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Merchants logo gif - 9347 BytesMerchants and Bankers Listings 2009

1980-1990


Trade - an international perspective

This Merchants and Bankers Listings website is years old and is now (from 2009) undergoing a marked identity change. Its timeline material on economic history (for 1560-1930) is being moved to a website managed by Ken Cozens and Dan Byrnes, The Merchant Networks Project. This will empty many of this website's pages which have always been in series. In due course, Merchants and Bankers Listings will carry information from the Crusades on the early development of what became “capitalism” in Europe to 1560 or so. As well as a conglomeration of data on modern developments, mostly on modern/technical industry, computing, and for the future, today's climate change problems. The editor's view is that in the context of climate change, the views of Merchants and Bankers (and Economists, politicians), the keepers of matters economic, are due for a considerable shake-up. If this website can encourage the shake-up, and help inform it reliably, well and good. -Ed

"Computers are useless. They can only give answers." - Pablo Picasso


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1980: US, China, Saudi Arabia and Iran back Afghanistan Muslim mujaheddin against the Soviets.

1980: 5 September, Opening of the longest tunnel in the world, the 16km St Gotthard road tunnel, Switzerland.

24 September, 1980: Iraqi tanks invade Iran.

29 July, 1980: The former Shah of Iran is dead, of cancer, aged 60, after a seven-year battle with cancer.

28 April, 1980: Disastrous US attempt to rescue hostages in Iran

1980: US, Iran, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and China back the local Afghanistan mujaheddin (holy warriors) against the Soviets.

Computing history: 1980s, Speakers now appear fitted to computers for sound usages.

Computing history: 1980, December, Apple Computers is worth approx $1.8 billion. Appearance of Softcard. Re Gates developing a BASIC program for Atari computers run by Ray Kassar, to assist with developing video games. Atari computers taking advantage of inattention by Fairlight, an Australian company, later became popular with musicians using MIDI, taking much of the market.


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Computing history: 1980, Microsoft explores use of UNIX. Microsoft licences DOS to IBM which now enters the desktop computer market.

Computing history: 1980: Due to a policy rethink by IBM, beginning of "the open architecture revolution" in the use of software applications for the personal computer market.

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1981: Year of the first US space shuttle flight.

1981: AIDS is identified; and IBM introduces the personal computer.

1 April 1981: US President Ronald Reagan is shot: assassination attempt.

Space: 13 April 1981, "world's first real spaceship" is launched.

14 May 1981: Pope John Paul II shot. Two bullets hit him.

30 July 1981: Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer.

7 October 1981: Egyptian President Anwar Sadat assassinated in Cairo.

1980: Microsoft explores use of UNIX. Microsoft licences DOS to IBM which now enters the desktop computer market.

1980: (Sinclair, p. 168), Due to a policy rethink by IBM, beginning of "the open architecture revolution" in the use of software applications for the personal computer market.

1980s, Speakers now appear fitted to computers for sound usages, (Sinclair p. 1).

1980: December, Apple Computers is worth approx $1.8 billion. Appearance of Softcard, p. 158. See p. 164, re Gates developing a BASIC program for Atari computers run by Ray Kassar, to assist with developing video games. Atari computers taking advantage of inattention by Fairlight, an Australian company, later became popular with musicians using MIDI, taking much of the market.

Computing history: 1981: Xerox, PARC and GUI, a development Xerox later dropped/ignored.

Computing history: 1981, Microsoft became licensed for $25,000 to use Seattle Computer Products' 86-DOS (for 16-bit work), the first version of "DOS", with their suppliers unaware that Microsoft was programming for IBM, and prepared to sub-licence the use of DOS to IBM for $15,000. Microsoft was still unsure it could get 86-DOS to run on the prototype IBM machines.

Computing history: In 1981, Microsoft paid only $50,000 for all DOS rights from Seattle Computers, which it then relicenced back to Seattle Computers for their use. Gates could soon say DOS will be the foundation of the PC industry, that DOS is now already on 60 million personal computers.

Computing history: 1981, 12 August, IBM released its new personal computer, with no software developed by IBM. The computer market was never the same.

Computing history: 1981, Development of first hard disk, re IBM XT computer, for 1983 release.

Computing history: 1981, p. 251, Development of Apple's Macintosh computer. GUI, Gates by 1982 decides to compete on a GUI basis.

Computing history: 1981, p. 215, Development of technology enabling users to write data to both sides of a floppy disk.

1981: MS-DOS operating system is integrated into the IBM PC.

