugh X LUSIGNAN Count Marche, of Lusignan ( -1248)
sp-Isabella DE CONTEVILLE Countess Pembroke, Queen of England (1185-1246) (She also marries King John Anjou of England and William Marshal Earl4 Pembroke)
13--Hugh XI LUSIGNAN, Count Marche (1221-1249)
sp-Yolande DREUX de Dreux of Brittany
13--Henry LUSIGNAN Count Marche
13--Guy LUSIGNAN de Lusignan Lord Cyprus, Lord Cognac
13--Geoffrey LUSIGNAN de Lusignan
13--Isabella LUSIGNAN ( -1299)
sp- Maurice V CRAON Lord Craon, ( -1282)
sp-Geoffrey RANCON de Rancon Lord Taillebourg (c.1130)
13--Crusader William LUSIGNAN Earl Pembroke, (1225-1296)
sp-Joan DE MUNCHANESY Lady Pembroke ( -1307) (She has some De Conteville forebears)
13--Aimery LUSIGNAN Bishop Winchester
13--Margaret LUSIGNAN
11--Raoul Ralph I LUSIGNAN ( -1219)
sp-Alice/ Yolande EU Lady Hastings, Countess Eu ( -1246)
12--Raoul LUSIGNAN Count Eu ( -1246)
sp-Yolande DREUX de Dreux ( -1239)
12--Maud LUSIGNAN d'Eu ( -1241)
sp-Humphrey BOHUN Earl2 Hereford, Earl1 Essex ( -1275)
13--Humphrey BOHUN ( -1265)
sp-Alianore DE BRAIOSE-53712
13--Maud BOHUN de Bohun
sp-Anselm MARSHAL Earl9 Pembroke ( -1245)
sp-Roger DE QUINCY Earl2 Winchester
9-- Aimee LUSIGNAN-1609

"Stephanie Milly"

Note: Some names here are well-known, some are not. This line has some seemingly strange surnames still, due to inability so far to find more accurate ones. The tree is partly drawn however from standard works on The Crusades. It will be improved if possible.

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1-- Senior MILLY-Notknown
2-- Guy MILLY Lord Nablus (c.1110)
sp-Stephanie NOTKNOWN
3-- Henry MILLY (The Buffalo) Lord Nablus
sp-Agnes (Garnier) of BOULOGNE
4-- Stephanie MILLY
sp-Hugh II EMBRIACO Gibelet/Lord Jebail
5-- Hugh III EMBRIACO Lord Gibelet
sp-Stephanie MILLY
6-- Plaisance EMBRIACO of Gibelet/Jebail (c.1200)
sp-Bohemond IV ( -1233)
7--Henry, Prince of Antioch (1205-1276)
sp-Isabella LUSIGNAN Of Cyprus (1212-1264)
7-- Raymond de Poitiers LUSIGNAN (1195-1213)
7-- Philip of Antioch LUSIGNAN
sp-Isabella BAGATRID (Armenian)
7-- Bohemond V LUSIGNAN
sp-Crusader Lucienne CONTI Princess-Segni (c.1252)
sp-Alice CAPET
6-- Guy I EMBRIACO Lord Gibelet ( -1233)
sp-Alice de Poitiers DE CONTEVILLE (?) of Antioch
7-- Henry (Henri) EMBRIACO De Gibelet ( -1271)
sp-Isabella IBELIN of Beirut
sp-William DOREL-Lord Botrun
5-- Lucia DOREL Heiress Botrun
sp-Plivano of GENOA
4-- Agnes MILLY Of Milly, Dame Montreal(c.1120)
sp-Joscelin III COURTENAY, Count Edessa (1119-1149)
5-- Beatrice COURTENAY
sp-William MANDALEE- La Mandalee (?)
4-- Helvis MILLY
sp-Adam BEISAN (?)
5-- Richelda BEISAN Of Beisan (?) (c.1174)
sp-Baldwin (Baudoin) IBELIN, Lord Ramleh ( -1186)
6-- Thomas IBELIN, Lord Rama (1175-1188)
6-- Eschiva (Eschive) wife1 IBELIN d'Ibelin (1160-1196)
sp-Amalric II Aimery LUSIGNAN King Jerusalem (1197-1205)
7-- Hugh I LUSIGNAN Of Cyprus, King Cyprus (1195-1253)
sp-Alice (Adela) CAPET Regent, Jerusalem ( -1246)
7-- Guy LUSIGNAN (c.1193)
7-- Jean LUSIGNAN (c.1194)
7-- Burgundia (Bourgogne) LUSIGNAN (Has issue)
sp-Crusader Walter MONTBELIARD ( -1212)
7-- Helvis (Heloise) LUSIGNAN Of Cyprus (c.1196)
sp-Raymond (Roupen, Rupen) ST GILLES (Toulouse) ( -1222)
6-- Stephanie (Estefanie) IBELIN (c.1175)
sp-Aumary (Amalric) NABLUS, Viscount Nablus
3-- Guy MILLY
3-- Philip MILLY Lord Nablus (c.1140)
sp-Isabella (Oultrejourdain) LE PUY
4-- Stephanie MILLY Nablus-Milly Oultrejourdain (c.1130)
sp-Humphrey III of TORON (Husband1)
5-- Humphrey IV (Humbert) of TORON
sp-Isabella d'Anjou Queen Jerusalem (1170-1205)
5-- Isabella TORONZ
sp-Rupen (Roupen III Roupen) BAGATRID of Armenia ( -1186)
6-- Alice BAGATRID of Toron, of Armenia ( -1234)
sp-Raymond III ST GILLES Count Toulouse ( -1187)
7-- Raymond (Roupen Rupen) ST GILLES LT ( -1222)
sp-Helvis (Heloise) LUSIGNAN Of Cyprus (c.1196)
sp-Hethoum of ARMENIA, Of Sassoun
6-- Philippa BAGATRID of Lesser Armenia
sp-Emperor Theodore I LASCARIS (1175-1222) Byzantine
sp-Reynald de Chatillon Prince Antioch, ( -1163)
sp-Miles PLANCY (husband2) ( -1174)
4-- Helen MILLY, Nablus-Milly
sp-Walter III of BEIRUT

The Villehardouin line - in two sections since the line is drastically broken. Please note: this information cannot be guaranteed to be accurate. It should be taken as a guide only.

Villehardouin genealogy in two parts

Villehardouin Set 1: 1-- Senior VILLEHARDOUIN-36535 (1150)
(Sp-Miss dummylink NOTKNOWN-35524
2-- Jean VILLEHARDOUIN-9466 (1180)
(Sp-Miss NOTKNOWN-48643
3-- Geoffrey I Geoffroi I VILLEHARDOUIN PA-48642 (1210-1226)
(Sp-Elizabeth NOTKNOWN-46025
4-- Geoffrey II VILLEHARDOUIN PA-49904 (1218-1245)
(Sp-Agnes CAPET-49905 ( -1247)
5-- Miss Miss1 VILLEHARDOUIN-683
(Sp- Thomas II STROMONCOURT Of Salona-682 ( -1311)
5-- Miss2 dummylink VILLEHARDOUIN f-621
(Sp-Guglielmo II Marshal Morea CARCERI s-49916 (1271)
4-- William
(Spouse problem) WI VILLEHARDOUIN PA-50049 (1210-1278)
(Sp-Miss Toncy TOUCY wife2-50048
(Sp-Agnes Anna Comnena ANGELUS Dukaina-4273 ( -1286)
5-- Isabelle de Villehardouin P VILLEHARDOUIN-49460 (1267-1311)
(Sp-Florence Prince Archaea Florent AVESNES F-51844 (1255-1297)
6-- Matilda Illegit Achaia AVESNES PA-46762 (1293-1331)
(Sp-Louis X CAPET KF-9524 (1289-1316)
(Sp-Guy La Roche Guy II ROCHE Duke Athens-982 (1290-1308)
(Sp-Prince Morea John CAPET -13953 ( -1335)
(Sp-Louis De Bourgogne CAPET-52714 ( -1316)
(Sp-Hugo de la Palice Prince Achaia PALICE PM-38051
(Sp-Philip d'Anjou Prince Archaea CAPET DY-1962 (1301-1307)
5--widow Lady Akova Marguerite VILLEHARDOUIN-46005 (1297-1313)
(Sp-Richard Count of Cephalonia ORSINI CC-14075 ( -1304)
6-- Guillerme ORSINI-54106 ( -1317)
(Sp-Nicholas III St Omer OMER MM-1819 (1300-1313)
(Sp-Jean CHAUDERON-49694
6-- John I Palatine ORSINI C-51964 ( -1317)
(Sp-Maria ANGELUS wife1-38840
6-- Maria ORSINI-1561
(Sp-John ORSINI-1555
(Sp-Isnard de Sabran SABRAN-14550 (1297)
6-- Isabelle de Sabran SABRAN-5975 (1297-1315)
(Sp-Ferdinand Fernando PA BORELL Majorca-5948 (1278-1316)
(Sp-Peter III Pedro III BORELL KA-36129 (1239-1285)
(Sp-Carintana dalle no issue CARCERI wife2-45140 ( -1255)
(Sp-Hugues Sn de Karytaina BRIEL-1968
5-- Geoffrey De Briel BRIEL-5740
2--Crusader Historian Geoffrey VILLEHARDOUIN-35523 (1160-1212)
2-- Emmeline Nun VILLEHARDOUIN-5986
2-- Haye Nun VILLEHARDOUIN-5985

