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This page updated 29 January 2010
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News in July 2006: The history websites on this domain now have a companion website, and an updating website as well, on a new domain, at Merchant Networks Project, produced by Dan Byrnes and Ken Cozens (of London).
This new website (it is hoped) will become a major exercise in economic and maritime history, with much attention to London/British Empire and some attention to Sydney, Australia.
Who owned the convict ships?
(As listed in Charles Bateson's book, The Convict Ships )
The information in this file is placed on the Internet as part of an effort to find a better way to talk about notable persons in Britain who had an influence on the economic and/or other development of Australasia from 1800-1850, prior to the gold rushes.
This is particularly in view of the question: who owned the convict ships bringing 160,000 convicts to Australia?
Increasingly, pursuing this topic, we can only say, the names to be mentioned help form an increasingly complicated labyrinth of associations - which ends in lists of names who acted in concert as members of organisations with stated aims. Each individual name could be annotated separately in order to indicate who comes from where, what their motives were for action.
Often, one has to pursue genealogical byways in order to bear down on the names which originally seemed significant. In particular, this file as it refers to the Pattles (http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~pattle - possibly a broken link?) figures from Anglo-India, utilises information on them in order mostly to point to the Stephen family, who had members who were influential both in New South Wales in the legal profession, and at the Colonial Office.
It also so happens that the genealogy of the surnames Pattle and
Stephen intersect in terms of present-day discussion of the circle
of the writer Virginia Woolf, and the Bloomsbury group.
(For more in these respects on Virginia Woolf and the Bloomsbury group, see selected pages online at (broken link?): http://members.ozemail.com.au/~chaselin - (Stephen and Co., Booksellers)
Also, in ways, with the circle of the novelist, William Makepeace Thackeray.
These literary associations however are peripheral to answering the main question above, and so to speak have to be swept aside as the way is found to harder information.
Generally, the name Pattle as traced
here becomes a minor name in the general history of Anglo-Indian
trade 1760-1830. Pattles were "in the service of the East India
Company", but the family name does not figure large in commercial
history at all, though some of the Pattle associates did figure
large. (Such as Charles Magniac, of the firm which became
Jardine-Matheson based at Hong Kong). Nevertheless, the name Pattle
has achieved some notice in Nineteenth Century English life due to
"the seven beautiful Pattle sisters". It so happens that
firmer information on the lives of all these Pattle women - and
their families - does a great deal to fill out what had earlier
been almost horrifying gaps in information available on the lives
of various people who did have an influence of some kind on
Dan Byrnes, January-April 2000.
After the American Revolution, in the later 1780s, Henry Dundas (first Viscount Melville, 1742-1811) as a government minister, and as a senior Scottish politician, worked at the level of policy on the management of the East India Company to promote the installation of more talented young Scotsmen in Company operations in the East, especially in India. Orchestrating this policy coincided with other operations, including the establishment of a convict colony at New South Wales, (Sydney, Australia), from 1786-1788. With the movement of British whalers, then sealers, into the Pacific. With British conflict with the French over India interests. With moves by American merchants into East India and Chinese trade, followed by the entry of United States whalers in the Pacific. With British conflict with the Spanish at Nootka Sound on the West Canadian coast over seal fur destined to be sold at Canton.
One result of Dundas' policy was the projection of Scottish family linkages more deeply into Imperial affairs, whether military and expansive, or in commercial affairs where a search for greater cohesion was noticeable. This makes the study of Scottish family histories extremely valuable in tracing the family histories of non-Scottish families as well - which can be noted especially with Australian colonial history. As people - and their money - moved about the British Empire of the Nineteenth Century, to Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the United States, extended families became "extended geographically". Today, we can complain that family histories (as we now find them), as influenced by this general trend; they tend to ramble considerably. Records are far-flung, it is difficult to keep track of multiple trends in social and economic development in the more distant reaches of the British Empire, and so on.
However, members of Scottish families, more so those who did well out of working for British Imperial interests, and also due to the way they intermarried chiefly with British stock, can be easy to trace because of the Scots tendency to "clannishness", to stay close to what they viewed as their own. This article is based on the value of these observations. With family histories, the use of this approach, if pursued methodically, will benefit also from information gained from economic history, maritime history, the history of the application of new technology.
The point can be illustrated within British Imperial history, generally, by reference to some notable families, some with a Scottish background. Such as that of the historian, Thomas Babington Macaulay, who spent time in India. Robert Campbell (1769-1846), from Greenock, Scotland, of Campbell's Wharf, Sydney, one of Sydney's most productive merchants, who had been preceded in India by his less-known merchant brother, John. The New Zealand merchant, John Logan Campbell (1817-1912) (no relation to Robert Campbell of Sydney or Duncan Campbell the hulks overseer). By reference to the family of Duncan Campbell, (1726-1803), the overseer of the Thames River Prison Hulks, who had many relatives on Jamaica during his lifetime; some of his progeny spent time in India. Given Duncan Campbell's commercial career, and the careers of his relatives, one suspects that his descendants would not have spent time in India, or dealing in Eastern trade, if Britain had won the American War of Independence. The outcomes of the American Revolution had the effect of putting a centrifugal kind of spin on many family histories as opportunities and income sources changed markedly. (This certainly showed in the history of hulks overseer Duncan Campbell's extended family.)
George Fife Angas (1789-1859), financier, promoter of the colonisation of South Australia, and a settler there, was a Scot notable in Australasian history. If such family histories are elaborated, it is impossible to ignore trends in British Imperial development which may be taken as a vindication of Dundas' original 1780s policy of promoting Scots initiative in the context of changing Imperial fortunes, opportunities and theatres of action. Two things can be noted about here about Dundas' policy...
(a) Historians of the politics of his day, or, of the East India Company, still confess to a sense of mystery as to how he arrived at his policy, and seem not to know whom he conferred with about it. One might feel that Dundas simply had great confidence in the likely outcomes of the Scottish Enlightenment that had spread since the union of Scotland with England in 1708.
(b) This may all be the case, but to date, family historians, and indeed, historians using family history for purposes of illuminating other sorts of histories, have tended to be blinkered about the use of family history by the way they reference the high-points of history, generally.
Emphasis on the connections of family members with the hero of some military encounter, a famous admiral or politician, a notable writer, a successful exercise in colonisation, can deflect both amateurs and professional historians from gathering more of the often far-flung facts that successful family history requires. The particular value of at least beginning with Scottish-based family histories is that the information gathered becomes very cohesive and indicates validly how many individual families intermarried. Here, a question can be asked: what happens if connections are gathered into sets, and the sets bestride "history" in some unexpected ways? What happens to the high points of history? Are any new realisations possible?
An excellent example of the way notable and non-notable family histories can ramble arises with the case of the background of the English writer Virginia Woolf, nee Stephen. (1882-1941).
A talented writer, though suffering from bipolar disorder, and with a disturbed family background, it is said, due to sexual abuse in her youth, Virginia Woolf finally suicided. The Stephen family from which she came was, as noted, originally from Aberdeenshire, and male members later shone in the legal profession in both Britain and in New South Wales Australia. Sir James Stephen (1789-1859) was at the Colonial Office, and Virginia's father Sir Leslie (1832-1904), edited the English Dictionary of National Biography. The Stephens were a family however which seemed to leave its Scots heritage behind, at least as far as folkways are concerned.
One of Virginia's forebears has become notorious, James Pattle
(1775-1845). In noting what happened to Pattle after he died,
Virginia helped to firm a tradition of citation which has been less
than helpful in widening the curiosities of researchers in family
history. The tale is bizarre and needs to be commented liberally.
James Pattle Judge High Court Appeal, born 31 December 1775, at
Beauleah, Bengal, died in 1845 at Calcutta, the son of a director
of the East India Company, 1787-1795 Thomas Pattle, and his wife,
Sarah Haslesby. James married Adeline De L'Tang. As Virginia Woolf
wrote, James Pattle's body is said to have been sealed in a cask of
rum for transport for his burial for "family reasons" at Camberwell
in London. He wished to be buried besides his mother.
(Some of this information comes from reports on a talk by Prof Joan Stevens as noted below).
James Pattle's father applied for a Bengal cadet writership for him in 1791 after his education by Daniel Duff, writer (lawyer), MA of Battersea. Pattle became a senior member in India of the Board of Revenue and a judge of the Court of Appeal at Mursedabad. With 53 years' service, Pattle became "one of the longest-serving East India Company men". He began his service in 1792 in Bengal, where he'd been born, as a writer before moving to other legal posts. At one time he lived in Garden Reach overlooking the Hooghly River. James Pattle was known as "a drunkard and a liar", renowned for extravagant wickedness, known as "King of Liars", or "Jim Blazes". By repute, he drank himself to death by 1845. A story has been told, "VIRGINIA WOOLF AND THE CASK OF RUM" by Prof. Joan Stevens, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand.
"In my last talk, I traced the connections between Edward Jerningham Wakefield, son of Gibbon Wakefield, and various families who had served with the old East India Company at the end of the eighteenth century. One of these was the family to which his mother belonged, Pattle. Jerningham Wakefield's grandfather was Thomas Charles Pattle. Now Thomas had a brother, James, who had seven beautiful daughters. James Pattle had married a French girl, daughter of the Chevalier de L'Etang, one of Queen Marie Antoinette's pages. After the Queen's execution, he and his young wife were banished. They went to British India, where their one daughter married James Pattle. All the family became friends of the Thackerays, with whom there remained ties for the rest of their lives. As a young man in London in the 1830s and 1840s, the novelist William Thackeray was constantly in Pattle company, while he and his parents when in France kept up with old Madame de L'Etang in her widowhood, as well as with her daughter Mrs. James Pattle. As for the Pattle daughters, "they possessed", as a descendant, wrote "great beauty and vivid personality".
"However, before I tell you tales of the seven beautiful daughters, I must say more about their father. James Pattle, nicknamed "Jim Blazes".
"Let me quote, first, the words of his great grandchild Virginia Woolf. "He was a gentleman of marked, but doubtful reputation who, after living a riotous life and earning the title of "the biggest liar in India", finally drank himself to death and was consigned to a cask of rum to await shipment to England." Here I interpolate, that the reason for the cast of rum was a bet. The cask story is best told in the breathless prose of young Kate Stanley, later to be the mother of Bertrand Russell, in a letter of 1860, where she repeats what she was just heard at Mrs. Carlyle's. As both accounts are needed to give you the picture, I shall thread them together. Here is young Kate, then. "Mr. Pattle once made a bet with a man that he would be buried in England - he lived in India - it was for £100, and this man said he would never live to go back to England. Mr. Pattle did die in India but, in his will, he said he only left his fortune to his wife on condition he was buried in England in the Churchyard he named -- so though it was very inconvenient -- Mrs. Pattle was obliged to go to the trouble and expense of doing it or else she could not have the fortune, so Mr. Pattle was put in a cask with spirits to preserve him and embalmed.