1981: (see Sinclair after p. 218), Xerox, PARC and GUI, a development Xerox later dropped/ignored.

1981: Microsoft became licensed for $25,000 to use Seattle Computer Products? 86-DOS (for 16-bit work), the first version of "DOS", with their suppliers unaware that Microsoft was programming for IBM, and prepared to sub-licence the use of DOS to IBM for $15,000. Microsoft was still unsure it could get 86-DOS to run on the prototype IBM machines. See p. 195. See p 202, in 1981, Microsoft paid only $50,000 for all DOS rights from Seattle Computers, which it then relicenced back to Seattle Computers for their use. Gates could soon say DOS will be the foundation of the PC industry, that DOS is now already on 60 million personal computers.

1981: Development of first hard disk, re IBM XT computer, for 1983 release.

1981: (Sinclair, p. 251), Development of Apple?s Macintosh computer. GUI, Gates by 1982 decides to compete on a GUI basis.

1981: (Sinclair, p. 215), Development of technology enabling users to write data to both sides of a floppy disk.

1982-1983: The Internet becomes a reality when the ARPANET is split into military and civilian sections.

1982: The first laptop computer, the Tandy TRS-80 Model 100, is produced in the US.

12 August 1981: 12 August, IBM releases its new personal computer (PC), with no software developed by IBM. The computer market is never the same. In 1981, the first portable computer is released by Osborne.

1982-1987: Japan: Nakasone Government 80's - highest rates of longevity

1982: International Whaling Commission votes for a total ban on commercial whaling to take effect in 1985.

1982: Israel invades Lebanon and occupies much of the country up to Beirut, which is subjected to prolonged siege. The US brokers a withdrawal of PLO fighters and Arafat's staff to Tunis. After the massacre of unarmed Palestinians in the Sabra and Shatilla refugee camps, US troops return as part of a peace-keeping force but soon begin to favor some Lebanese groups and attack others. Lebanese resistance groups in the Shi'ite community attack Israeli, US and Western forces and organizations.

16 June 1982: Falklands War is over.

Computing history 1982, November 1982, Lotus introduces spreadsheet, 1-2-3.

1982: November 1982, Lotus introduces spreadsheet, 1-2-3.

1982: The development of GSM begins when the Conference of European Posts and Telegraphs (CEPT) forms a study group called Groupe Special Mobile (the initial meaning of GSM). Their charter is to develop a pan-European public cellular system in the range 900 MHz.

14 March, 1983: OPEC cuts its oil price for the first time in its 23-year history.

1983: Microsoft establishes Microsoft Press. Journalists cynical about Gates? non-appearing products coin term, "vaporware". Appearance of Lisa computer. First IBM "clones" begin to appear. Concept of "IBM compatibility" a triumph for the applications industry. Some views on the concept of the laptop computer.

1983: (Sinclair, p. 238), Microsoft releases multi-screen software Microsoft Word, which has cross-platform GUI features, developed by Charles Simyoni, who also developed the computer mouse. Simyoni had earlier worked at Xerox PARC, the operation which developed GUI, then ignored it, and left it to Apple to work on. Simyoni's work helped usher in the next-generation of software, in a pre-Windows environment. Appearance of laser printer technology, then Microsoft moves to Windows, two years' work. The release of Windows will have a promotional budget of $3.5 million.

1983: Richard Stallman creates the General Public License. (GPL). (Part of the Linux story)

1983: 1 July: President Nixon creates the DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration) under the Justice Dept. to consolidate virtually all federal powers of drug enforcement in a single agency.
From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth Simon and Schuster, Ltd., 1996. e-mail info@opioids.com

Computing history: 1983, Microsoft establishes Microsoft Press. Journalists cynical about Gates' non-appearing products coin term, "vaporware". Appearance of Lisa computer. First IBM "clones" begin to appear. Concept of "IBM compatibility" a triumph for the applications industry. Some views on the concept of the laptop computer.

Computing history: 1983, Microsoft releases multi-screen Microsoft Word, which has cross-platform GUI features, developed by Charles Simyoni, who also developed the mouse. Simyoni had earlier worked at Xerox PARC, the operation which developed GUI, then ignored it, and left it to Apple to work on. Simyoni's work helped usher in the next-generation of software, in a pre-Windows environment. Appearance of laser printer technology, then Microsoft moves to Windows, two years' work. Windows will have a promotional budget of $3.5 million.

1984: US troops leave Lebanon after a bomb kills 24l Marines.