Ends set I

Villehardouin Set 2: 1-- Senior VILLEHARDOUIN-48758
Sp-Miss NOTKNOWN-48330

2-- Niece family problem VILLEHARDOUIN -16541
Sp- Guy I ROCHE Duke1 Athens-3226 (1260-1263)
3-- Nicholas St Omer ROCHE co-Lord Thebes Nicholas II-5741
Sp-Anne Anna of EPIRUS-39609
3-- William Duke Athens incorrect ROCHE -13949 (1280-1287)
Sp-Helen family problem COMNENA widow-13950 (1290)
3--Lady Beirut Alice Alix ROCHE Of Athens-7132 ( -1282)
Sp-John II Jean IBELIN Lord Beirut-13008 ( -1264)
4-- Eschiva IBELIN Lady Beirut-58996 (1253-1312)
Sp-Guy King Jerusalem Constable LUSIGNAN Cyprus-3453 ( -1302)
5-- Hugh IV King Jerusalem LUSIGNAN KC-4879 (1300-1359)
Sp-Marie Maria Marie I IBELIN wife1-4866
6-- Peter I King Cyprus LUSIGNAN C-49260 (1329-1369)
Sp-Eschiva Of Montfort MONTFORT wife1-65457
Sp-Eleanora Queen Cyprus ARAGON wife2-23295 ( -1417)
7-- Peter II KC LUSIGNAN KJ-54291 (1354-1382)
Sp-Valentina Valenza VISCONTI-54290 ( -1391)
7-- Margaret cousin LUSIGNAN-15824 (1384)
Sp-James LUSIGNAN Count Tripoli-16154 (1384)
7-- Mary Echive LUSIGNAN-52566
6-- James I King Jerusalem LUSIGNAN-1067 (1385-1398)
Sp-Heloise Helvis Grubenhagen BRUNSWICK p-1674 (1374-1422)
7-- Maria LUSIGNAN wife1-20175 ( -1404)
Sp-Ladislas Ladislaus KS CAPET KN-40433 (1376-1414)
7-- Janus King Jerusalem KC LUSIGNAN K-9706 (1350-1432)
Sp-Louise Heloise VISCONTI wife1-6279 ( -1406)
Sp-Charlotte of BOURBON-6160 ( -1422)
7-- Henry Prince Galilee LUSIGNAN-36504 ( -1426)
Sp-Alice Giblet of GIBELET p-9774
7-- Hugh LUSIGNAN Cardinal-2989
7-- Philip Constable LUSIGNAN Cyprus-2141
7-- Eudes Seneschal LUSIGNAN Cyprus-32159
7-- Guy Constable LUSIGNAN Jaffa-29854
7-- Agnes LUSIGNAN-27617 (1387-1459)
7-- Echive LUSIGNAN-54782 ( -1396)
7-- Isabel cousin LUSIGNAN-53629 (1386)
Sp-Peter Count Tripoli LUSIGNAN-20198 (1456)
6-- Guy LUSIGNAN Prince Galilee-65177 ( -1342)
Sp-Maria of BOURBON-65144 ( -1387)
7-- Hugh LUSIGNAN Prince Galilee-65143 ( -1378)
Sp-Maria Morfu MORPHOU-54995
7-- Isabella Maria no issue LUSIGNAN-48595 (1333-1385)
Sp-Manuel De CANTACUZENA 255 (1326-1380)
6-- Eschiva LUSIGNAN-35163 ( -1363)
Sp-Ferran Ferdinand II Fernando BORELL-13392 ( -1316)
7-- James III KM BORELL-35135 (1343-1349)
Sp-Constance Constanza C BORELL-2431 (1324-1355)
Sp-Constanca BORELL-53835
Sp-Alix Alice IBELIN-63076
6-- John LUSIGNAN Prince Antioch-54992 ( -1375)
Sp-Constance Constanza BORELL Of Aragon-15279 (1307)
7-- James LUSIGNAN Count Tripoli-16154 (1384)
Sp-Margaret cousin LUSIGNAN-15824 (1384)
7-- John Janot Lord Beirut LUSIGNAN-32482
Sp-Alice IBELIN-1931 ( -1373)
5-- Isabella LUSIGNAN-12447
Sp-Odo Eudes DAMPIERRE Constable-12446
Sp-Humphrey Lord Tyrus Lord Tyre MONTFORT-49547 ( -1283)
5-- Roupen MONTFORT-52537
4-- Isabeau parent problem IBELIN-4236
Sp-Hugh II Hugues II LUSIGNAN-4285 (1243-1267)

Villehardouin - References:
Cheetham, table on Villehardouin. Jean Richard, p. 458. Miller, Frankish, p. 190. Miller, Latins in Levant, pp. 252ff. George Finlay, p. 244. Finlay, Greece/Trebizond. De Luria, table. Mayer, p. 191. Setton, p. 118-120. Runciman, Mistra, p. 48. Lurier, table. Forbes-Boyd, on Morea, p. 204. Mayer, pp. 197ff. Encyclopedia entries, various.
Websites various by Paul Theroff including on name Flanders.

Re Constance Capet, of Toulouse (1124-1151), daughter of King Louis VI the Fat of France; her extended family linkages are quite mixed in "national" terms.