"Here I must pause, to return to Virginia Woolf's narrative. She, at least, uses commas... "The cask was stood outside the widow's bedroom door", she writes, "In the middle of the night, Mrs. Pattle heard a violent explosion, rushed out; and found her husband, having burst the lid of his coffin, bolt upright, menacing her in death as he had menaced her in life." They put the cask on a ship for England but, when the sailors found out what was in it, says Kate Stanley, they "positively refused to go on with it and said they would throw it overboard or come back to Calcutta; so, as the Captain thought Mrs. Pattle would rather not have it thrown overboard, he had brought it back to her."
"Mrs. Pattle then chartered a ship herself, but this too returned, baffled by a "great storm of thunder and lightning". Next, she put the cask inside a large wooden case and tried a third time. Ill with nervous strain, quite understandably, she then went to the seaside for a holiday. I quote young Kate Stanley again. "When she had been there two days, a frightful storm arose. Wind and rain and thunder, and the sea was in a great state; and a ship near the shore was in great distress. It struck and was quite wrecked, and every soul on board perished. What next morning, among the debris, should Mrs. Pattle find washed on shore to the foot of her house but a large case at once recognized as Mr. Pattle's tomb. So the cask was again taken out and put in a spare room in their house. Soon after, in the middle of the night, a great noise was heard as if the roof was coming down. Mrs. Pattle, running upstairs with the key of the room where Mr. Pattle was kept, opened it; and what should she see but the cask lid off and Mr. Pattle sitting up in the cask half out like a jack-in-the-box. She was so frightened, she fell ill and they gave up sending Mr. Pattle to England. The gas had generated and burst the cask."
"Well, it's a wonderful story, you'll agree. Virginia Woolf summed it all up by reporting "That Pattle had been such a scamp, the devil wouldn't let him go out of India." If James Pattle brought a liar's imagination and unconquerable vitality to the marriage, his French wife brought great beauty, which all the daughters but one inherited. Let me now tell you more about them. Remember, they are the cousins of Eliza Pattle, the wife of Edward Gibbon Wakefield. The eldest was Mia, who married Dr. John Jackson. Her daughter, Julia Jackson, married Herbert Duckworth, publisher. He died, however, and she married again, taking as her second husband the author, Leslie Stephen. For Stephen, too, it was a second marriage; his first being to Harriet, younger daughter of William Thackeray; their child, little Laura Stephen, died young -- or what would she have done with her inheritance?
"Stephen's second marriage, however, to Mrs. Julia Duckworth, grandchild of James Pattle, produced its own brand of genius. For there were four children, all noted in their day. The most brilliant, Virginia, married Leonard Woolf, and is known to you all as Virginia Woolf. If you've been able to keep my family tree in your head, you'll have worked it out that Virginia Woolf's mother, Julia Jackson-Duckworth-Stephen, and Edward Jerningham Wakefield, son of Gibbon Wakefield by Eliza Pattle, were second cousins. The next of James Pattle's lovely daughters, Sarah, married Henry Prinsep, a wealthy Indian merchant who returned to London in 1843. Her house was always open to Thackeray, who was a constant visitor. His letters and diaries record many delightful meetings there with the Pattle girls, as he called them.
"Then there was Julia Pattle, who married Charles Cameron, an important Indian official; she was the only plain sister, but she made up for it by her picturesque behaviour, especially in middle life, when she became one of the pioneers of portrait photography. Together with Mrs. Prinsep who, by the 1860s, had the painters, Watts and Burne Jones, and who knows others besides, living in her menage at Little Holland House in London. Julia netted for her camera most of the celebrities of the day. Julia Cameron's story, which is delightful, I cannot cover here; but you will find it in all its vitality in her volume, called Victorian Photographs, which has the introduction by her niece, Virginia Woolf, from which I have been quoting. If you still believe that the Victorians were conventional, have a look at this book.
"Then there was the youngest Pattle girl, Virginia, Thackeray's favourite, who was so strikingly beautiful that she used to be mobbed in the London streets. All through the 1840s, Thackeray commented on her loveliness, whenever he met her at the Prinseps or elsewhere. His admiration culminated in an article in Punch, "On a good looking young lady", in 1850. Her wedding to Charles, Viscount Eastnor, later 3rd Earl Somers, in October 1850, was one of the brilliant occasions of the time. "She looked beautiful" wrote Thackeray "and has taken possession of Eastnor Castle and her rank as Princess, and reigns to the delight of everybody."
The above anecdote, with its mentions of various people who
remained in association for family reasons if no other, could well
be cross-referenced, as follows.
It ought to be that Thomas, Judge James Pattle's father, as an East India Company director from 1787, had views on the opening up of the Pacific Ocean to British shipping by virtue of the establishment of a convict colony at Sydney. From 1787, an increasingly influential Company investor was the banker Francis Baring, who has chairman of the Company in the 1790s who took a dim view of London-based whalers operating in the Pacific, perhaps engaging in trade illicit from the Company point of view. Too-little is known of Baring's view here, or the views of his associates.
In 1789 the Directors of the East India Company were: Chairman: Nathaniel Smith; Deputy-chair, John Michie. William Bensley, Thomas Cheap, Lionel Darrell, Thos. Fitzhugh, Stephen Lushington, James Moffatt, Thomas Pattle, John Roberts, Joseph Sparkes, Robert Thornton, John Travers, Jacob Bosanquet, William Devaynes, William Elphinstone, John Hunter, Charles Mills, Thomas Perry, Abraham Robarts, John Smith, George Tatem, John Townton, John Woodhouse. Secretary, Thomas Morton. Deputy-secretary, William Ramsay. Of these men, some are notable for their association with the terms of "the Botany Bay debate" on the reasons Britain established a convict colony at Sydney from 1788.
None of the Pattles had forebears who had connections with moves to establish a convict colony at Sydney; or people associated with those moves, yet oddly enough, Pattles, or, their extended-family connections, were linked with many figures who after 1800 did have connections with various sorts of Australian history - including the promoter of systematic colonisation, Edward Gibbon Wakefield. It is perhaps necessary here to note that while the Australian colony grew, disparate groups of British merchants worked in India, South East Asia and China. Little is known of many of them, such as the brother John of the better-known Sydney merchant, Robert Campbell. The figure who became "the family banker of the Macarthurs", the wool-producing family of Parramatta near Sydney, was Walter Stephenson Davidson, who spent many of his early years in the East, is still little-known.
The Pattle family is rendered thus: One Pattle progenitor is Thomas Pattle, Birth: c.1710 in England. Son of Edward Pattle and Ruth Casson. He married Elizabeth Brooke as second wife. He was "of Poplar and Stepney", and at one time a part-owner and/or captain of an East Indiaman. In 1748 he was of Poplar in the Parish of St Dunstan's, Stepney.
Edward Pattle, who married Ruth Casson, had a relative Thomas Pattle (died 3 July 1702), who had a son Thomas (who had a daughter, Elizabeth). The father here may be the same as one Thomas Pattle an East India Company factor on the Malabar Coast in 1677-78. In any case, the Pattles had a long association with East India trade in India. One Capt. Thomas Charles Pattle, Merchant at Canton, Birth: 1773- at Beauleah, Bengal, Death 1815, at Macao. Son of Father: Thomas Pattle, director, EICo, Mother: Sarah Hasleby, and his second spouse was Elizabeth Brooke (of the family becoming the Brookes of Sarawak, and wife1 Eliza Anne Frances Middleton wife1. He had brothers James ("Jim Blazes" as above, with seven daughters), and William of a Bengal Light Cavalry.. He is brother of "Jim Blazes" (with seven daughters) Pattle and, confusingly, a half-cousin of the father of Rajah Brooke of Sarawak. Capt Thomas Pattle was of the Canton Civil Service in 1788 and a second member of the Select Committee, off and on, 1805-1815. He was appointed a supercargo in 1794. Then became a director of the East India Company. The provers of his will in 1815 were Sir William Fraser and Charles Magniac (of the firm which became Jardine-Matheson). The residue of Thomas' estate was invested in 1865. He had an estate not of £90,000, as he thought, but £163,769. Some of that fortune went to fund the colonisation schemes of Edward Gibbon Wakefield (1796-1862), though we cannot address that for some time here.