1984: 13 September: US State Department officials conclude, after more than a decade of crop substitution programs for Third World growers of marijuana, coca or opium poppies, that the tactic cannot work without eradication of the plants and criminal enforcement. Poor results are reported from eradication programs in Burma, Pakistan, Mexico and Peru.
From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth Simon and Schuster, Ltd., 1996. e-mail info@opioids.com

1 November 1984: Indira Ghandi assassinated by her Sikh guard

6 December 1984: Bhopal: Indian fury over killer gas problem from a factory.

Computing history: 1984, p. 257, Macintosh computer released, pp. 257-268, with some features, eg., a calculator actually developed by Microsoft.

Computing history: 1984, Gates is seen as "the new Steve Jobs", Jobs being one of the garage-creators of Apple. Appearance of Turbo-Pascal.

Computing history: By mid-1984, Apple/Macintosh works on ideas for more "seamless" forms of application, "the integrated software package".

1984: (Sinclair, p. 257), Macintosh computer released, pp. 257-268, with some features, eg., a calculator actually developed by Microsoft.

1984: Bill Gates of Microsoft is seen as "the new Steve Jobs", Jobs being one of the garage-creators of Apple. Appearance of Turbo-Pascal. By mid-1984, Apple/Macintosh works on ideas for more "seamless" forms of application, "the integrated software package".

1985: Spain re-opens the border with Gibraltar, ending a 16-year siege imposed by General Franco.

1985: Hussein-Arafat Accords and UN speech by Israeli Foreign Minister Peres endorse an international conference to negotiate a settlement.

1985: First major international conference on the greenhouse effect at Villach, Austria, warns that greenhouse gases will "in the first half of the next century, cause a rise of global mean temperature which is greater than any in man's history". This could cause sea levels to rise by up to a metre, researchers say. Conference also reports that gases other than CO2, such as methane, ozone, CFCs and nitrous oxide, will also contribute to warming. (Greenhouse Timeline)

1985: Discovery of the global hole-in-the-ozone-layer problem, particularly over Antarctica.

16 November 1985: Italy: Women in Naples sick of The Mob, ie The Mafia, begin to take things into their own hands.

Computing history: 1985, 21 November, 1985, Microsoft releases Windows and receives The Golden Vaporware Award from journalists. The software is not good until Windows 3.0. There are claims that Windows had unfairly utilised some Macintosh ideas. Legal action follows, the claims are true enough.

1985: Microsoft's first release of the Windows graphical user interface.

1985: 21 November, 1985: Microsoft releases Windows and receives The Golden Vaporware Award from journalists. The software is not good until Windows 3.0. There are claims that Windows had unfairly utilised some Macintosh ideas. Legal action follows, the claims are true enough.

1986: Space shuttle Challenger explodes after liftoff from Cape Canaveral, Florida, killing its seven crew members.

1986 - Tokyo Summit (12th Economic Summit Conference)

30 April 1986: Meltdown at Chernobyl in Soviet Union.


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26 February 1986: President Ferdinand Marcos flees Philippines, Cory Aquino in power.

Computing history: 1986, March. Microsoft goes public on New York Stock Exchange. Gates becomes youngest-ever US billionaire.

Computing history: Late 1986, Development of OS/2, which the industry later does not like.

1986: March. Microsoft goes public on New York Stock Exchange. Gates becomes youngest-ever US billionaire. Late 1986, Development of OS/2, which the industry later does not like.

1987: USSR: Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev calls for sweeping changes in Russian economy before year's end.

1987: The Palestinian Intifada (uprising) against Israeli control begins in the Occupied Territories.

October 1987: Amazing stock exchange crashes in the Western World.

1987: Apple sets up Claris Corporation. Autumn, Microsoft releases OS/2 to mixed reviews. 1988, OS/2 is shipped by Microsoft, seen as too expensive, DOS retains user loyalty.

1987: Warmest year on record. The 1980s turn out to be the warmest decade, with seven of the eight warmest years recorded up to 1990. Even the coldest years in the 1980s were warmer than the warmest years of the 1880s. (Greenhouse Timeline)

1987: By 1987 the geochemist Wallace Broecker, of Columbia University, was piecing together the paleoclimatic flip-flops with the salt-circulation story and warning that small nudges to our climate might produce "unpleasant surprises in the greenhouse." (Greenhouse Timeline)
William H. Calvin, The Great Climate Flip-Flop, The Atlantic Monthly, January 1998, Volume 281, No. 1, pp. 47-64.