Descendants of King France CAPET Louis VI The Fat-83410 Page 1 24 Feb 2002 1. King France CAPET Louis VI The Fat-83410 (b.1077/1081;d.1 Aug 1137) sp: Lucienne DE ROCHEFORT-98913 (m.1104) sp: Queen France SAVOY Alix Adela Adelaide-30377 (b.1092;m.1115;d.18 Nov 1154) 2. King France, Crusader CAPET Louis VII-156971 (b.1120/1121;d.1180) sp: Constance Of Castile Alfonsez CAPET wife2-56566 (c.1154;m.1154;d.1160) 3. Margaret Marguerite CAPET no issue-31533 (d.1183) sp: Henry III Anjou ANJOU King of England-16238 (c.1154/1155;d.11 Jun 1183) 4. William Plantagenet ANJOU Died Young-147632 4. John Plantagenet Anjou ANJOU Died Young-66409 (b.1177;d.1177) 4. ANJOU Beatrice Plantagenet-91745 (b.25 Jun 1242;d.24 Mar 1275) sp: Earl Richmond, Brittany BRITTANY John-29908 (b.4 Jan 1239;d.18 Nov 1305) sp: King Hungary ARPAD Bela III-3840 (c.1172/1173;d.23 Apr 1196) 3. Alice I CAPET-125703 sp: Eleanor of Aquitaine, Princess, POITIERS-DE CONTEVILLE Eleanor-113039 (b.1122;m.1137;d.1204) 3. Mary Marie Repudiated CAPET Countess-157960 (b.1145;d.1198) sp: Crusader, Count Champagne CAPET Henry I-96419 (b.1127;m.1164;d.1191) 4. Theobald III Thibaut CAPET King Navarre-85207 (b.1177;d.May 1201) sp: Blanche Blanca I JIMINEZ Of Navarre-160576 (d.1222) 4. Philip Of Champagne CAPET-116901 (c.1218;d.1227) 4. Crusader. King Jerusalem, Count Champagne CAPET Henry IOC-85155 (b.26 Jul 1166;d.10 Sep 1196/1197) sp: Queen Jerusalem ANJOU Isabella-85817 (b.1170;m.1192;d.1205/1208) 4. Of Champagne CAPET Marie-108270 (d.9 Aug 1204) sp: Emperor Constantinople, Crusader FLANDERS-HAINAULT Baldwin B I-96059 (b.1171;m.1186;d.11 Jul 1205/1206) sp: Countess Champagne Adela Alix Countess of CAPET Champagne-84928 (b.1140;m.1160) 3. King France CAPET Philippe Augustus Philip II-61408 (b.Aug 1165;d.1223/1226) sp: Countess Artois of Flanders HAINAULT Isabella wife1-68126 (b.1170;d.1190) 4. Louis VIII Lionheart CAPET King France-99500 (b.1187;d.1226) sp: Blanche Blanca Princess of CAPET Castile-106148 (b.Mar 1187/1188;d.27 Nov 1252) sp: Meran MERAN Agnes Meranie Lover-17682 (b.1180;m.1196;d.1201) 4. Marie de France CAPET Illegit-19957 (b.1198;d.15 Aug 1224) sp: Philip Philippe Count Namur FLANDERS Comte de Namur-90959 (b.1174;m.1206/1210;d.12 Oct 1212) sp: Duke Brabant, Duke Lorraine BRABANT Henry I-148425 (b.1165;d.5 Sep 1235) 4. Philippe Hurepel, Count Clermont, Count Mortain, Boulogne CAPET Philippe dit Tristand-155589 (b.1200;d.1233) sp: Countess, of Boulogne DAMMARTIN Matilda Maud Mahaut-95985 (m.1201) sp: Ingeborg of DENMARK wife3-38908 (b.1175;d.1226) 3. Alix Princess France two husbands CAPET -137703 (b.1170;d.1221) sp: CLERMONT William III Guillaume Ponthieu-89281 (b.1170/1179;d.1221/1225) 4. Countess Ponthieu CLERMONT Marie-101484 (b.17 Apr 1199;d.Sep 1250/1251) sp: Count Dammartin, Ponthieu, Count Aumale DAMMARTIN Simon II-157502 (b.1180;d.21 Sep 1239) 3. Agnes-Anna CAPET Agnes wife2-128074 (c.1180) sp: Alexius II COMNENA Byzantium-77642 (b.1168;m.1180;d.1183) 4. John COMNENA-26248 sp: Theodore Greek BRANAS-71637 4. Notknown Illegit BRANAS Miss-62863 sp: Admiral TOUCY Narjaud Overlord Narjot-29145 (d.1293) 3. Alice II Alix CAPET of France-58402 (b.1151;d.1195) sp: Theobald V Count CAPET Count Blois-82487 4. Louis CAPET-107995 4. Isabel CAPET-82196 4. Louis CAPET-121207 2. Philippe co-regent of France CAPET-124493 (b.1115/1116;d.1131) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN-146767 sp: Miss NOTKNOWN-133928 2. Emperor Constantinople CAPET Peter II-88135 (b.1126;d.1182) sp: Of Hungary ARPAD Violante Yolande Jolan-108781 (b.1219;d.1251) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN-74023 3. Alix Courtenay CAPET Countess-134791 sp: Count Angouleme, Count Ademar POITIERS-DE CONTEVILLE Audemar-73423 4. Queen England, Countess Pembroke POITIERS-DE CONTEVILLE Isabella-30625 (b.1185;d.1246) sp: William Earl4 Pembroke De Valance MARSHAL Regent-106152 (b.1146;d.14 May 1219) sp: John King of England Count Mortain ANJOU-71223 (b.24 Dec 1166/1167;m.1235;d.18 Oct 1216) sp: Aymer De Valance De Taillefer ANGOULEME Count Angouleme-90726 (b.1160;d.1218) sp: Hugh X Count Marche LUSIGNAN Of Lusignan-157534 (d.1248/1249) sp: COURTENAY Isabelle Elizabeth-117632 (c.1148;m.1168;d.1205) 3. Peter II Emperor CAPET Constantinople-71327 (b.1155;d.1183) sp: de Hainault FLANDERS-HAINAULT Yolanda Count Nevers-5739 (b.1155;m.1193;d.1219) 4. Baldwin II Emperor CAPET Constantinople-87660 (b.1218;d.15 Oct 1273) sp: Maria Perugia de Brienne BRIENNE-12740 (m.1229;d.5 May 1275) 4. Elizabeth De Courtenay CAPET-77229 (b.1199;d.1269) sp: Eudes Sn de Montagu Sn de Montagu CAPET Bourgogne-91071 (b.1196;d.1243/1247) sp: Gaucher BAR-91981 (d.1219) 4. de Courtenay CAPET Eleanor of Auxerre-11612 (d.1230) sp: Lord Toron, Lord Tyre MONFORT Philip-22907 (d.17 Mar 1270) 4. Agnes CAPET-115390 (d.1247) sp: Geoffrey II VILLEHARDOUIN Prince Achaia-117601 (c.1218;m.1217;d.1245/1246) 4. Of Courtenay CAPET Yolande wife2-141134 (b.1198;d.1233) sp: King Hungary ARPAD Andrew II Andrew II-147942 (b.1176;m.1215;d.1235) 4. Robert I Emperor CAPET Constantinople-63715 (c.1221;d.1228) 4. Wife3 CAPET-COURTENAY Mary De Courtenay-108902 (b.1204;d.Sep 1222) sp: Comnena Laskaris, Emperor Nikaia LASCARIS Theodore I-85945 (b.1175;m.1219;d.1222) 4. Marguerite CAPET-75316 (d.1270) sp: Heinrich I VIANDEN-69695 (d.1253) 4. Count Namur CAPET Philip-125941 4. Count Namur CAPET Henry-79412 4. Empress Nice CAPET Mary-103354 3. Tochter CAPET-82003 3. Alix De Courtenay CAPET-159337 3. Eustachia CAPET-73559 3. William Guillaume De Courtenay CAPET-90261 3. Emperor Constantinople, King Rumania Robert Emperor Constantinople CAPET King Rumania-127726 (c.1221;d.1228) sp: wife1 IBELIN Marie Maria Marie I wife1-161914 3. Robert CAPET Robert De Courtenay Flanders-157955 (d.26 Jul 1242) sp: Mary DE REVIERS-17770 4. Sir, Baron Oakhampton CAPET-COURTENAY John De Courtenay Berenger-28019 (b.1218;d.3 May 1274) sp: VERE Isabel De Vere widow wife2-17250 (b.1222) 4. Sir CAPET William-28029 sp: BASSETT Joan-116390 4. CAPET Hawisa-86204 sp: de Nevill NEVILL John-78827 3. Alix De Courtenay CAPET-133683 3. Vctss Thiern CAPET Clementia Clemence-76113 3. Philippe De Courtenay Philip CAPET-86487 3. John De Courtenay CAPET-28498 3. Constance De Courtenay CAPET-77159 sp: UNKNOWN Miss (?Capet)-122331 3. Alix Courtenay CAPET Countess-134791 2. Constance of Toulouse Princess of CAPET of France-106282 (b.1124;d.1151) sp: Raymond V ST GILLES Count Toulouse-155582 (b.1134;m.1154;d.1194) 3. Raymond VI ST GILLES Count Toulouse-103975 (b.1194;d.1222) sp: Eleanor BORELL Of Provence-104914 (b.1182;d.1226) sp: Of England ANJOU Joanna-140013 (b.1165;d.1199) 4. Raymond VII ST GILLES Count Toulouse-126227 (b.1197;d.1249) sp: Sancia Sancha Count Melgueil BORELL Of Provence-81538 (b.1185/1186;m.1211;d.1223) sp: Eleanor BORELL Of Provence-104914 (b.1182;d.1226) sp: Eustace IV CAPET Count Boulogne-72243 (b.1126;d.1153) 2. Bishop Paris Philip II CAPET Bishop-154029 (c.0133;d.1161) 2. de Dreux CAPET Robert I-59677 (c.1137;d.1184) sp: de Baudemont BAUDEMONT Agnes-30398 3. de Dreux DREUX Alix-144742 sp: Raoul de Coucy COUCY-30560 (b.1134;d.1191) 3. Crusader, Count Dreux CAPET Robert II-141289 (b.1154;d.28 Dec 1218) sp: COUCY Yolande-36737 (m.1184;d.18 Mar 1222) 4. Philippe Dame de Torcy De Quincy CAPET-107332 (c.1174;d.17 Mar 1242) sp: Henry II Count Bar CAPET Crusader-94267 (b.1190;d.1239) 4. Peter I Count Dreux CAPET Duke Brittany-86550 (d.22 Jun 1250) sp: Alix Alice TOURS-104909 (b.1201;d.1221) sp: Marguerite MONTAGU-70243 4. Dame de Traves Alix CAPET-79327 (d.1258) sp: Vienne BURGUNDY-IVREA Gaucher IV-87881 sp: Sire de Faucogney et de Choiseul CHOISEUL Renard II-88371 (d.1239) 4. Yolande CAPET-101837 (d.1239) sp: Raoul Count Eu LUSIGNAN-68317 (d.1246) 4. Robert III CAPET Count Dreux-120216 (b.1185;d.1234) sp: Aenor St Valery VALERY-139746 (b.1192;d.1250) sp: UNKNOWN Miss (?Capet)-144348 4. Duke Brittany CAPET Peter I-113474 (b.1203;d.1221) sp: ANJOU-PLANTAGENET Eleanor-107400 (d.1241) sp: BOURGOGNE Mathilde-129159 3. Henry Bishop Orleans CAPET-81155 3. Philip Bishop of Beauvais CAPET-96061 3. Alice CAPET-72033 3. Isabella CAPET-75419 2. Henry Bishop Rouen Rheims CAPET Archbishop-67227 (c.1122;d.1175)

References for Constance Capet above: More to come

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The Crusades - Bibliography

Crusades AAA

Ambroise, The Crusade of Richard the Lionheart. Translated by M. J. Hubert. (1941). (By a companion of Richard, a work with literary aspirations)

J. C. Anderssohn, The Ancestry and Life of Godfrey of Bouillon. (1947) (Biographies of Crusaders)

Michael Angold, The Byzantine Empire 1025-1204: a political history. London/New York, Longman, 1984.

Anonymous, Li estoire de chiaus qui conquisent Constantinople. Translated by E.N. Stone

Anonymous. L'Estoire de la Guerre Saint. Translated by E.N. Stone (1939)

Anonymous, The Crusaders as Conquerors. The Chronicle of Morea. Translated by H.E. Lurie. nd?