The seven beautiful Pattle sisters:
James Pattle "was highly successful, very wealthy, had a beautiful, forgiving wife (Adeline Maria de L'Etang 1793-1845), and beautiful daughters who all made successful marriages to wealthy men." The daughters of "Jim Blazes", James Pattle, were thus:
5 (from progenitor 1)-- James Pattle (1775-1845) sp-Adeline DE L'Etang (1793-1845) 6-- James Rocke Mitford Pattle Died Young ( -1813) 6-- Maria Pattle (1818-1892) sp-John Calcutta MD Jackson Dr (1804-1887) 7-- Julia Prinsep Jackson widow, wife2 (1846-1895) sp-Sir Leslie Stephen, Bart1, KCB, (1832-1904) 8-- Adeline Virginia (Woolf) Stephen writer (1882-1941) sp-Leonard WOOLF (1880-1969) 8-- Julian Thoby Stephen Died Young (1880-1906) 8-- Vanessa Stephen (1879) sp-Arthur Clive Bell Art Critic (1881-1964) 9-- History Professor Quentin Bell (1910) 7-- Virginia Pattle Jackson (1827-1910) sp-Charles Somers Somerset Earl Somers (1819-1883) 7-- Adeline Maria Jackson (1837-1881) sp-Sir Henry Halford Vaughan (1811-1885) 8-- William Wyamar Vaughan sp-Margaret Madge Symonds 9-- Janet Maria Vaughan (1899) 8-- Millicent Vaughan sp-Sir Vere Isham, Bart11 7-- Mary Louisa Jackson (1841-1916) sp-Herbert Fisher, Royal Tutor 8-- Herbert A. L. Fisher, Educator 6-- Adeline No2 Pattle sp-General Colin Mackenzie 6-- Sara Monckton Pattle (1848) sp-Sir Henry Thoby Prinsep of EICo (1793-1878) 7-- Sir Henry Auriol Prinsep (1836-1914) sp-Lilian Smythe 7-- Valentine Cameron Prinsep (1838-1904) sp-Florence Leyland 7-- Virginia Prinsep (1848) 7-- Alice Prinsep sp-Banker Charles Henry Gurney (1833) 8-- Rachel Anne Gurney wife1 ( -1920) sp-Gov-General Australia William Humble Ward Earl3 Dudley (1867-1932) 9-- William Humble Eric Ward Earl3 Dudley (1894) sp-Lady Rosemary Millicent Leveson-Gower 10--Lt William Humble David Ward (1920) 9-- army Capt Robert Arthur Ward 9-- Cyril Augustus Ward, MVO RNVR 9-- Lt. Gerald Ernest Francis Ward 8-- Laura Gurney-49308 sp-Sir Thomas Herbert Troubridge, Bart4 ( -1938) 8-- Henry Edward Gurney 6-- Louisa No4 Pattle sp-H. V. Bayley 6-- Sophia Pattle sp-Sir John Warrender Dalrymple, Bart7 (1824-1888) 6-- Virginia Pattle (1827-1910) sp-Charles Somerset Earl3 Somers (1810-1883) 7-- Adeline Mary (Somers-Cocks) Somers had issue (1852) sp-George William Russell Earl16 Bedford Duke13 Bedford (1852-1893) 7-- Isabel Somers sp-Henry Richard Charles Somerset Lord-33674 (1849-1932) 6-- Julia Margaret Pattle Photographer (1815-1879) sp-Charles Hay Cameron 7-- Julia Cameron wife1 ( -1873) sp-Banker, Charles Lloyd Norman Banker (1833-1889) 5--Capt Thomas Charles Pattle ( -1815) sp-Elizabeth BROOKE wife2 sp-Eliza Anne Frances Middleton wife1 ( -1820) 6-- Ruth Casson Pattle ( -1829) sp-Capt. Robert BROOKE (1727) 7-- EICo Judge Thomas BROOKE EICS (1760-1835) sp-Anna Maria Stuart wife2 8-- Henry BROOKE Died Young 8-- Sir James BROOKE, Unm, of Sarawak (1803-1868) ..................6-- Eliza Susan Pattle wife1 sp-Edward Gibbon NZCo Wakefield WACo (1796-1862) 7-- Nina Wakefield. invalid ( -1835) 7-- Edward Jerningham MP Wakefield author (1820-1879) sp-Ellen Roe 5-- William Pattle Bengal Light Cavalry sp-Susanne Wilson ( -1875) 5-- Thomas Pattle sp-Marian Lucia Maude 6-- Magistrate Thomas Philip Marmaduke Pattle (1849-1890) sp-Annie BARTER (1852-1930) 7-- Cecil John St John Pattle 7-- Frank Montague Ormond Pattle 7-- Harold Alfred Pattle 7-- Rupert James Hartwell Pattle (1883-1932) sp-Nellie Caroline Godfrey (1886-1972)
Some subsidiary matters can be explained by reference to... The Middleton Connections
Nathaniel Middleton sp-Indian Woman Unknown (Lover) 2-- Eliza Anne Frances Middleton wife1 ( -1820) sp-Capt. Thomas Charles Pattle ( -1815) 3-- Ruth Casson Pattle-63350 ( -1829) sp-Capt. Robert Brooke (1727) 4-- EICo Judge Thomas Brooke EICS (1760-1835) sp-Anna Maria Stuart wife2 5-- Henry Brooke Died Young 5-- Sir James Brooke Unm, of Sarawak (1803-1868) sp-Margaret NOTKNOWN sp-Lily Willes cousin Johnson wife2 6-- Charles Vyner Rajah3 Sarawak Brooke Rajah3 Sarawak (1874) 6-- Charles Anthony Johnson-Brooke Rajah sp-Margaret Alice Lili De Windt 7-- Ghita Johnson-Brooke ( -1873) 7-- Charles Vyner Johnson-Brooke sp-Lady Sylvia Leonora Brett Lady Brooke (1885-1971) 8-- Leonora Margaret Brooke wife2 sp-Kenneth Mackay, Earl2 Inchcape, P&O Line (1887-1932) 8-- Bertram Brooke (1876-1965) sp-Gladys Milton Palmer ( -1952) 8-- Vyner Brooke sp-Miss Notnknown 6-- Bertram Brooke (1786) 6-- Harry Brooke (1879) 6-- Stuart Brooke 5-- Emma Frances Brooke (c.1822) sp-Rev. Francis Charles Johnson 6-- Rajah Sir John Johnson-Brooke Brooke sp-Annie Grant wife1 ( -1858) 7-- Basil Brooke (1857) 7-- John Charles Evelyn Brooke ( -1934) sp-Violet Barrington 8-- Vice-Admiral Basil Charles Barrington BROOKE sp-Nora Toppin 9-- Peter Barrington Brooke sp-Julia Welstead wife2 7-- Capt. William Frederic Brooke 7-- Charles Anthony Brooke 7-- Prison Governor Henry Stuart Brooke ( -1894) 6-- Sir Charles Anthony Johnson-Brooke (1874-1963) 5-- Margaret Brooke (1825) sp-Rev. Anthony Savage (c.1825) 3-- Eliza Susan Pattle wife1 sp-Edward Gibbon NZCo Wakefield West Australia Co. (1796-1862) 4-- Nina Wakefield invalid ( -1835) 4-- Edward Jerningham MP Wakefield author (1820-1879) sp-Ellen Roe sp-Major Alexander Robson 2-- Emily Middleton sp-Edward Barrister Jerningham
The Thackeray Connection:
Partial descendancy list for Shakespears of London as a link to line of Thackeray the novelist and also to the Campbells of Jamaica, also the family of Duncan Campbell of London, (1726-1803), overseer of the Thames Prison Hulks.
Shakespear of London DESCENDANCY CHART
1-- Senior Progenitor Shakespear sp-Miss NOTKNOWN 2-- Senior Shakespear sp-Miss NOTKNOWN 3-- John Shakespear (1619-1689) sp-Margaret widow Jude wife1 (1615-1652) sp-Martha Of Wapping Wall SEELEY wife2 (1635-1695) 4-- Jonathan SHAKESPEAR (1670-1735) sp-Elizabeth SHALLETT (1679-1745) 5-- Arthur SHAKESPEAR Unm (1699-1749) 5-- John SHAKESPEAR Alderman, Ropemaker (1718-1775) sp-Elizabeth CURRIE (1726-1807) 6-- John SHAKESPEAR Of Brookwood (1749-1825) sp-Mary DAVENPORT wife1 (1757-1793) 7-- Henry Davenport EiCo SHAKESPEAR In India sp-Louisa Caroline Tobin MUIRSON (1794-1868) 8-- William Shakespear CHILDE-PEMBERTON, Composer and author (1857-1924) sp-Lady Constance Violet Lucy BLIGH 8-- Louisa Mary Ann SHAKESPEAR ( -1844) sp-Capt. James Macaulay HIGGINSON, in India-46331 8-- Augusta SHAKESPEAR 8-- Agnes SHAKESPEAR 8-- Henrietta SHAKESPEAR sp-Rev. Henry Brougham VIZARD 7-- John Talbot SHAKESPEAR BCS, EICo (1783-1825) sp-Amelia (Emily) THACKERAY (1780-1824) 8-- Richmond Campbell SHAKESPEAR (1812-1861) sp-Maria Sophia THOMPSON had issue (1825-1899) 9-- Richmond SHAKESPEAR (1844-1931) 8-- Emily Anne SHAKESPEAR (1804-1887) sp-William Fleming DICK BCS 9-- Augusta DICK (1822-1859) sp-Lt-General James F. TENNANT, Bengal Engineers 10--William Francis TENNANT Schoolmaster in Tasmania (1857) 9-- Harris St John DICK (1834-1879) sp-Grace NOTKNOWN 8-- William Makepeace SHAKESPEAR (1807-1835) 8-- John Dowdeswell SHAKESPEAR (1806-1867) sp-Marianne Elizabeth HODGSON 8-- Augusta Ludlow SHAKESPEAR (1809-1893) sp-Sir John Major LOW ( -1880) 9-- Charlotte Herbert LOW (1833-1853) sp-Sir Theophilus John METCALFE, Bart ( -1883) 10--Charles Herbert Theophilus METCALFE Railway Engineer (1853-1928) 9-- William Malcolm LOW (1835-1923) sp-Lady Ida FEILDING 8-- George Trant SHAKESPEAR (1810-1844) 8-- Marianne Eliza SHAKESPEAR (1816-1891) sp-Major IRVINE 8-- Charlotte Mary Anne SHAKESPEAR had issue (1813) sp-James Henry CRAWFORD BCS 9-- Selina CRAWFORD wife2 (1844) sp-Lt-General James F. TENNANT, Bengal Engineers 7-- William Oliver SHAKESPEAR, EICo at Madras (1784-1838) sp-Leonora Charlotte MAXTONE ( -1832) 8-- Charlotte Emilie SHAKESPEAR sp-Captain MOORE 8-- George Frederick SHAKESPEAR sp-Emily Charlotte TAYLOR 8-- Charles Maxtone SHAKESPEAR sp-Maria FRASER 7-- Arthur SHAKESPEAR (soldier) (1789-1845) sp-Harriet Sophia SKIPDYNEBUCKNALL (1799-1877) 8-- George Bucknall SHAKESPEAR (1819-1895) sp-Henrietta Louisa PANET 8-- John Davenport SHAKESPEAR 8-- William Powlett SHAKESPEAR (1820-1844) 7-- Mary Anne SHAKESPEAR (1793-1850) sp-Rev. Francis THACKERAY 7-- Charlotte Georgina SHAKESPEAR (1802-1888) sp-James ALLARDYCE Dr sp-Charlotte FLETCHER wife2 6-- David SHAKESPEAR West India Merchant (1751-1823) sp-Catherine WAGSTAFFE had issue ( -1805) 7-- Rev. John Mure SHAKESPEAR, at Madras (1785-1836) sp-Fransisque Eliza MUNTZ ( -1829) 8-- John Joseph SHAKESPEAR (1820-1881) 8-- Frances Eliza SHAKESPEAR (1818) 7-- Arthur SHAKESPEAR No issue ( -1846) sp-Louisa cousin SAGE No issue ( -1860) 7-- Catherine Campbell SHAKESPEAR (1774) sp-John Spencer GRIFFITH 8-- Catherine Anne GRIFFITH (1795) sp-Admiral John Erskine DOUGLAS 9-- Helen DOUGLAS sp-Colin MACKENZIE Madras army 9-- Crofton DOUGLAS To Aust ( -1922) sp-Miss NOTKNOWN had issue 7-- Elizabeth Currie SHAKESPEAR (1775) sp-Mr-Rev. HAMILTON of New York 8-- James Dunn HAMILTON Bombay Army 8-- George Singer HAMILTON sp-Miss NOTKNOWN 7-- Ann Caroline SHAKESPEAR Unm (1777-1860) 7-- Sarah Frances SHAKESPEAR No issue (1777-1858) sp-William Bombay Army ROOME Colonel 7-- Arthur SHAKESPEAR At Waterloo (1788) 6-- Arthur Richmond SHAKESPEAR Ropemaker, MP (1748-1818) sp-Jane RIDLEY (1777-1804) 7-- John Matthew SHAKESPEAR Of Albany, No issue (1778-1844) 7-- Arthur William SHAKESPEAR Rector, No issue (1783) 6-- Anne SHAKESPEAR (1573-1834) sp-John BLAGROVE of "Cardiff Hall" Jamaica (1777-1824) 6-- Martha SHAKESPEAR ( -1843) sp-Rev. John Robert LLOYD, of Aston Hall (c.1779) 7-- William LLOYD sp-Louisa HARVEY 7-- Elizabeth LLOYD sp-Robert CURTIS Esq- 7-- Louisa Charlotte LLOYD sp-Thomas KENYON Hon 6-- Sarah SHAKESPEAR ( -1829) sp-Joseph SAGE, Assay Master of Mint (1779-1820) 7-- Joseph White SAGE sp-Miss NOTKNOWN wife1 sp-Miss NOTKNOWN wife2 7-- Richard Palmer SAGE sp-Anna Martha BOULTON 8-- Emily BOULTON sp-Rev. R. W. WHICKHAM of Holmwood ( -1908) 9-- Thomas E. P. WHICKHAM sp-Elsie GRIEVE 10--Michael WICKHAM 10--Anthony WICKHAM 7-- Louisa cousin SAGE No issue ( -1860) sp-Arthur SHAKESPEAR No issue ( -1846) 6-- Mary SHAKESPEAR (1762-1845) sp-Laver OLIVER Esq 6-- Colin SHAKESPEAR EICo, In India (1764-1635) sp-Harriot DAWSON 5-- Sarah SHAKESPEAR (1704-1781) sp-Timothy MAINTRU 6-- John MAINTRU 5-- Capt. Joseph SHAKESPEAR (1705-1740) 4-- Elizabeth SHAKESPEAR (1678) sp-Abraham SHAW
The Thackeray- Shakespear - Campbell Connection:
Partial DESCENDANCY CHART for Thackeray the Novelist.