Computing history: 1987, Apple sets up Claris Corporation. Autumn, Microsoft releases OS/2 to mixed reviews.

1988: Global warming attracts worldwide headlines after scientists at Congressional hearings in Washington DC blame major US drought on its influence. Meeting of climate scientists in Toronto subsequently calls for 20 per cent cuts in global CO2 emissions by the year 2005. UN sets up the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to analyse and report on scientific findings. (Greenhouse Timeline)

1988: Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev pulls troops out of Afghanistan. More than one million Afghanis and 50,000 Russians have died during the nine years of Russian occupation.

1988 and later - International money market trader, George Soros, is on trial in Paris, France accused of insider trading. It is alleged that in 1988, he bought and sold in the French Bank, Societe Generale at a time when a financial scandal was in play.

1988: Jordan repudiates its claim to the West Bank; Abu Jihad (PLO's Number 2 leader) is assassinated by an Israeli hit team; the PLO recognizes Israel, proclaims a Palestinian state, renounces terrorism, and calls for negotiations; as a result of the Israeli election Yitzhak Shamir returns as prime minister.

1988: Opium production in Burma increases under the rule of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC), the Burmese junta regime. The single largest heroin seizure is made in Bangkok. The U.S. suspects that the 2,400-pound shipment of heroin, en route to New York City, originated from the Golden Triangle region, controlled by drug warlord, Khun Sa.
From website based on book: Opium: A History, by Martin Booth Simon and Schuster, Ltd., 1996. e-mail info@opioids.com

1988: USSR leader Mikhail Gorbachev pulls his troops out of Afghanistan. Estimated casualties: 1 million Afghanis and 50,000 Russians.

1988 March: Apple sues Microsoft, p. 352. Apple about now is, p. 353, the world?s second largest computer company. Leader of Apple is Sculley, who took over from Steve Jobs.

1988: AS3563, the world's first Software Quality Management Standard, is developed in Australia and adopted by the IEEE.

1987-89: Japan: Takeshita Government

Computing history: 1988, OS/2 is shipped by Microsoft, seen as too expensive, DOS retains user loyalty.

Computing history: 1988 March, Apple sues Microsoft, p. 352. Apple about now is, p. 353, the world's second largest computer company. Leader of Apple is Sculley, who took over from Steve Jobs.

1988: US Congress enacts law against digital piracy, but by May 2004 one congressman feels the law went to far, disadvantaging libraries wanting to archive material, and is against traditional US views on "fair use", ie, personal/non-commercial use. (Sydney Morning Herald of May 2004)

1989: European Union bans use of growth hormones as widely used by American farmers.

1989: Japan: Emperor Hirohito dies in January; Heisei Period starts, Emperor Heisei (Akihito)

1989: Japan: Uno Sosuke Government resigns over sex scandal.

1989: Iran-Iraq War ends.

1989: Muslim separatists launch struggle against Indian rule in Kashmir.

1989-1991: Japan: Kaifu Toshiki Government

May 1989: The Internet reaches Australia via a 56K satellite link. From the University of Hawaii to University of Melbourne. Other universities and the CSIRO were soon linked. The Australian Academic and Research Network (AARNet) was set up in early 1990. In 1999, "The Internet" turned 30. Instrumental in its birth in 1990 was Tim-Berners-Lee: See book by Robert H. Reid, Architects of the Web. Check Website: www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee

Computing history: 1989, October, p. 385, LAN Manager (for local area networks) is introduced by 3COM, to compete with Netware.

1990: A MacDonald's restaurant opens in Moscow, Russia.

1989: October, (Sinclair, p. 385), LAN Manager (for local area networks) is introduced by 3COM, to compete with Netware.

1989: Australia enters the information age with the nation's first Internet connection through MUNARRI at Melbourne University.

May 1989: The Internet reaches Australia via a 56K satellite link. From the University of Hawaii to University of Melbourne. Other universities and the CSIRO were soon linked. The Australian Academic and Research Network (AARNet) was set up in early 1990. In 1999, "The Internet" turned 30. Instrumental in its birth in 1990 was Tim-Berners-Lee: See book by Robert H. Reid, Architects of the Web. Check Website: http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee

Below are items still uncollected

1981: Birth of the IBM 5150 computer, the original IBM Personal Computer. Bill Gates had been contracted to supply the operating system (known as DOS). The 5150 was superseded in 1983 by the PC XT, which sold 500,000 in the first three months of its release.

14 March 1983: OPEC cuts its oil price for the first time in its 23-year history.

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