Anonymous, The Crusade and Death of Richard I. Translated by R.C. Johnston. (1961)

Anonymous, The Third Crusade: An Eye-witness Account of the Campaigns of Richard Coeur de Lion in Cyprus and the Holy Land. Translated by K. Fenwick. (1958)

Anonymous, The Third Crusade. An Eye-witness Account of the Campaigns of Richard Coeur de Lion in Cyprus and the Holy Land. Translated by K. Fenwick (1958) (The Third Crusade)

T. A. Archer, The Crusade of Richard I: 1189-92. Excerpts from participants concerning Richard's crusading activity.

Karen Armstrong, Holy War. London: Macmillan, 1988.

Pierre Aube, Godefroy de Bouillon. Paris: Fayard, c1985. (Biographies of Crusaders)

M. d' Ault-Dumesnil, Dictionnaire historique, geographique et biographique, des Croisades, embrassant toute la lutte du Christianisme et de l'Islamisme .... Osnabruck: Biblio Verlag, 1984.

Aziz Suryal Atiya, The Crusades: Historiography and Bibliography. Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1962.

Aziz Suryal Atiya, Crusade. Commerce and Culture. (1962) (Puts the crusades into the large context of the East-West Question)

Crusades BBB

J. Ben-Ami, Social Change in a Hostile Environment: The Crusaders' Kingdom of Jerusalem. (1969) (The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem)

Marshall W. Baldwin, Raymond III of Tripoli. (1936) (Biographies of Crusaders)

Malcolm Barber, The Trial of the Templars. Cambridge, Eng.; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1978. (The Military Orders)

Malcolm Barber, The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple. Cambridge, 1994. (Recent work on a fascinating topic)

Konrad Bercovici, The Crusades. New York: Cosmopolitan book corporation, 1929.

Meron Benvenisti, The Crusaders in the Holy Land. 1st American ed.; New York, Macmillan, 1972, c1970. (The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem)

Bernard of Clairvaux, The Letters of St. Bernard. Translated by B. Scott James (1963) (The Second Crusade)

Bernard of Clairvaux, In Praise of the New Knighthood. (On the Templars' Rule)

T. N. Bisson, The Medieval Crown of Aragon: A Short History. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1986.

Thomas S. R. Boase, Castles and Churches of the Crusading Kingdom. (1977). (The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem)

Thomas. S. R. Boase, Kingdoms and Strongholds of the Crusaders. London, Thames and Hudson, 1971. (The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem)

Pierre Boulle, L'Etrange croisade de l'empereur Frederic II .. . Paris, Flammarion, 1968.

Ernle Bradford, The Sword and the Scimitar: The Saga of the Crusades. New York, Putnam, 1974.

Ernle Bradford, The Shield and the Sword: The Knights of St John. London, Hodder and Stoughton, 1972. (The Military Orders)

Louis Brehier, l'Eglise et l'Orient au moyen age: les croisades. 1st AMS ed. New York, AMS Press, 1978.

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James A. Brundage, "Adhemar of Puy. The Bishop and his Critics," Speculum, 34 (1959). (Biographies of Crusaders)

James A. Brundage, Medieval Canon Law and the Crusader. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1969.

James A. Brundage, Richard Lion Heart. New York, Scribner, 1974. (Biographies of Crusaders)

James Brundage, The Crusades, Holy War and Canon Law. (An in-depth and easily understandable exploration of medieval law in terms of the Crusade movement)

14 Brundage, James A. Richard Lion Heart. New York: Scribner, 1974.

James A. Brundage, The Crusades, a documentary survey. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1962. (Chronological presentation of sources from throughout the period)

Robert Ignatius Burns, Islam under the crusaders, colonial survival in the thirteenth-century Kingdom of Valencia. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1973. (Political context of the Crusades)

Robert Ignatius Burns, Medieval colonialism: postcrusade exploitation of Islamic Valencia. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1975. (Political context of the Crusades)

Robert Ignatius Burns, Medieval colonialism: postcrusade exploitation of Islamic Valencia. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1975.

Robert Burns, The Crusader Kingdom of Valencia. 2 Vols. Cambridge, Ma., 1967. (On the Reconquista)

Lionel Butler, (Ed.), A History of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. London, Macmillan/New York, St. Martin's Press, 1967- . (The Military Orders)

Crusades CCC

Claude Cahen, "An Introduction to the First Crusade," Past and Present, November, 1954: 6-29.

Claude Cahen, Orient et Occident au temps des Croisades. Paris, Aubier Montaigne, c1983.

James L. Cate, "A Gay Crusader,", Byzantion, 16 (1942-1943) (Biographies of Crusaders)

Peter Charanis, "Byzantium, the West and the Origin of the First Crusade," Byzantion, 19, 1949.

Chazan, Robert. In the Year 1096: The First Crusade and the Jews. Philadelphia, 1996.

Chazan, R. European Jewry and the First Crusade. ? (Concerns how the Jews fared as the First Crusade progressed)

Nicetas Choniates, ca. 1140-1213, O city of Byzantium: annals of Niketas Choniates. Translated by Harry I. Magoulias. Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1984.

Eric Christiansen, The Northern Crusades: the Baltic and the Catholic frontier, 1100-1525. London/New York: Macmillan, 1980.

E. R. Clifford, A Knight of Great Renown: The Life of Otho de Grandison. (1961) (Biographies of Crusaders)

Roger Collins, Early Medieval Spain: Unity in Diversity, 400-1000. New Studies in Medieval History. Second edition. New York, St Martin's Press, 1995., table.

Giles Constable, Monks, Hermits, and Crusaders in Medieval Europe. London, Variorum Reprints, 1988.

Giles Constable, "The Second Crusade as seen by Contemporaries," Traditio, 9, 1953. (The Second Crusade)

Herbert. E. J. Cowdrey, The Cluniacs and the Gregorian Reform. 1977.

Herbert E. J. Cowdrey, Popes, Monks, and Crusaders. London, Hambledon Press, 1984.

Anna Comnena, (b. 1083), Alexiad. English: The Alexiad of Anna Comnena. (Translated by E.R.A. Sewter.) Baltimore: Penguin Books 1969. (The First Crusade) (Her own point of view of the Crusaders she met, and the events that transpired from the Byzantine perspective of the day)

Crusades DDD

-- Raymond D'Aguilers Historia Francorum. Trans. John H. Hill and Laurita L. Hill. Philadelphia, 1968. A participant of the entire First Crusade who wrote a few years after returning.

Norman Daniel, Heroes and Saracens: an interpretation of the chansons de geste. Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, c1984.

Charles W. David, Robert Curthose: Duke of Normandy. (1920) (Biographies of Crusaders)

Gerald W. Day, Genoa's Response to Byzantium, 1155-1204: commercial expansion and factionalism in a medieval city. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, c1988.

Paul Deschamps, Au temps des croisades. Paris, Hachette, 1972,

Joseph Donovan, Pelagius and the Fifth Crusade. 1950. (Deals with the papal legate who was a leader of the Crusade)

Pierre Dubois, The Recovery of the Holy Land. Translated by W.I. Brandt. 1956.

Ducas, fl. 1455, Decline and Fall of Byzantium to the Ottoman Turks: an annotated Translation of "Historia Turco-Byzantina" by Harry J. Magoulias. Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1975.

Alfred L. Duggan, Knight with Armour. Harmondsworth Penguin Books in association with Faber and Faber, 1959. (Biographies of Crusaders)

Alphonse Dupront, Du sacre: croisades et p lerinages, images et langages. Paris, Gallimard, c1987.

Crusades EEE

Edbury - Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East. Conference (lst: 1983: University College, Cardiff) Crusade and settlement: papers read at the First Conference of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East and presented to R.C. Smail. Edited by Peter W. Edbury. Cardiff, U.K.: University College Cardiff Press; Atlantic Highlands, N.J.: Distributed in USA by Humanities Press, 1985.

Peter W. Edbury, William of Tyre, Historian of the Latin East. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988. (Biographies of Crusaders)

Peter W. Edbury, The Kingdom of Cyprus and the Crusades, 1191-1374. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Peter W. Edbury, (Ed)., The Conquest of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade: Sources in Translation. Aldershot, 1996. (Useful contemporary accounts)

Peter W. Edbury, Crusade and Settlement. Ed. Peter Edbury, 1985. (SSCLE contribution, concerning the First Crusade and later events, including a group discussion of the crusades as the first European venture of colonial imperialism)

Andrew S. Ehrenkreutz, Saladin. 1st edn.; Albany, State University of New York Press, 1972. (Biographies of Crusaders)

Ekkehard Eickhoff, Friedrich Barbarossa im Orient: Kreuzzug und Tod Friedrichs I. Tubingen, E. Wasmuth, c1977.

Eidelberg - The Jews and the Crusaders: the Hebrew chronicles of the First and Second Crusades. Translated and edited by Shlomo Eidelberg. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. (The First Crusade)

Martin Erbstosser, The Crusades. Translated by C. S. V. Salt. Newton Abbot, David and Charles, 1978.