1--Progenitor, Rev. Thomas THACKERAY Royal Chaplain sp-Miss NOTKNOWN 2-- William Makepeace THACKERAY, of Midx ( -1863) sp-Amelia WEBB (1758-1810) 3-- Richmond Makepeace THACKERAY In India (1810-1815) sp-Anne BECHER 4-- Jane THACKERAY sp-Major Surveyor-General RENNELL of Bengal (1770) 4-- Henrietta THACKERAY sp-James HARRIS India, East India merchant (1774) sp-Miss NOTKNOWN (Lover) 4-- Sarah THACKERAY (1806-1841) sp-James BLECHYNDEN Esq of Calcutta 3-- Augusta THACKERAY In India 3-- Rev. Francis THACKERAY sp-Mary Anne SHAKESPEAR (1793-1850) 3-- Anne Ritchie THACKERAY 3-- Harriet Marion Anne THACKERAY wife1 (1837-1875) sp-Sir Leslie KCB STEPHEN, Bart1 (1832-1904) 4-- Caroline Emma STEPHEN Unm ( -1909) 3-- Amelia (Emily) THACKERAY (1780-1824) sp-John Talbot BCS SHAKESPEAR EiCo (1783-1825) 4-- Richmond Campbell SHAKESPEAR (1812-1861) sp-Maria Sophia THOMPSON had issue (1825-1899) 5-- Richmond SHAKESPEAR (1844-1931) 4-- Emily Anne SHAKESPEAR (1804-1887) sp-William Fleming DICK BCS 5-- Augusta DICK (1822-1859) sp-Lt-General James F. TENNANT, Bengal Engineers 6-- William Francis TENNANT Schoolmaster in Tasmania (1857) 5-- Harris St John DICK (1834-1879) sp-Grace NOTKNOWN 4-- William Makepeace SHAKESPEAR (1807-1835) 4-- John Dowdeswell SHAKESPEAR (1806-1867) sp-Marianne Elizabeth HODGSON 4-- Augusta Ludlow SHAKESPEAR (1809-1893) sp-Sir John Major LOW ( -1880) 5-- Charlotte Herbert LOW (1833-1853) sp-Sir Theophilus John METCALFE, Bart ( -1883) 6-- Railway Engineer Charles Herbert Theophilus METCALFE (1853-1928) 5-- William Malcolm LOW (1835-1923) sp-Lady Ida FEILDING 4-- George Trant SHAKESPEAR-44892 (1810-1844) 4-- Marianne Eliza SHAKESPEAR-57422 (1816-1891) sp-Major IRVINE 4-- Charlotte Mary Anne SHAKESPEAR had issue (1813) sp-James Henry CRAWFORD BCS 5-- Selina CRAWFORD wife2 (1844) sp-Lt-General James F. TENNANT Bengal Engineers 3-- Charlotte Sarah THACKERAY sp-John RITCHIE 3-- Anne Isabella THACKERAY (c. 1863) sp-Sir Richmond RITCHIE (c. 1850)
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NOW that the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints has kindly made its genealogical data (The International Genealogical Index, or IGI) available on the Internet from 25 May, 1999, (at: familysearch.org/) the time has come to post news of some genealogical mysteries I have found, which bear on the history of early European Australia.
The items to be posted are a mixture of information available from non-IGI sources, and some IGI sources, and can be concerned with straightforward London commercial history after the American War of Independence.
I am hoping of course that anyone interested will e-mail me concerning any information they might wish to share. Anyone assisting will be fully acknowledged in any work appearing later in print media.
Years ago, I began researching the ownership of the convict ships carrying prisoners to Australia from England and Ireland. (As an associated matter, I am also interested in other areas of Pacific-linked maritime history, including whaling in the Pacific by both British and American vessels). (See also The Blackheath Connection: London commercial history post-1783).
Many surprises were in store during this research, and as it turns out, many knotty genealogical problems have still not been solved. Below are segments which present how knotty such problems can become. A Select Bibliography is provided. Anyone interested in the families to be named in this growing series can rest assured that I already have suitable comprehensive citations, which may be available via e-mail on request. I remain in hope that descendants of named persons will be interested to e-mail me...
Please note: My concern in presenting this
information is to highlight not so much the current fascinating
research into the career of Cook's ship, Endeavour, now
being conducted at Newport, Rhode Island, as to draw attention to
aspects of international whaling history, including the first
whaling in the Pacific, which might be overlooked due to emphasis
This article is written/designed to be printed as copyright free by those interested. However, if any use is made of the article, an acknowledgement would be appreciated. Thanks - Dan Byrnes.
Some time ago, history
researcher/writers Mike Connell and Des Liddy proposed that Capt.
James Cook's ship, Endeavour, ended its days at Newport,
This now seems the case, and evidence is being examined by personnel from The Rhode Island Marine Archaeology Project, and Australian National Maritime Museum.
For updates, Check Website: (broken link?) http://www.CookShips.org/
Check Website: (Broken link?) http://home.ici.net/~hoaglaj/rimap/rimap1.html/
More so if the Connell/Liddy theory is correct on the Endeavour's fate, they have released the ship's career from many hoary old tales, and badly-done journalism, which deserve their own burials.
What might have happened in terms of maritime history? Now, it seems that Cook's ship Endeavour becomes connected to the career of a London merchant, James Mather.
Imagine that yes, Endeavour, by 1774 renamed Lord Sandwich, has been back in the coal trade, then it is naval property, then it is purchased by parties unknown and sent to the Falkland Islands, to about 1776. Why on earth was she (possibly) to the Falkland Islands? This might have something to do with whaling or sealing about the Falklands? If so, just who might have been involved?
A merchant James Mather seems to have been the owner of
Lord Sandwich now being examined as hulk at Newport, Rhode
Island. Little is known of Mather. It appears, he chartered some
store ships to the British Navy during the American War of
Independence. Unfortunately, very little is known of British
merchants letting shipping to the British Navy during the conflict.
Some information on Mather, assuming it is the same man, is found
in: Charles Bateson, The Convict Ships, p. 95; James Mather
had a ship in the First Fleet of convict ships to Australia
(1786-1788), Prince of Wales, which got back home by around
22 March, 1789.
(See also, Anthony Dickinson, `Some Aspects Of The Origin and Implementation of the Eighteenth Century Falkland Islands Sealing Industry', International Journal of Maritime History, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1990., pp. 33-68; and Syrett's paper in the bibliography below.)
The story needs to be retold, of the origins of the British
South Whale Fishery (SWF), from 1770, since what is known of James
Mather, probably a Londoner, indicates he was a long-term investor
in the SWF. Connell and Liddy cite the French whaling historian,
Thierry du Pasquier, but they do not cite Stackpole, who should be
read for information on whaling rivalry. Dickinson on the Falklands
sealing supplies much that Stackpole otherwise lacks.
(See Eduoard A. Stackpole, Whales And Destiny, The Rivalry Between America, France, and Britain For Control Of The Southern Whale Fishery, 1785-1825. University of Massachusetts Press, 1972., p. 96 and elsewhere.)
The London whalers Alexander and Benjamin Champion were at 71
Old Broad Street, London. John St. Barbe (see below in this file
also) was represented in the SWF with Aurora Capt. Peleg
Long of Nantucket, Liberty Capt. Tristram Clark, also of
Nantucket, and Southampton Capt. William Akin, another
American. Early, Robert Curling and Co. employed Capt. William
Raven on Saucy Ben. (This is the same Capt. William Raven
who as a partner with St. Barbe by the late 1780s, became the first
sealer on New Zealand at Dusky Bay, which had been discovered by
For the dates 26 March, 1773, to 11 May, 1773, (Australian Encyclopedia (1958 edn), entry on Seals), Capt. Cook noted, "Seals are to be found in great numbers about this bay, on the small rocks and isles near the sea coast" - at Dusky Sound, New Zealand.
Jackson, an English historian of whaling - has it (p. 92) that new-comers to the London whalers (SWF) were an Enderby family of Boston, Massachusetts. Samuel Enderby and Sons arrived in London in 1775; and by 1776 with Alexander Champion and John St. Barbe they had equipped 12 whalers with American vessels and crews. However, I can find no genealogical evidence that Samuel Enderby's family were from Boston.
During the American Revolution, as Syrett finds, John St. Barbe was one of the favoured shipping contractors regularly used by the British navy to send men/goods to North America. As we now know from my research, The Blackheath Connection, by the 1780s, St. Barbe lived next door but one to Enderbys at Blackheath, London. (He did so for many years - the buildings still stand!).
James Mather's associates, investors in the SWF, have been discussed by historians as whalers, but their activities as suppliers of storeships to the British Navy have never been examined. But it is in the context of whalers letting storeships or transport ships to the navy that Mather's associates turn up both in the British maritime history of the American Revolution, and in the narrative of convict ships sailing for "Botany Bay" from 1786. These are two contexts in shipping history which have never been spliced together before.
If James Mather was involved as a whaling investor, from say 1773, we find a mild controversy about who should get credit for starting the English South Whale Fishery (bearing in mind that English efforts to start the first English South Whale Fishery were ruined by the outbreak of the American Revolution. Thus:
Little is known about Mather, but he probably had brothers or cousins named John and Thomas. (James Mather is noted about the 1790s as being a shipowner interested in specialised techniques on ship management, p. 708 of an article by Simon Ville [see bibliography below].) It now appears that researchers at Newport, Rhode Island have contacted a descendant of James Mather.
There are other points. If, by 1776 or so, Endeavour has been part of shipping to the Falklands, then is bought by Mather, and re-named Lord Sandwich (after fourth Earl Sandwich), it is plausible to suggest that renaming the ship Lord Sandwich is significant, sycophantically, in terms of the following sorts of commercial and personal relationships. (Given that the Lord Sandwich in question is a sometime admiralty lord interested in the politics of trade and of promoting British whaling, the fourth Earl Sandwich 1718-1792)...
In the early 1770s, the London-based whalers Enderby and Mather help establish the SWF. Part of deals by 1773 (with what became the Boston Tea Party) is that certain ships will take tea to North America, and bring back whaling products. This plan is wrecked. The Boston patriot John Hancock, who had helped execute the Boston Tea Party plan, has been in debt to George Hayley and Hopkins, a London firm investing in whaling (and probably, tea to North America!).
Evidently, even George III knows of this debt matter. Hayley was married to Mary, the sister of the radical John Wilkes, whose politics help foment the American Revolution. John Wilkes with the fourth Earl of Sandwich was a member of the Hell-Fire Club.
When Hayley died, his widow Mary had an affair with the American Loyalist whaler, Rotch, and Rotch's career is outlined in Stackpole's book. Presumably, Mary Wilkes remains interested in whaling, since she is listed by the early 1780s as one of the 206 British Creditors listed in my 1994 article, A Bitter Pill.
So it seems, that Endeavour is renamed Lord Sandwich in honour of a politician who wants to promote the first South Whale Fishery. However, this is connected also with radical London politics, and is appears that George III himself has been keeping an eye on the circle of people involved. Here, it might appear that while Australasian maritime historians like to think that George III liked to keep an eye on the Pacific, they have failed to note that George also kept a weather eye on various political feeling in both Boston and London that were connected to the debts of none other than John Hancock (whose house was deliberately singled out for particular destruction once British troops had captured that part of Boston!).
(Lord Sandwich, the politician, is also noted as a member of the notorious Hell-Fire Club: see David Pickering, Cassell Dictionary of Witchcraft. London, Cassell, 1996., p. 130.)
Some credit for the original establishment of the Southern Whale Fishery goes to Francis Rotch, who in Dartmouth in Nova Scotia in 1775 helped organise a whale fleet to fish the South Atlantic about the Falkland Islands. Captains proceeding in that fleet were especially advised to send news of any success to George Hayley of London. Hayley had preceded Samuel Enderby Snr (died 1797) as prime mover of the SWF, and before his death was president of the insurance firm becoming known as Lloyds of London. It is no accident that with the whalers having had some voice in the early establishment of Lloyds, whaler John St. Barbe was eminent in Lloyd's affairs by 1790.
But, the English whaling historian A. G. E Jones thinks that by 1775: (AGE Jones, Great Circle, Vol. 3, No 1, 1981., p. 26) a date should be claimed by Enderby's family for their establishment of the South Whale Fishery. Jones says that James Mather, Burton, C. A. Coffin, Buxton and Co. were also involved by 1776. (By 1775-1776 Enderbys had sent out their whalers, Experiment, Neptune, Rockingham.)
By 1775, Lopez (an American), Jarvis, Francis Rotch and one Richard Smith decided to station vessels at the Falkland Islands for the duration of American Revolution hostilities; whaling mostly, sealing when possible. (From Dickinson, 'Falklands sealing')
Notes: By 1772 and later (Dickinson, 'Falklands sealing',
p. 47) - A Portuguese-Jewish merchant from Newport, Rhode Island,
Aaron Lopez, developed links with George Hayley of Hayley and
Hopkins of London. Lopez had extensive whaling contacts throughout
New England, especially with the Rotches of Nantucket. Rotches
provided equipment and acted as purchasing agents for the United
Company of Spermaceti Candlers, a consortium of three Jewish
merchants including Lopez. Hayley and Hopkins were to service the
London market. In 1775, Leonard Jarvis, a boatbuilder of Dartmouth,
Mass, was building a ship for Lopez. Capt. Greenwood of the ship
King George returning from the Falklands in 1775 spoke to
Jarvis. Jarvis then wrote to Lopez on 5 April, 1775. Lopez had lost
a ship Leviathan off Brazil in 1773, on a voyage to the
(Dickinson here cites: B. M. Bigelow, Aaron Lopez: Colonial Merchant of Newport, New England Quarterly, IV, No. 4, 1931., pp. 757-767.)
A list of South Whalers, 1775-1790 is found in The Samuel
Enderby Book. Including: Enderby; A and B Champion; Mather and
Co., Mr. Mather's wharf at Blackwall - Thomas and John Mather,
Rotherhithe in 1805; Montgomery; Joseph Lucas (0oct. 1805);
Bennett; Smith at Hull; Sanders at Southampton; Parr(?)
Southampton; Wrangham (Canton 1792 brig Hope); Curtino(?); Mellish;
Dudman; King; Bill; with Enderbys 1775, March 1790, St. Barbe,
London, Southampton; Curling; Yorke; Metcalfe; Paul, Simon of
Tottenham Court Rd and his own wharf, Paul's Wharf: Le Mesurier
(Guernsey); Teast, Saml and Son, Bristol; Hurry and Co., Yarmouth;
Ogle; Oliver; Mount; Hall (or Hull); Hattersley; Wardell; Thornton
(See Oct. 28, 1786); Mills; Bell; Calvert; Mangles; Stainforth;
Hayley, very early in fishery history; De Bond; Harrison; Harford;
George Heyley [Hayley]; Daniel Coffin; Benjamin Rotch; Barclay;
Powell; Brantingham; Williams; Price; Meader; Peter Evet Mestairs,
also owned a dock on Thames opposite Shadwells.
(Genealogical information on most of these surnames is thin, except for Mangles.)
Some details from The Samuel Enderby Book (Copy held at
Australian National Library, Petherick Collection):
For 1775 - Enderby and Son; Union, 100 tons Apt W. Goldsmith, 22.5 tons whale oil, 19 tons sperm oil, £1517 from voyage; Neptune, 189 tons, Apt N Coffin, 28.5 tons whale oil, 11.5 tons sperm oil, amount. from voyage, £1589; Neptune, 189 tons, Capt. N. Coffin, 28.5 tons whale oil, 11.5 tons sperm oil, £1589; Rockingham, 189 tons, Capt E. Clark, 20.5 tons whale oil, 19.5 tons sperm oil, £1720. Harrison and Co.; Beaver, 140 tons, Capt U? Coffin, 17 tons whale oil, 20 tons sperm oil.
In 1775, 22 March: MP Edmund Burke told Parliament in his speech, "On Conciliation with America", of mariners going to Hudson's and Davis' Straits, near the Arctic Circle; and Falkland Island, which seemed too remote and too romantic to become an object of national ambition. but a resting place for mariners. general praise for the whalers and their courage.
The above lists name some of the merchant associates (mostly Londoners) of James Mather. It can be hoped from new research at Newport, Rhode Island, that more information will surface on Mather himself.
I suspect that the story of what happened to the Endeavour has gotten lost in the stress of the American Revolution, which is partly how we end up with a story that she ended up at Newport, Rhode Islands. Suggestions have surfaced that the British Navy was sending the post-Cook Endeavour to the Falklands. If it is true, it is interesting, but why was the Navy bothering? And if the Navy was bothering, was it an intention to help along the South Whale Fisher of the day (that is, helping Enderby and Mather)?
Did Endeavour, by 1776, from about 1773 owned by the Navy still, came into the private hands of James Mather?
Mysteries arise, since as I note in my article, The Blackheath Connection, there exists an old legend that Enderbys had a ship or two involved in the Boston Tea Party. This is not true, but to rebut the legend, one has to review the entire maritime history of the Boston Tea Party (which produces other surprises). The mystery of James Mather's career is not the only mystery needing to be solved regarding the fate of Cook's ship, Endeavour.
Note: By 1805: William Wilson as London agent for the Sydney trader Robert Campbell, figured in the mid-1805 Lady Barlow affair, a dispute between Sydney and London sealing interests. The London faction was headed by Enderbys and Mathers, (of Rotherhithe, London), who wanted no competition from Sydney for a Pacific fishery they had expensively worked since 1786 to establish. Visiting London, Robert Campbell with Lady Barlow also had ambitions of becoming the Sydney agent for the noted London whaling firm, Daniel Bennett. In Oct. 1806, in London, William Wilson and William Fairlie of the India House Fairlie Ferguson and Co. offered to act as security for the future financial good behaviour of Campbell.
The affair destabilised Wilson so much however he bankrupted
around 1810. By then he had opened the sandalwood trade to
Here, see William Wilson, A Missionary Voyage To The South Pacific Ocean, 1799-98. (Rare, copy, Dixson Library, UNE). Printed for T. Chapman, No. 151 Fleet Street, by T. Gillette, Printer, Sainsbury Sq. Chapman also sold James Wilson's maps and charts of Duff's voyage to Tahiti. HRNSW, Vol. 3, p. 731. Dawson, Banks Letters, Haweis to SJB, May 6, 1799, p. 402. W. P. Morrell, Britain In The Pacific Islands. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1960., p. 36 re missionaries on Royal Admiral II.
A variety of letters between William Wilson and Haweis are held in the Miscellaneous Ms. Collection Reading Room, Chronological Index, MS 1404, Austn National Library, Canberra. Also, from the Rex Nan Kivell Collection: NK. 2610. MS 4105; NK 2611. MS 4103; NK 2609. MS 4126. Capt. James Wilson died about 1814.
Unfortunately, none of Mather's extended family appear to be listed in the IGI.