Carl Erdmann, (1898-1945), The Origin of the Idea of Crusade. Translated by Marshall W. Baldwin and Walter Goffart; foreword and additional notes by Marshall W. Baldwin. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1977.

Theodore Evergates, Louis VII and the Counts of Champagne, pp. 109-118 in Michael Gervers, The Second Crusade and the Cistercians. New York, St Martin's Press, 1992.

Crusades FFF

R. Fedden, Crusader Castles: A Brief Study in the Military Architecture of the Crusaders. 1950.

Ronald C. Finucane, Soldiers of the Faith: Crusaders and Moslems at war. London: J.M. Dent, 1983.

G. B. Flahiff, Deus non vult. A Critic of the Third Crusade, Medieval Studies, 9, 1947.

Jaroslav Folda, The Art of the Crusaders in the Holy Land: 1098-1187. Cambridge, 1995.

Alan John Forey, The Templars in the Corona de Aragon. London, Oxford University Press, 1973.

J. K. Fotheringham, "Genoa and the Fourth Crusade," EHR, 25 (1910)

Foucher, de Chartres, (1058?-ca. 1127), A history of the expedition to Jerusalem, 1095-1127. Translated by Frances Rita Ryan. Edited with an introd. by Harold S. Fink. New York, W. W. Norton 1973, c1969. (The First Crusade)

Foucher of Chartres, The First Crusade; the chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and other source materials. Edited, with an introd. by Edward Peters. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971. (The First Crusade)

John France, Victory in the East. Cambridge, 1994. (Fine military history of the First Crusade)

S. France, "An Unknown Account of the Capture of Jerusalem," EHR, 87, 1972. (The Third Crusade)

Fulcher of Chartres. A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem 1095-1127. Trans: Frances Rita Ryan. Ed. Harold S. Fink. Knoxville, 1969. (Fulcher went on the First Crusade, remained in the East and wrote this account which deals not only with the crusaders, but local people, flora and fauna)

Crusades GGG

Francesco Gabrieli, (1904-), Arab historians of the Crusades; selected and translated from the Arabic sources. Translated by E. J. Costello. London: Routledge and K. Paul, 1969.

Laurence Gardner, The Bloodline of the Holy Grail: The Hidden Lineage of Jesus Revealed. Shaftesbury, Dorset, Element, 1996 or Brisbane, Jacaranda Wiley, 1996.

Gerald of Wales. Itinerary through Wales. Trans. Lewis Thorpe. N.Y., 1978. (Personal account of preaching the Crusade and the effects on the populace)

Michael Gervers, (Ed.), The Second Crusade and the Cistercians. New York, 1992.

Hamilton Gibb, The Life of Saladin: From the works of Imad ad-Din and Baha ad-Din. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1973.

Aleksandr Giezstor, The Genesis of the Crusades, Medievalia et Humanistica, 1948.

John Gillingham, Richard the Lionheart. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1978. (Biographies of Crusaders)

Anne Gilmour-Bryson, The Trial of the Templars in the Papal State and the Abruzzi. Citt`a del Vaticano: Biblioteca apostolica vaticana, 1982. (The Military Orders)

John B. Glubb, The lost centuries: from the Muslim empires to the Renaissance of Europe, 1145-1453. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall 1967.

J. Godfrey, "Venice and the Fourth Crusade," History Today, 26, 1976.

John Godfrey, 1204, The Unholy Crusade. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

D. A. Goodsell, Peter the Hermit: A Story of Enthusiasm. 1906. (Biographies of Crusaders)

S. D. Goitein, (Ed. and trans.), "Contemporary Letters on the Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders," Journal of Jewish Studies, 3, 1952.

Vladimir P. Goss, (Ed.), with Christine Verzar Bornstein, The Meeting of two worlds: cultural exchange between East and West during the period of the Crusades. Kalamazoo, Mich.: Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University, 1986.

Peter R. Grillo, (Ed.), La Prise d'Acre. La Mort Godefroi. And, La Chanson des rois Baudoin. Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama Press, c1987. Vol. 7, pt. 2 (The Third Crusade, and provides further bibliography)

G. Z. Gray, The Children's Crusade. 1870.

Rene Grousset, The Epic of the Crusades. Translated by Noel Lindsay. New York, Orion Press, 1970.

Crusades HHH

Heinrich Hagenmeyer, (1834-1915), Epistulae et chartae ad historiam primi belli sacri spectantes. Die Kreuzzugsbriefe aus den Jahren 1088-1100. Hildesheim, New York, G. Olms, 1973. (The First Crusade)

Elizabeth Hallam, (Ed.), Chronicles of the Crusades: Eye-witness Accounts of the Wars between Christianity and Islam. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1989.

Bernard Hamilton, Monastic Reform: Catharism, and the Crusades, (900-1300). London, Variorum Reprints, 1979.

George A. Henty, Winning his Spurs: A Tale of the Crusades. London: S. Low, Marston, 1924? (The First Crusade)

Rosalind Hill, (Ed.), Gesta Francorum [or] The Deeds of the Franks. London, 1962. (Participant of the First Crusade from his point of view as a knight)

John H. Hill, Raymond IV of St. Gilles. (1962)

Norman Housley, The Avignon Papacy and the Crusades, 1305-1378. Oxford, Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, c1986.

Geoffrey Hindley, Saladin. London: Constable, 1976.

Norman Housley, The Later Crusades, 1274-1580. Oxford, 1992. (Expands the horizons of the crusade movement beyond the Fall of Acre in 1291)

Norman Housley, The Italian Crusades: the Papal-Angevin alliance and the Crusades against Christian Lay Powers, 1254-1343. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Stephen Howarth, The Knights Templar. London, Collins, 1982. With citations from Jonathan Riley-Smith, Family Traditions and Participation in the Second Crusade, pp. 101-108.

T. E. B. Howarth, Citizen-King, The Life of Louis-Philippe, King of the French. London, Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1961.

Crusades III

More to come

Crusades JJJ

Gabriel Jackson, The Making of Medieval Spain. London, Thames and Hudson, 1972. (Genealogical table.)

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Francis Jammes, Saint Louis, ou, L'esprit de croisade. Illustre par Edmond Ernest. Paris, F. Sorlot, 1941.

Eric John, (Ed.), The Popes: A Concise Biographical History. New York, Hawthorn Books. Inc., 1964.

John of Salisbury, De expugnatione Lyxbonensi. Translated by C.W. David (1936) (The Second Crusade)

Joinville, The Life of Saint Louis, in Chronicles of the Crusades. Trans. M.R.B. Shaw. N.Y., 1963. (A main source by a participant)

William C. Jordan, Louis IX and the Challenge of the Crusade: a Study in Rulership. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, c1979.

Crusades KKK

Ernst Kantorowicz, Frederick II. 1931.

Ibn Kalanisi, The Damascus Chronicle of the Crusades. Translated by H.A.R. Gibbs. nd?

B. Z. Kedar, Crusade and Mission. Princeton, 1984.

B. Z. Kedar, Crusade and Mission: European Approaches toward the Muslims. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, c1984.

B. Z. Kedar, Merchants in Crisis. Yale University Press, 1976. (On Genoa, and C14th depression).

B. Z. Kedar, Outremer: Studies in the History of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer.

Edited by B.Z. Kedar, H.E. Mayer, R.C. Smail. Jerusalem, Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi Institute, 1982. (The Third Crusade)

B. Z. Kedar, (Ed.), Horns of Hattin. Jerusalem, 1992. SSCLE contribution on the events that led up to, and including, Saladin's victory at the Battle of Hattin which caused the Third Crusade.

Hugh Kennedy, Crusader Castles. Cambridge, 1994.

Holger Kersten and Elmar R. Gruber, The Jesus Conspiracy: The Turin Shroud and The Truth about The Resurrection. Brisbane, Queensland, Element, 1992.

Rose Georgina Kingsley, The Order of St. John of Jerusalem (past and present). London, Skeffington, 1918. (The Military Orders)

August C. Krey, (Ed.), The First Crusade. Gloucester, 1958. (Many excerpts concerning the First Crusade)
A. C. Krey, The First Crusade. The Accounts of Eye Witnesses and Participants.

A. C. Krey, "Urban's Crusade: Success or Failure?", AHR, 53, 1948.

Crusades LLL

Frederic C. Lane, Venice: A Maritime Republic. London, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973., p. 111.

Jack Lindsay, The Normans and Their World. London, Hart-Davies and MacGibbon, 1974.

H. V. Livermore, A New History of Portugal. Cambridge University Press, 1966.

Translated by J. L. Lamonte, Philip of Novara, The Wars of Frederick II against the Ibelings in Syria and Cyprus. 1936.

Harold Lamb, The Crusades. London: Thornton Butterworth, 1933.

John L. Lamonte, "The Significance of the Crusaders' States in Medieval History," Byzantion, 18, 1940-1941.

John L. Lamonte, Feudal Monarchy in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. 1937.