On George Hayley, London alderman: See Item No. 58, (mentioning
Alderman George Hayley) Petition of London Merchants for
Reconciliation with America, 23 January, 1775, from
Parliamentary History of England, Vol. 18, 1774-1777, cited,
pp. 168ff in Henry Steele Commager, Documents of American
History. (Ninth edition). New Jersey, Prentice Hall Inc.,
[Hayley is also mentioned in Richard Straus, Lloyd's: A Historical Sketch. London, Hutchinson and Co., 1937]
Some Enderby family history is straightforward, as follows:
Entries in Australian Dictionary of Biography.
A. G. E. Jones, Ships employed in the South Seas Trade, 1775-1861 [Parts 1 and 2]: plus A Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen, transcripts of Registers of Shipping, 1787-1862 [Part 3] Canberra, Roebuck, 1986.
1-- Samuel ENDERBY Snr, whaler, (1720-1797) married Elizabeth BUXTON. Their children included: 2-- Samuel ENDERBY Jnr., whaler (1754-1829) sp Mary (Gladwyn?) GOODWIN; 3-- Elizabeth ENDERBY sp Lt-General Henry William GORDON Capt. RA their son 4-- Maj-General Charles George "Chinese Gordon of Khartoum" GORDON (1833-1885); 3-- Miss ENDERBY sp Nathaniel WHEATLEY of Boston; 3-- William ENDERBY; 3-- Mary ENDERBY sp-Rev. G. MATTHEWS of Blackheath; 3-- Charles ENDERBY, Gentleman, whaler, member New Zealand Company ( -1876); 3-- Henry ENDERBY Gentleman ( -1876); 3-- George ENDERBY sp-Miss SAMPSON; 2-- Charles ENDERBY (1753-1819) sp Elizabeth GOODWIN; 2-- George ENDERBY, whaler of Blackheath (1762-1829) sp-Harriott SAMPSON; 2-- Mary Elizabeth ENDERBY sp-Charles BUXTON; 2-- Hannah ENDERBY sp-Charles BUXTON.
The surname Buxton above refers us to a whaling industry figure,
oil cooper Charles Buxton of Croom Hill, Blackheath. The Buxton
family became religious idealists associated with the anti-slaving
movement (the latter-day Clapham Sect). The Buxtons also produced a
governor of South Australia. Buxtons intermarried extensively with
families producing nineteenth century British bankers. Some of
their genealogy can be found in sources such as:
Burke's Landed Gentry for Barclay of Higham, Gurney of North Runcton, Hamond formerly of Westacre, Hoare of Gateley Hall. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Buxton.
The name Sampson is more problematic, genealogically, since the
Sampson name links to the Blackheath name Larkins, an East India
Company who for unknown reasons sent a convict ship, Royal
Admiral I, to Sydney before 1795. Little is known of the
Sampsons in their own right. Sources include:
Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Currie, Dyke.
Youseff Cassis, City Bankers, 1890-1914. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Youssef Cassis, 'Bankers in English Society in the late eighteenth century', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 38, No. 2, May 1985., pp. 210-229.
1--Unknown Progenitor SAMPSON sp Miss NOTKNOWN; 2-- Harriott SAMPSON sp-George ENDERBY, whaler (1762-1829); 2-- Mary Ann SAMPSON sp John Pascal LARKINS East India Company merchant/shipowner (1765-1818); 3-- Georgiana LARKINS (from IGI microfiche only) (c.1802); 3-- John Pascal LARKINS (Jnr) (IGI only) sp Mary Anne NOTKNOWN (IGI only) (c.1827); 4-- John Pascal LARKINS (IGI only) (c.1827); 3-- Susannah LARKINS wife1 ( -1832) of sp Sir Frederick CURRIE, Bart1 a secretary to Govt of India (1799-1875); 4--Sir/Rev. Frederick Larkins CURRIE, Bart2 (c.1823) sp Eliza Reeve RACKHAM wife1 ( -1861); 5--Sir Frederick Reeve CURRIE, Bart3 Unm (1851-1830); 5--Sir Walter Louis Rackham CURRIE, Bart4 (c.1856) sp-Bertha FREEMAN ( -1951) sp Mary Helen CORRIE wife2; 4--Major Mark Edward CURRIE (1824-1868) sp Jane UPWOOD, sp Catherine GRAVES; 4-- Katherine Louisa CURRIE ( -1914) sp Rev. Edwin Francis Mersham, DYKE of Kent (1842-1919); 3-- Jane Emma LARKINS (IGI only) (c.1810); 3-- George LARKINS (IGI only) (c.1807).
WHAT happens when a historian finds a man lost to history, and then tries to insert him into an often-told story? The situation becomes very intricate.
The British cabinet made its decision to send felons to "New Holland" on 18 August, 1786. A close chronology of that year finds it a busy one. Surprisingly, three days after cabinet's decision, a little-known London firm often contracting supplies to government, as for the Loyalists in Canada, on 21 August, 1786, Turnbull, Macaulay and Gregory, offered enough shipping for such a project. Why they were so speedy, where they obtained their information, which was correct, are entertaining questions. Their offer was rejected and the matter was, quite properly, put out to tender.
Charles Bateson's book, The Convict Ships (1959), a first port of call for reference, lists the firm as a duo, "Mr Turnbull Macaulay, and Mr Gregory". This is incorrect; the firm in fact was John Turnbull, alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay and Thomas Gregory. By September-October 1786, the ship broker mounting what became the First Fleet was William Richards Jnr. Richards is still little-known, despite his work in putting together the First Fleet, nine non-naval ships which made successful voyages in a matter unique in maritime history - the dumping by a European nation of over 700 convicts on an unknown Australian shore.
What became of the Turnbull, Macaulay and Gregory offer of 21 August for "a phantom First Fleet" to Australia? It seems that no one has bothered that the man termed "Turnbull Macaulay" in Bateson's index lives on, in fact, a spurious identity. He never existed.
It seems important as a question of political sociology, that Macaulay, as a London alderman, jumped in so quickly to try to help government, to his own profit of course, get rid of pesky convicts. In time a researcher working for me found original documentation surviving in Macaulay's handwriting, one of his journals for one year only, in the British Library, described by a cataloguer as full of "tendentious" views. Macaulay once mentioned getting "tolerable booty" out of India. He wrote many letters to the former governor-general of India, Warren Hastings (1732-1818), who in the late 1780s was in serious trouble with Parliament, but was finally acquitted of charges.
Born in 1750, Macaulay was originally from a half-known Isle of Wight family. By 1797 he had lost one-quarter of his investments. He soon bowed out of financial life in the City of London and died prematurely in 1803 of a quinsy. (Tonsilitis) Macaulay (when he was one of the common councilmen of London) and his friend, alderman Curtis, are pictured in an illustration held at London's Guildhall Library, of The Administration of the Oath of Allegiance to Ald. Richard Clark in 1782.
Macaulay's obituary in The Gentleman's Magazine, March 1803, reads: `[Died] March 5, at Bedford, of a quinsy, George Mackenzie Macaulay esq. alderman of Coleman-street ward, to which he was elected in 1786, and in 1790 served the office of sheriff. He was an active and intelligent magistrate, and possessed very strong natural abilities, highly improved by a cultivated education. He had been twice married; and has left a very numerous family by each of his wives. To his widow, the Corporation of London have, in a very handsome manner, unanimously voted an annuity of £100."
Many questions can arise. Question One is: Was Macaulay, only newly-elected as a full alderman, one of the London aldermen petitioning George III for the resumption of convict transportation in 1786? I imagine, yes. So, have some of the politics of the Corporation of the City of London been left out of the story? If Macaulay has been truly lost to history, then the historians of civic London lost an excellent opportunity to properly tie the history of their amazing city and its history to the way Australia was finally introduced to the world.
Macaulay in 1784 had amazed shipmen in London by buying an East Indiaman, Pitt, as sole owner. Gossipy types noted that he married the "wealthy and beautiful Miss Theed". Who was her father? He was possibly a jeweller named Theed in partnership with one of the Lords Mayor of London, but this remains uncertain.
Macaulay sent Pitt regularly to China for tea, as Lloyd's of London records indicate, naming her captains. By late 1786, Macaulay felt his reach was widening. He'd become interested in finding furs at Nootka Sound, about the area once thought to be the entrance, long sought by the English, to the North-West Passage to China. He had probably a financially-interesting idea. Furs then fetched excellent prices at Canton, the East India Company ran an efficient currency clearing house at Canton, and money bills (today, read a letter of credit, or a cheque) could be sent home by a tea ship. Nootka furs had been interesting a variety of mariners, and some East India company men operating in the country trade, since 1783. Macaulay's first offer to government was rejected. He then did something supremely simple.
His friend alderman William Curtis (1752-1829) had got a ship into the First Fleet, dealing with the contractor, William Richards Jnr. This was alderman William Curtis, later baronet, a Lord Mayor of London, City MP, and later a personal friend of George IV. Curtis had put his ship Lady Penrhyn into the "First Fleet"; she carried all women, and has been regarded as a floating whorehouse.
After Lady Penrhyn had finished her convict business at Sydney, by May 1788, her officers found she had been chartered by Macaulay to go to Nootka Sound for furs, under the command of Macaulay's man on the ship, Lt. Watts, who had been out with Capt. James Cook. (It's hardly surprising, that of all the men who had been out with Cook, Lt. Watts remains little-known, because he is connected with Macaulay, who has been written out of the First Fleet story.)
Watts' information on his voyage was published in 1789, in Gov. Phillip's Voyage, the first official view of the new convict settlement at Sydney. How did a well-known London alderman charter Lady Penrhyn, only to be written out of the story? Here, matters become tangled in the legend of the Mutiny on the Bounty, since Lady Penrhyn, despite being on her maiden voyage, developed a bad bottom, unfit to contact ice. So Watts took her to Tahiti, arriving to Matavi Bay by June-July, 1788, before Bligh arrived on HMAV Bounty. Macaulay had a small island named after him, as did Curtis.
Whatever, Lady Penrhyn left Tahiti, sailed north, then home. About China, she met an Indiaman named Talbot, which may have beat her home. Talbot's men when they arrived home gave reports which made their way into the Gloucester Journal as "Botany Bay news"; presumably after having talked to Lady Penrhyn's crew. And why would that journal want to print such news? Only because there had earlier been keen local interest in government resuming the transportation of convicts. So, the paper was merely printing routine, follow-up news on an issue of the day.
Macaulay's chartering of Lady Penrhyn is recorded in an appendix by Lt. Watts to Phillip's Voyage, which can be regarded as the first book about non-Aboriginal Australia, published in 1789.
Macaulay after 1786 continued life as a fellow in finance in the City of London. He had a careful spread of investments, an India ship, and was an insurance underwriter at Lloyd's of London. He forgot about Nootka Sound furs. But alderman Curtis did not. Curtis, a Wapping maker of sea-biscuits, made one further application to send a ship for Nootka furs. Curtis had for a long time been an investor in the Greenland whale fishery, and he would have kept an eye on the South whalers who were opening up the Pacific, with the second and third fleets to Australia and subsequent shipping.
Macaulay lived at Blackheath in London. In his day, Blackheath was, as it is today, "stockbroker belt". Other residents of Blackheath included the Enderby family, well-known promoters of the South whalers, Duncan Campbell (1726-1803) the overseer of the Thames prison hulks (and uncle-in-law of Bligh of the Bounty); John St Barbe, who was another underwriter at Lloyd's and also a South whaler investor. And probably, Thomas King, of the slaving firm and whaler/sealers about Africa, Camden, Calvert and King. Camden, Calvert and King mounted the atrociously cruel Second Fleet to Australia, and with the South whalers had half the ships of the third fleet to Australia. The Camden, Calvert and King firm by 1786 were noted suppliers of slaves to Jamaica, but as individuals they are particularly resistant to genealogical research.
Macaulay was also a member of The Blackheath Golf Club, a haven for Scots, a club often-noted in British histories of golf, which was a summer-playing club. Certain keen Blackheath golfers wanted to play in winter as well. They were also Freemasons, and so The Knuckle Club became a Masonic-golfers' offshoot of Blackheath Golf Club. Duncan Campbell and Macaulay were both at times captains of the Blackheath Golf Club. It seems likely they were both Freemasons.
And so, the "lost" alderman George Mackenzie Macaulay leads
(a) a club of shipmen dominating shipping to the Pacific, living as Pacific history never knew in just one suburb, and;
(b) a group of Freemasons whose existence has been known only to aficionados of golf; not to historians of Freemasonry
During March, 1791, John St Barbe and alderman George Macaulay took a joint contract, after the Third Fleet, to transport convicts to Sydney, using Macaulay's Indiaman, Pitt. When Pitt sailed, a private passenger aboard was named Theed; presumably a relative of Macaulay's wife? Theed was considerably wealthy, but whether there was any serious intention was to sew up serious business at New South Wales may never be known. Fever raged aboard Pitt, and it remains unknown if Theed died of it or not.
If Theed lived, he would have become the first seriously wealthy man after Sir Joseph Banks to ever set foot on Australian soil. (And some say, not quite correctly, that Pitt's captain, Edward Manning, on this voyage began "retailing" in Australia, as he opened a store when he arrived at Sydney, turning over £4000.
Leaving Sydney, Pitt sailed to Calcutta. As an Indiaman, she was forbidden to trade between Sydney and the East. Certain parties at Sydney, however, notably officers of the New South Wales Corps, thought that sheep might have a future in the new colony. Capt. Manning did something quite simple, rather more simple than the swifty trick some historians think he pulled. He roped in Capt. W. W. Bampton, a "country trader" in eastern waters who could trade largely as he pleased, who mostly took cotton to China. Bampton sailed the ship Shah Hormuzear, bringing Bengal sheep to Sydney. Thus is introduced a technical argument here about sheep breeding in New South Wales that can be a distraction.
Not long after Pitt went to Sydney, the Larkins family of Blackheath, reputedly linked to Macaulay by marriage to one of Macaulay's sisters, sent their Indiaman Royal Admiral out with convicts; this ship carried Mary Haydock, who married Thoms Reibey in Sydney and became a noted trader in Sydney. Meanwhile, among many more-famous names, two of the subscribers to Gov. John Hunter's book about early Sydney, Transactions, (1792-1793) included the whaler Samuel Enderby and Mr Alderman Macaulay - both from Blackheath.
Macaulay had two wives who were either cousins or sisters; probably cousins. Some slim genealogical details are: (some drawn from the IGI) Alderman George Mackenzie MACAULAY, Lloyd's underwriter, (1750-1803), spouse 1 Ann THEED, (died 1788), their children, Ann MACAULAY (born 1774) and George Mackenzie Jnr. MACAULAY (born 1775). And spouse 2, Mary Ann THEED (1770-1820), their children Urry MACAULAY (born 1796), Mary Ann MACAULAY (born 1797) and Beata Elizabeth MACAULAY (born 1800).
As far as is known, no descendants have ever been interested in Alderman Macaulay's odd interest in the early convict colony at Sydney. The matter of Macaulay's sister being married into the Larkins family of Blackheath is to be treated below in this webpage. As will matters regarding Thomas Gregory and John Turnbull, and many others.
Some of the few known links on the Macaulay-Gregory family links
Capt. John URRY RN (active 1792) sp-Miss1 MACAULAY
2-- Sarah URRY
sp-Mark GREGORY MP ( -1793)
3-- John GREGORY sp-Anne OSBORNE
4-- Eliza GREGORY(active 1787).
For the Turnbull family, it is found as follows:
1--At 32 Dartmouth Row, Blackheath, London, John TURNBULL Merchant sp-Miss1 MACAULAY.
For the Gregory family (In Burke's Landed Gentry for Gregory), it is found:
1-- Adam GREGORY Progenitor sp-Miss ORMESTON
2-- John William GREGORY sp-Dorothy PARRE
3-- John GREGORY Lawyer(c.1553) sp-Anne ORMESTON
4-- Gilbert GREGORY sp-Katherine HUTTON
5-- John GREGORY (acfive 1623) sp-Philadelphia TAYLOR
6-- John GREGORY (active 1606) 6-- Hugh GREGORY sp-Miss NOTKNOWN
7-- William GREGORY
6-- Anne GREGORY sp-Roger ROGERSON
2-- Hugh GREGORY, Notts sp-Mary NOTKNOWN
3-- William GREGORY sp-Dorothy BEESTON Notts
4-- John GREGORY of Over Broughton sp-Alice NOTKNOWN
5-- William GREGORY MP, Mayor Nottingham ( -1651) sp-Anne JACKSON ( -1664)
6-- John GREGORY Nottingham sp-Elizabeth ALTON
7-- Philip GREGORY Isle of Wight sp-Elizabeth PHILLIPS
8-- Francis GREGORY Isle of Wight(-1680) sp-Margaret WALDRON
9-- Mark London GREGORY Merchant sp-Elizabeth WRIGHT
10--Mark GREGORY (-1747) sp-Elizabeth CAVE-5260(-1745)
11--William GREGORY RN (1727-1788) sp-Jane JOLIFFE
12--William GREGORY, Consul (1750-1808) sp-Mary Anne SUFFIELD
13--William GREGORY (1789-1841) sp-Mary Virtue EVANS
13--Capt. Henry GREGORY Unm, (-1834)
13--Edward GREGORY Unm, Judge Sierra Leone
13--Lt. John Jervis GREGORY RN (-1840) sp-Caroline Anne FILMER
14--James Edmund GREGORY (-1850)
13--Juliana GREGORY had issue ( -1845) sp-Capt. James HOGG
12--Mark GREGORY Consul Malaga (1752-1793)
12--Thomas GREGORY, Essex (1754-1826) sp-Anne BROGRAVE wife1
13--Anne GREGORY sp-Sir William BEAUCHAMP-PROCTOR, Bart3 ( -1861) sp-Maria D'EQUINO wife2
13--Maria Elizabeth GREGORY (-1861) sp-Rev. Frederick Assheton (Lloyd) IREMONGER
12--Nanny GREGORY (-1842) sp-Sir Christopher BAYNES, Bart1-54889 (1755-1837)
13--Sir William BAYNES, Bart2 (active 1789) sp-Julia SMITH (-1881)
14--Sir William John Walter BAYNES, Bart3 (1820-1897) sp-Margaret STUART (-1911)
15--Sir Christopher William BAYNES, Bart4 sp-Amy COLSTON
16--Sir William Edward Colston BAYNES, Bart5 (active 1876)
11--Mark GREGORY MP (1707-1793) sp-Sarah URRY
13--Eliza GREGORY (active 1787) 7-- George GREGORY High Sheriff Notts sp-Susannah LISTER
8-- William GREGORY (-1667) 8-- George GREGORY, Ordnance sp-Susannah WILLIAMS (-1755)
9-- George GREGORY High Sheriff (-1758) sp-Anne ORTON
10--George De Ligne GREGORY Unm (740-1822)
10--William (Williams) GREGORY had issue (active 1742) sp-Olivia PRESTON 11--George Gregory (Williams) GREGORY Lincs- (1786-1854) 11--Anne Elizabeth GREGORY Unm- (-1849)
10--Rev. Edward GREGORY, Unm- (active 1745) 10--Daniel GREGORY-40893 (1747-1819) sp-Catherine BUCKINGHAM
11--George GREGORY (-1860) sp-Elizabeth PINE 11--Edward GREGORY (-1849) sp-Mary PATTISON
6-- Francis GREGORY sp-Anne SLEKE Nottingham
the name Saunders
By 1800, a new name, Prinsep, had entered the lists of merchants wanting to send a convict ship to Australia. This name came to London via India, with new ideas in mind - John Prinsep.
Between 1800-1804, John Prinsep and his partners Lambert and Saunders were expressing interest in shipping prisoners to Sydney. Prinsep's involvements are little reported, but there is an air of mercantile giftedness in what little is known of him. John Prinsep (1746-1831) had been 17 years in India where he pioneered indigo production. He returned to London with a fortune by 1788, became established as a merchant, and by 1804 he (unsuccessfully) planned a whale fishery in the South Seas, transporting convicts on the outward voyage, as per John St Barbe's proposal of the early 1790s, and shipping wool and freight back to London.
In July, 1804, as a London merchant, John Prinsep was examined in Council Chamber at Whitehall, presumably about such possibilities. In 1804, as commercial men operating on an impressive scale, Prinsep and Saunders tendered a remarkable 16 ships to the East India Company; probably, mostly in the Bengal rice trade.
However, the later involvements of John Prinsep's sons in Western Australia are still not clear. What is clear, however, is that Prinsep plans, however much they failed in execution, had moved from New South Wales to Western Australia - involving a continental overview - the first such continental overview adumbrated by any merchants with London-India shipping and commercial connections. And perhaps prompted by NSW wool-production promoter, John Macarthur, perhaps not, Prinsep early on had at least considered wool freight from New South Wales.