Thomas E. Lawrence, Crusader Castles. A new edn. with introduction and notes by Denys Pringle. Oxford, Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

G. Legman, and others, The Guilt of the Templars. New York, Basic Books, 1966.

Bernard Leib, Rome, Kiev et Byzance `a la fin du XIe si cle; rapports religieux des Latins et des Greco-Russes sous le pontificat d'Urbain II (1088-1099). Paris, A. Picard, 1924.

Ralph-Johannes Lilie, Byzanz und die Kreuzfahrerstaaten: Studien zur Politik des Byzantinischen Reiches gegenuber den Staaten der Kreuzfahrer in Syrien und Palastina bis zum Vierten Kreuzzug (1096-1204). Munchen, Fink, 1981.

Simon D. Lloyd, English Society and the Crusade, 1216-1307. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Jean Longnon, Les Compagnons de Villehardouin: recherches sur les Croises de la quatri me Croisade. Gen`eve, Droz; Paris: Champion etc., 1978.

Alfonso Lowe, The Catalan Vengeance. London; Boston: Routledge and K. Paul, 1972.

Anthony Luttrell, Latin Greece, the Hospitallers, and the Crusades, 1291-1440. London: Variorum Reprints, 1982.

Malcolm Lyons, Saladin: The Policies of the Holy War. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982. (Biographies of Crusaders)

Crusades MMM

Alan Macquarrie, Scotland and the Crusades, 1095-1560. Edinburgh, J. Donald, c1985.

Amin Maalouf, The Crusades through Arab eyes. Translated by Jon Rothschild. London, Al Saqi Books: Distributed by Zed Books, 1984.

Hans Eberhard Mayer, The Crusades. Translated by John Gillingham. London, Oxford University Press, 1972, 1978 printing.

Hans E. Mayer, The Crusades. nd? (An important text with much detail and bibliography)

Metellus, von Tegernsee, fl. 1167, Expeditio Jerosolimitana. Erstausg. von Peter Christian Jacobsen. Stuttgart, Hiersemann, 1982. (The Third Crusade)

Philippe de Mezi`eres, (1327?-1405), Le songe du Vieil Pelerin. Edited by G. W. Coopland. London, Cambridge University Press, 1969.

W. Miller, The Latins in the Levant: A History of Frankish Greece (1204-1556). 1908.

Charles Mills, The History of the Crusades for the Recovery and Possession of the Holy Land. Two Vols. London, Longman, 1821.

Francisco de, 3. marques d'Aitona, Moncada, (1586-1635), The Catalan Chronicle of Francisco de Moncada. Translated by Frances Hernandez; edited by John M. Sharp. El Paso: Texas Western Press, University of Texas at El Paso, 1975.

W. Muller-Wiener, Castles of the Crusaders. 1966.

Dana C. Munro, (Ed.), 12 Letters of the Crusaders. edited and translated by D.C. Munro. 1902.

Dana C. Munro, "Did the Emperor Alexius ask for Aid at the Council of Piacenza, 1095?", American Historical Review, 27, 1922.

Dana C. Munro, "The Speech of Urban II at Clermont", American Historical Review 11, 1906.

Dana C. Munro, The Kingdom of the Crusaders. 1935.

Dana C. Munro, "The Children's Crusade," AHR, 19, 1914.

Munqidh - An Arab-Syrian Gentleman and Warrior, Memoirs of Usamah Ibn-Munqidh. Trans. Philip K. Hitti. Princeton, 1987. (Covering the mid-Twelfth Century, Usamah provides an interesting Arabic view of the people, land and events of his day)

Thomas Patrick Murphy, (Ed.), Conference on Medieval and Renaissance Studies (5th): 1974: Ohio State University) The Holy War. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, c1976.

Geoffrey M. Myers, (Ed.), Les Chetifs. University of Alabama Press, c1980. Vols.

Usamah ibn Munqidh, (1095-1188. Memoirs of an Arab-Syrian gentleman; or, An Arab knight in the Crusades: memoirs of Usamah ibn-Munqidh (Kitab al-itibar). Translated from the unique manuscript by Philip K. Hitti. Beirut, Khayats, 1964.

Crusades NNN

Percy H. Newby, Saladin in His Time. London; Boston: Faber and Faber, 1983. (Biographies of Crusaders)

Robert L. Nicholson, Tancred. 1940.

Robert L. Nicholson, Joscelyn III and the Fall of the Crusader States, 1134-1199. Leiden, Brill, 1973.

Kate Norgate, Richard the Lion Heart. 1924.

Crusades OOO

Zoe Oldenbourg, Les croisades. Paris, Gallimard, 1965.

Zoe Oldenbourg, The Heirs of the Kingdom. Translated by Anne Carter. New York, Pantheon Books, c1971.

Odo of Deuil, De profectione Ludovici VII. Translated by V.G. Berry. 1948. (The Second Crusade)

W. M. Ormonde, The Reign of Edward III: Crown and Political Society, 1327-1377. London, Yale University Press. 1990.

Otto I, Bishop of Freising, (d. 1158), The Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa. By Otto of Freising and his continuator, Rahewin. Translated and annotated with an introd. by Charles Christopher Mierow with the collaboration of Richard Emery. New York, Norton 1966, c1953.

Crusades PPP

Marcel Pacaut, Frederick Barbarossa. Translated by A. J. Pomerans. London, Collins, 1970.

Dominique Paladilhe, La grande aventure des croises. Paris, Perrin, c1979.

Manuel II Palaeologus, Emperor of the East, 1350-1425, The Letters of Manuel II Palaeologus: Text, translation, and notes. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Trustees for Harvard University; Locust Valley, N.Y.: distributed by J. J. Augustin, 1977.

Peter Partner, The Murdered Magicians: The Templars and Their Myth. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.

Robert Payne, The Dream and the Tomb: A History of the Crusades. New York, Stein and Day, 1984.

E. Pears, The Fall of Constantinople: Being the Story of the Fourth Crusade. 1885.

Regine Pernoud, The Crusaders. Translated by Enid Grant. Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd, c1963.

F. Perry, St. Louis. 1901.

Edward Peters, (Ed.), The First Crusade. nd? (Includes a long excerpt from Fulcher of Chartres and many other short excerpts concerning the First Crusade arranged around themes)

Edward Peters, (Ed.), with an introd. by Edward Peters, Christian society and the Crusades, 1198-1229; sources in translation, including The capture of Damietta by Oliver of Paderborn. Translated with notes by John J. Gavigan. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1971. (Primary Sources concerning the period, with Oliver of Paderborn's account of the Fifth Crusade)

Giovanna, Petti Balbi, Caffaro e la cronachistica genovese. Genova, Tilgher, c1982.

Petit-Dutaillis, The Feudal Monarchy in France and England, from the Tenth to the Thirteenth Century. London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1949.

Roger Peyrefitte, Knights of Malta. Translated by Edward Hyams. New York, Criterion Books, c1959.

Jonathan Phillips, Defenders of the Holy Land. Oxford, 1996. (Explores the serious problems which faced the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem after the First Crusade and before Saladin's victory at Hattin)

Michel Picar, Les Templiers. Paris, M.A. Editions, c1985.

James M. Powell, Anatomy of a Crusade, 1213-1221. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1986. (Analyzes many aspects of the Fifth Crusade, includes careful statistical analyses and graphs)

James Powell, Muslims under Latin Rule. Princeton, 1991.

Joshua Prawer, The History of the Jews in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Oxford, 1988.

Joshua Prawer, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. London, 1972. (Examines the aspect of Colonialism in the Middle Ages through the Crusades)

Joshua Prawer, "Colonization Activities in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem," Revue Belge, 29 (1951)

Joshua Prawer, "The Settlement of the Latins in Jerusalem," Speculum, 27, 1952.

Joshua Prawer, Crusader Institutions. Oxford, Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, c1980.

Joshua Prawer, The Crusaders' Kingdom; European Colonialism in the Middle Ages. New York, Praeger, 1972

Joshua Prawer, The History of the Jews in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Oxford, Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Joshua Prawer, The World of the Crusaders. New York, Quadrangle Books 1973, c1972.

Denys Pringle, The Red Tower (al-Burj al-Ahmar): Settlement in the Plain of Sharon at the time of the Crusaders and Mamluks A.D.1099-1516. Survey drawings by Peter Leach. London, British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem, 1986.

Maureen Purcell, Papal crusading policy: the chief instruments of papal crusading policy and crusade to the Holy Land from the final loss of Jerusalem to the fall of Acre, 1244-1291. Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1975.

Crusades QQQ

Donald E. Queller, "The Fourth Crusade: The Neglected Majority," Speculum, 49, 1974.

Donald E. Queller, "The Fourth Crusade: The Neglected Majority," Speculum, 49, 1974. (The Fourth Crusade)

Donald E. Queller, Medieval Diplomacy and the Fourth Crusade. London, Variorum Reprints, 1980.

Donald E. Queller, The Fourth Crusade: The Conquest of Constantinople, 1201-1204. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1977. (Classic study of this strange Crusade)

Crusades RRR

Raimundus de Agiles, Historia Francorum qui ceperunt Iherusalem. Translated with introd. and notes by John Hugh Hill and Laurita L. Hill. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1968. (The First Crusade)

Geoffrey Regan, Saladin and The Fall of Jerusalem. London, New York, Croom Helm, c1987.

Richard of Devises, Chronicon. Vaduz, Kraus Reprint, 1964. (The Third Crusade)

Richard of Devizes, The Chronicle of Richard of Devizes. Translated by J.T Appleby, 1963. (The Third Crusade)

Jean Richard, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Amsterdam, 1979. (Deals with the locals in the East, Europeans who settled there, and the related events)

Jean Richard, Histoire des Croisades. (An important work in beautiful French prose)

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Jean Richard, Croises, missionnaires et voyageurs: les perspectives orientales du monde latin medieval. London, Variorum Reprints, 1983.

Louise and Jonathan Riley-Smith, (Eds.), The Crusades: Idea and Reality. Ed. Louise and Jonathan Riley-Smith. London, 1981. (Thematic presentation of sources from throughout the period)

Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Feudal Nobility and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1174-1277. London, Macmillan, 1973.

Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Crusades: A Short History. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1987.

Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Atlas of the Crusades. New York, Facts on File, 1991.

Jonathan Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders, 1095-1131.

Jonathan Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. Philadelphia, 1986. (Insightful examination of the ideas and sources)

Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Crusades: A Short History. nd? (A new, wider interpretation of what the Crusades were)

Jonathan Riley-Smith, (Ed), The Crusades: Idea and Reality, 1095-1274. London, E. Arnold, 1981.

Volker Rittner, Kulturkontakte und soziales Lernen im Mittelalter: Kreuzzuge im Lichte e. mittelalterl. Biographie, Koln, Wien, Bohlau, 1973.

Robert de Clery, The Conquest of Constantinople. Translated by E. H. McNeal. 1936.

Robertus Remensis, (monk, 12th Cent), Historia Hierosolymitana, von Robertus Monachus in deutscher Ubersetzung. Hrsg, von Barbara Haupt, Wiesbaden, F. Steiner, 1972. (The Third Crusade)

Paul Rousset, Histoire d'une ideologie: la Croisade. Lausanne, Suisse, L'Age d'homme, c1983.

Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades. Especially, Vol. III, The Kingdom of Acre and the Later Crusades. Cambridge University Press, 1955.

Steven Runciman, The Sicilian Vespers: A History of the Mediterranean World in the Later Thirteenth Century. Cambridge at the University Press, 1958. (For genealogical tables especially)

Steven Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades. 3 volumes. N.Y., 1965. (Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades. New York, Harper and Row 1964-)

Rutebeuf, Rutebeuf and Louis IX. Translated by E.B. Ham. 1962.

Alan Ryder, Alfonso The Magnanimous, King of Aragon, Naples and Sicily, 1336-1458. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1990.

Crusades SSS

Marino Sanuto, called Torsello, 14th cent. Liber secretorum fidelium crucis super Terrae Sanctae recuperatione et conservatione, quo et Terrae Sanctae historia ab origine. & eiusdem vicinarumque provinciarum geographica descriptio continetur, cuius auctor Marinus Sanutus dictus Torsellus. Hanoviae, Typis Wechelianis apud heredes Joannis Aubrii, 16ll. Toronto, Buffalo Prelum Academicum Universitatis Torontonensis, 1972. folio.

J. J. Saunders, Aspects of the Crusades. 2d edn. Christchurch, Whitcombe and Tombs, 1968.

G.T. Scanlon, (Trans.), Umar ibn Ibrahim al-Awsi al-Ansari. A Muslim Manual of War. (Being Tafri al-kutub fi tadbin al-hurub). 1961.

Sylvia Schein, Fideles Crucis: The Papacy, the West, and the Recovery of the Holy Land, 1274-1314. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. (The Church and the Crusades)

Rainer Christoph Schwinges, Kreuzzugsideologie und Toleranz: Studien zu Wilhelm von Tyrus. 1. Aufl. Stuttgart, Hiersemann, 1977.

M. Sepet, St. Louis. Translated by G. Tyrrell. 1899. (Biographies of Crusaders)

Kenneth M. Setton, A History of the Crusades. Volume I. The First Hundred Years. edited by M.W. Baldwin (1955); Volume 2. The Later Crusades. edited by R.L. Wolff (1962); Volume 3. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. edited by H.W. Hazard (1975); Volume 4. The Art and Architecture of the Crusader States. edited by H.W. Hazard (1977). 2d ed. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1969-1989.

Kenneth Setton, Harry W. Hazard and Norman P. Zacour, A History of the Crusades. 6 volumes. Last volume: Madison, 1989. (An exhaustive series of essays on each Crusade and on many related topics with extensive bibliography)

Kenneth M. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1976-1984.

Desmond Seward, The Monks of War: The Military Religious Orders. Hamden, Archon Books, 1972. (The military orders)

Elizabeth Siberry, Criticism of Crusading: 1095-1274. Oxford, Clarendon Press, New York, Oxford University Press, 1985.

Andrew Sinclair, The Sword and the Grail. London, Arrow, 1994.

George Slocombe, William the Conqueror. London, Hutchinson, 1959.

Richard T. Spence, Pope Gregory IX and the Crusade. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Syracuse University, 1978.

Elizabeth Siberry, Criticism of the Crusade 1095-1274. Oxford, 1985. (Shows the contemporary support for, and the criticism of, crusades)

R. C. Smail, Crusading Warfare, 1097-1193. Cambridge, University Press, l956. (Classic work on the subject)

Richard T. Spence, Pope Gregory IX and the Crusade. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Syracuse University, 1978. (Biographies of Crusaders)

W. B. Stevenson, The Crusaders in the East 1907.

Crusades TTT

Torquato Tasso, (1544-1595), Godfrey of Bulloigne: a critical edition of Edward Fairfax's translation of Tasso's Gerusalemme liberata, together with Fairfax's original poems. Edited by Kathleen M. Lea and T. M. Gang. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Torquato Tasso, (1544-1595), Jerusalem Delivered: An English prose version. Translated and edited by Ralph Nash. Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1987. (The First Crusade)

Steven Tibble, Monarchy and Lordships in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291. Oxford, Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Henry Treece, The Crusades. London, Bodley Head, 1962.

D. A. Trotter, Medieval French Literature and the Crusades (1100-1300). Gen`eve, Librairie Droz, 1988. (Causes of the Crusades)

Petrus Tudebodus, Historia de Hierosolymitano itinere. Translated with introd. and notes by John Hugh Hill and Laurita L. Hill. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society, 1974.

Christopher Tyerman, England and the Crusades, 1095-1588. (On how the crusade movement affected a single country)

Crusades UUU

Umar ibn Ibrahim al-Awsi al-Ansari, A Muslim Manual of War: being Tafri al-kutub fi tadbin al-hurub. Translated by G.T. Scanlon. 1961.

William Urban, The Baltic Crusade. Chicago, 1994.

Crusades VVV

Thomas Van Cleve, The Emperor Frederick II of Hohenstaufen, immutator mundi. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1972. (Biographies of Crusaders)

Ordericus Vitalis, (1075-1143?), The Ecclesiastical History of England and Normandy. Translated, with notes, and the introd. of Guizot, by Thomas Forester. London, H. G. Bohn, 1853-56. New York, AMS Press, 1968. (The First Crusade)

Ordericus Vitalis, (1075-1143?), The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis. Edited and translated with introduction and notes by Marjorie Chibnall. Oxford, Clarendon P., 1969-1980.

Geoffrey Villehardouin. The Conquest of Constantinople. In Chronicles of the Crusades. Trans. M.R.B. Shaw. N.Y., 1963. (A main source by a participant)

Crusades WWW

Anthony West, The Crusades. Illustrated by Carl Rose. New York, Random House, 1954.

William, of Tyre, Archbishop of Tyre, (ca. 1130-ca. 1190), Historia rerum in partibus transmarinis gestarum. English The boke intitulede Eracles and ... of Godefrey of Boloyne. Amsterdam, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum; New York: Da Capo Press, 1973.

William, of Tyre. Chronicle. Translated by E.A. Blaylock. 1943.

William, of Tyre, A History of Deeds done Beyond the Sea by William, Archbishop of Tyre. 2 vols. Trans Emily Babcock and A.C. Krey. N.Y., 1943. (As he was born in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, William's history stands alone for the period he covered (1095 to his death ca. 1185) and for a fairly mature historical perspective)

Robert L. Wolff, "Baldwin of Flanders and Hainhault: First Latin Emperor of Constantinople,", Speculum, 27, 1952. (Biographies of Crusaders)

Crusades XXX

Crusades YYY

R. B. Yewdale, Bohemond I. 1924.

Crusades ZZZ

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Re Maria Arpad, daughter of King Bela III of Hungary

Descendants of King Hungary ARPAD Bela Bela III-3840
1. King Hungary ARPAD Bela Bela III-3840 (c.1172/1173;d.23 Apr 1196) sp: Margaret Marguerite CAPET no issue-31533 (d.1183) sp: De Chatillon of Antioch CHATILLON Agnes Anna-5040 (b.1154;d.1184) 2. Emmerich Emmeric ARPAD King Hungary-15551 (b.1174;d.1204) sp: Queen Hungary BORELL Constance Constanza wife1-152802 (b.1179;m.1198;d.23 Jun 1222) 3. Ladislaus III Died Young ARPAD King Hungary-70789 (b.1199;d.1205) 2. Constantina Of Hungary ARPAD-134854 sp: Ottocar I PREMSYL King Bohemia-30417 (d.1230) 3. Wenceslaus I PREMSYL King Bohemia-62056 (b.1205;d.22 Sep 1253) sp: Cunigonde HOHENSTAUFER-59873 (b.1200;m.1224;d.1248) 4. Ottokar Ottokar II PREMSYL King Bohemia-81160 (c.1253;d.1278) sp: of Halicz KIEV-GALICIA Cunigonde-30418 (c.1260) 4. Of Bohemia PREMSYL Beatrix-84556 (d.25 May 1286) sp: Margrave Brandenburg BRANDENBURG Otto III-98840 (b.1220;d.1267) 3. Margrave Moravia PREMSYL Wladislaw-139870 (b.1207;d.1226) 3. Margrave Moravia PREMSYL Premsyl-143706 (b.1209;d.1239) sp: MERAN Margarete-159824 3. PREMSYL Jutta-160987 (d.1230) sp: Duke Carinthia CARINTHIA Bernhard-145783 (d.1256) 3. PREMSYL Anna-145043 (b.1204;d.1265) sp: SILESIA Heinrich II-145802 (d.1241) 2. King Hungary ARPAD Andrew II Andrew II-147942 (b.1176;d.1235) sp: Countess Andechs of Meran CAPET Gertrude wife1-140387 (b.1185;m.1203;d.28 Sep 1213) 3. King Hungary ARPAD Bela Bela IV-11210 (b.1206;d.1270) sp: Maria LASCARIS-81153 (d.1270) 4. King Hungary ARPAD Stephen Stephen V-127328 (c.1246;d.1272) sp: Elizabeth The Cuman KOTONY-71083 (c.1246) 4. Catherine ARPAD Of Hungary-98574 sp: Stephen Dragutin NEMANYICH King Serbia-147480 4. Cunigonde Kinga ARPAD Of Hungary-100674 4. Anna ARPAD-96579 sp: King Bulgaria, Grand Duke Kiev KIEV Ratislav Rosztiszlo Galicia Prince Galicia-77389 4. Of Hungary ARPAD Elizabeth-150978 sp: Duke Lower Bavaria BAVARIA-VON SCHEYERN Henry Heinrich-139862 (b.1235;d.1290) 4. Duke Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia ARPAD Bela-90012 (c.1245;d.1269) sp: BRANDENBURG Kunigunde-100128 (c.1263) 4. The Elder ARPAD Margareta-123305 (d.1242) 4. ARPAD Kinga-98442 (b.1224;d.1292) sp: The Chaste MIESZKO Boleslaw V-37413 (c.1243;d.1279) 3. Istvan Duke Slavonia ARPAD-97518 (b.1235) sp: Of Este ESTE Beatrice wife3-113594 3. Yolanda Violante ARPAD Of Hungary-1218 sp: Beatrice wife3 ESTE Of Este-155806 (d.1245) 3. Stephen Duke Slavonia ARPAD Of Hungary-124178 (c.1236;d.1271) sp: Thomasina wife2 MOROSINI of Venice-80074 (d.1300) 4. Andrew Andrew III ARPAD Of Hungary-10460 (c.1290;d.1301) sp: Fennena Kujavski BREST wife1-93224 sp: Agnes OSTERREICH Of Austria-144857 sp: Of Courtenay CAPET Yolande wife2-141134 (b.1198;m.1215;d.1233) 3. ARPAD Maria-94450 sp: King Bulgaria Ivan Asen Ivan II VATATZES King Bulgaria-144991 (d.1241) 4. Helena of Bulgaria VATATZES wife1-96373 sp: Lascaris VATATZES Theodore Theodore II-96676 (d.1258) 3. Of Hungary ARPAD Violante Yolande Jolan-108781 (b.1219;d.1251) sp: King Aragon, Count Barcelona BORRELL James James I Jaime-112506 (b.1208;m.1235;d.1276) 4. Peter Peter III Pedro III BORELL King Aragon-137556 (b.1239;d.1285) sp: Constance Constanza Constantia HOHENSTAUFER-146874 (m.1262;d.1302) sp: Isabelle de Sabran SABRAN-86641 (b.1297;d.1315) 4. Jaime Fernandez Baron Ejerica BORELL-54424 (b.1255/1260;d.1285) sp: Miss NOTKNOWN-86670 sp: Miss NOTKNOWN-153024 sp: Miss NOTKNOWN-80326 4. Of Majorca BORELL James James II-110139 (b.1243;d.1311) sp: FOIX Esclaramunde de Foix-96260 (m.1272;d.1299) 4. Constanza Infante Manuel BORELL-85986 (b.1239;d.1269) sp: Soria CASTILE-130025 (c.1260) 4. BORELL Violante-50355 (b.1236;d.1300/1301) sp: King Castile, King Leon CAPET Alfonso Alfonso X-45225 (b.23 Nov 1221;m.1248;d.4 Apr 1284) 4. Sancho Crusader BORELL-32510 (d.1251) 4. Princess Aragon BORELL Isabella-98726 (b.1247;d.1271) sp: King France, The Bold CAPET-VALOIS Philip III Philippe III-83157 (b.1245;m.28 May 1262;d.1285) sp: Emperor Constantinople CAPET Peter II-88135 (b.1126;d.1182) 3. ARPAD Elizabeth-153756 (b.1207;d.1231) sp: THURINGIA Ludwig IV-152556 (d.1227) 2. Of Montferrat, Hungary ARPAD Margareta Maria Margaret-121196 (b.1175;d.1223) sp: King Salonica, Thessalonika, Crusader MONTFERRAT Boniface-139833 (c.1200;d.1207) 3. King Thessaly, deposed MONTFERRAT Demetrius of Thessalonica-156946 (d.1230) sp: OMER Nicholas Nicholas I St Omer-70457 (c.1204;d.1217/1219) 3. William Guillaume St Omer OMER-66428 (c.1256) sp: Pernel De Lacy LACY-103644 3. Bela St Omer Lord Thebes OMER Angelus-148338 (c.1240) sp: Bonne de la Roche ROCHE-62945 (c.1219;m.1220) 4. Bailli Morea, Lord Thebes OMER Nicholas St Omer Lord Thebes-42791 (d.1294) sp: Princess Antioch DE CONTEVILLE Marie de Poitiers-79820 (c.1260) sp: Agnes Anna Comnena ANGELUS Dukaina-92945 (d.1286) 4. Othon St Omer OMER-58401 (d.1299) sp: Margherita VERONA Of Verona-89149 4. Jean St Omer Marshal Morea OMER Baron Passava-114068 (c.1278;d.1280) sp: Marguerite Hostage NEUILLY-90427 sp: Byzantine Emperor, dethroned ANGELUS Isaac Isaac II-89903 (b.1155;d.1204) 3. Empress ANGELUS Irene Angelina Maria-112478 (b.1172;d.27 Aug 1208) sp: Holy Roman Emperor, King Romans HOHENSTAUFER Philip-80768 (b.1176/1177;m.1197;d.1208) 4. Wife1 Beatrix I Of Swabia HOHENSTAUFER wife1-122736 (b.1198;d.1212) sp: Holy Roman Emperor HOHENSTAUFER Otto Otto IV-91839 (b.1177;d.1218) 4. Cunigonde HOHENSTAUFER-59873 (b.1200;d.1248) sp: Wenceslaus Wenceslaus I PREMSYL King Bohemia-62056 (b.1205;m.1224;d.22 Sep 1253) 4. Princess Swabia Maria Princess of HOHENSTAUFER Swabia-60446 (b.1201;d.1235) sp: Duke Brabant BRABANT Henry II-158376 (b.1180;d.1 Feb 1247) 4. Elisabeth Beatrix2 The Younger HOHENSTAUFER Elizabeth-94078 (b.1202;d.30 Nov 1235) sp: Saint, King Castile, King Leon CAPET Ferdinand Ferdinand III-153908 (b.5 Aug 1201;d.1252) 3. Demetrios Thessalonica King of ANGELUS-90883 (b.1205;d.1235/1239) 3. Constance ANGELUS-63807 (b.1180;d.1240) sp: Ottocar I PREMSYL King Bohemia-30417 (d.1230) 3. Bela St Omer Lord Thebes ANGELUS-79147 (c.1240) sp: Bonne NOTKNOWN-148068 (m.1220) 3. Byzantine Emperor ANGELUS Alexius Alexius V Mourtzouphlas-94230 (b.1182;d.1204) sp: ANGELUS Eudocia-48672 3. William St Omer ANGELUS-92332 sp: Pernel De Lacy LACY-103644 3. Miss Miss2 ANGELUS-108605 sp: Stephen Milutin NEMANYICH King Serbia-89425 (b.1281;d.1321) sp: Wife1 COMNENA Maria-135412

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