The Prinsep picture failed to develop. Some of the history of the Prinsep extended family is as follows, and includes the noted writer, Virginia Woolf (Adeline Virginia Stephen, 1882-9141)
Given earlier reference to the trading activities of the New
South Wales Corps, by about 1800, the weightiest commercial names
which can be mentioned regarding investment possibilities are
ranged around the acqauintanceships of John Macarthur. Here, the
name of Macarthur's later "family banker" Walter Stephenson
Davidson looms the largest, from 1803-1804, and rather
mysteriously. Davidson, who was in New South Wales by 1803, but
departed, may have had links in eastern trade with two sons of
Francis Baring (Thomas in Bengal and Henry at Canton).
The business linkages they formed have never been adumbrated, and Barings' work generally with the east remains little-known. It is with following up Davidson's career in this respect that many complexities of relationships commercial and personal between the banking fraternity in the United Kingdom need to be tallied. Lambert, Prinsep and Saunders were of 148 Leadenhall Street. I have been unable to find anything further on Lambert or Saunders.
To 1830, one Robert Saunders, probably of Mincing Lane, with partners, was a London-Calcutta indigo dealer; he was probably son of the otherwise-unknown partner, Saunders, of John Prinsep. To 1826, a J. Saunders appears as a wool trader and is listed by Le Coteur as a member of the Van Diemens Land Company, but there is no proof he was connected with the original partner Saunders with Prinsep.
See George Sugden Le Couteur, Colonial Investment Adventure, 1824-1855: a comparative study of the establishment and early investment experiences in New South Wales, Tasmania and Canada, of four British companies. Ph.D. thesis, Sydney University, 1978.
One H. T. Prinsep was active with the East India Company by 1827. In S. B. Singh, European Agency Houses in Bengal, 1783-1883. Calcutta, Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, 1966., he is acting secretary about 1827 to Government Territorial Department in India, at a time when some European and Indian agency houses were failing, the failures affecting investors in England badly. Pemberton, The London Connection, p. 121, Note 3. See also, DNB entries for members of the Prinsep family.
On many points in maritime history, generally, illuminating essays can be found in C. Northcote Parkinson, (Ed.), The Trade Winds: A Study of British Overseas Trade during the French Wars, 1793-1815. London, Allen and Unwin, 1948., p. 143: about 1804, Prinsep and Saunders tendered 16 ships to the East India Company.
Sibella Macarthur-Onslow, Some Early Records of the Macarthurs of Camden. [Orig. 1914] Sydney, Rigby, 1973., pp. 92-95.
The acquaintanceships of John
Macarthur become devilishly complicated to delineate. However,
there is a drift about "eastern trade" in plans suggested by
Macarthur's acquaintances which presumably surfaced in Macarthur's
later vision about Pacific opportunities, termed his "quadrangular
trade pattern" as illustrated and discussed in D. R. Hainsworth,
The Sydney Traders: Simeon Lord and his Contemporaries,
1788-1821. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1972., p.
A. C. Staples, 'Memoirs of William Prinsep; Calcutta years, 1817-1842', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 26, No. 2, April-June 1989., pp. 61-79.
PRINSEP DESCENDANCY CHART
1-- John PRINSEP, East India Company Indigo producer, London (c.1790-1832) sp-Sophia NOTKNOWN; Charles Robert PRINSEP EICo Calcutta (c.1844) sp-Louisa Anne WHITE ( -1853); 3-- Henry Charles PRINSEP Settler Western Australia (c1844-1922) sp-Charlotte Josephine BUSSELL (1849-1929); 3-- Mary Emily PRINSEP widow, wife2 ( -1931) sp-Hallam TENNYSON, Baron2 Tennyson, Governor South Australia, Governor-General Australia (1852-1928); 2-- Sophia PRINSEP sp- Mr. HALDIMAND, 2-- Henry Thoby PRINSEP EICo merchant (1793-1878) sp-Sara PATTLE (IGI) (c.1848); 3-- Henry Auriol PRINSEP, 3-- Virginia PRINSEP (IGI) (c.1848), 3-- Alice PRINSEP sp-Banker Charles Henry GURNEY (c.1833); 4-- Rachel Anne GURNEY wife1 ( -1920) sp-William Humble WARD Earl3 Dudley, Governor -General Australia (1867-1932); 5-- William Humble Eric WARD Earl3 Dudley (c.1894) sp- Lady Rosemary Millicent LEVESON-GOWER; 6--Lt. William Humble David WARD (c.1920); 5--Capt (army) Robert Arthur WARD; 5-- Cyril Augustus WARD RNVR, 5--Lt Gerald Ernest Francis WARD; 4-- Laura GURNEY sp- Sir Thomas Herbert TROUBRIDGE, Bart4 ( -1938), 4-- Henry Edward GURNEY; 2-- James PRINSEP, Orientalist, reformer of currency of India, ( -1840); 2-- William PRINSEP, Merchant with agency house William Palmer and Co (c.1796) sp-
However, if a little-known progenitor is examined, James Pattle,
a family tree is produced thus which has been seldom seen,
therefore never examined, containing the names of the writer
Virginia Woolf and one governor -general of Australia! (For more on
the mysteries of the name Pattle, see below in the section
DESCENDANCY CHART, 1-- James PATTLE (1775-1845) sp-Adeline DE L'TANG (1793-1845); 2-- Maria PATTLE (1818-1892) sp-Dr John JACKSON (1804-1887); 3-- Julia Prinsep JACKSON widow, wife2 (1846-1895) sp-Sir Leslie STEPHEN, Bart1 KCB (1832-1904); 4-- Adeline Virginia (Woolf) STEPHEN, writer (1882-1941) sp-Leonard WOOLF (d.1969); 4-- Julian Thoby STEPHEN died young (1880-1906) 4-- Vanessa STEPHEN (1879) sp-Arthur Clive BELL Art Critic (1881-1964); 5--Professor Quentin BELL Prof History (c.1910); 5-- Angelica GRANT (c.1918) sp-David GARNETT; 4-- Adrian STEPHEN (c.1883) sp-Karin Elizabeth COSTELLOE (1889-1953) sp-Herbert DUCKWORTH, Barrister, (1833-1870); 4-- George DUCKWORTH (1868-1934) sp- Lady Margaret HERBERT; 4-- Gerald DUCKWORTH (1870-1937), 4-- Stella DUCKWORTH (c.1869) sp- John Waller HILLS MP (1867-1938); 3-- Adeline Maria JACKSON (1837-1881) sp- Sir Henry Halford VAUGHAN (1811-1885); 4-- William Wyamar VAUGHAN sp-Margaret Madge SYMONDS; 5-- Janet Maria VAUGHAN (c.1899), 4-- Millicent VAUGHAN sp-Sir Vere ISHAM, Bart11; 3-- Mary Louisa JACKSON (1841-1916) sp-Herbert FISHER Royal Tutor; 4-- Herbert A. L. FISHER, Educator, 4-- Florence Henrietta FISHER (1863-1920) sp-Frederic W. MAITLAND, Historian (1850-1906), sp-Sir Francis DARWIN, FRS (1848-1925), 4-- Adeline FISHER ( -1951) sp-Ralph Vaughan WILLIAM (1872-1958), 4-- Edmund Jo FISHER (-1918) sp-Jeanie FRESHFIELD; 2-- Adeline PATTLE sp- General Colin MACKENZIE, 2-- Sara PATTLE (IGI) (c.1848) sp-Henry Thoby PRINSEP East India Company merchant, (1793-1878); 3-- Henry Auriol PRINSEP, 3-- Virginia PRINSEP (IGI) (c.1848), 3-- Alice PRINSEP sp-Banker Charles Henry GURNEY (c.1833); 4-- Rachel Anne GURNEY, wife1 ( -1920) sp-William Humble WARD Earl3 Dudley, Governor-General Australia (1867-1932); 5-- William Humble Eric WARD Earl3 Dudley (c.1894) sp- Lady Rosemary Millicent LEVESON-GOWER; 6--Lt William Humble David WARD (c.1920), 5--Capt (army) Robert Arthur army WARD, 5--Commander Cyril Augustus WARD RNVR, 5- Lt Gerald Ernest Francis WARD; 4-- Laura GURNEY sp- Sir Thomas Herbert TROUBRIDGE, Bart4 ( -1938), 4-- Henry Edward GURNEY; 2-- Louisa PATTLE sp-H. V. BAYLEY, 3-- Maria BAYLEY ( -1917) sp-Charles MACNAMARA; 2-- Sophia PATTLE sp- Sir John W. DALRYMPLE, Bart7, 2-- Virginia PATTLE (1827-1910) sp- Charles SOMERS Earl3 Somers (1810-1883), 3-- Adeline Mary (Somers-Cocks) SOMERS had issue (c.1852) George William RUSSELL Earl16 Bedford, Duke13 Bedford (1852-1893), 3-- Isabel SOMERS sp- Lord Henry Richard Charles SOMERSET (1849-1932); 2-- Julia Margaret PATTLE Photographer (1815-1879) sp-Charles Hay CAMERON, 3-- Julia CAMERON wife1 ( -1873) sp-Banker, Charles Lloyd NORMAN (1833-1889) of the family from Bromley Common.
An Englishwoman, Mary Pattle Hover now of Dunedin, Florida, USA, emailto: firstname.lastname@example.org is interested in following up the descendants of the name Pattle, and their connections. She has research materials to hand on the Pattle Family Tree (branches in India, Australia, NZ, S.Africa, USA, Canada and of course the main branch in England).
Mary CAMPBELL (family unknown) (1820), 2-- George Alexander PRINSEP Merchant ( -1839) sp-Miss NOTKNOWN.
Some notes on genalogical sources used here:
On CHARLES HAY CAMERON, see Frances Spalding on Vanessa Bell. On Dr JOHN JACKSON, Table. Marler, ed, p. xxiii. The Pattle girls' maternal grandmother is Therese Blin de Grincourt at/of Versailles, France. He is a leading physician at Medical College at Calcutta. His wife went home in 1848 for health reasons; this wife Maria is sister of Sarah Pattle and her husband Henry Thoby Prinsep, a retired Anglo-India administrator.
On HENRY EDWARD GURNEY, Burke's Landed Gentry for Gurney of North Runcton.
L. M. Mowle, A Genealogical History of Pioneer Families of Australia. Fifth edition. Sydney, Rigby, 1978., Genealogy for Stephen, p. 328. On Sir Leslie STEPHEN KCB, Bart1 (1832-1904), son of the anti-slaver James STEPHEN, and his wife Jane Catherine VENN (of the Clapham Sect), MARRIAGE(S), Julia Prinsep JACKSON, widow, wife2 and Harriet Marion Anne THACKERAY (daughter of novelist, William Makepeace Thackeray). On Sir LESLIE STEPHEN, BART1, KCB, Table by Q. Bell. On the Venn family, see John Venn, Annals of a Clerical Family, 1904.
There is a genealogy of the Stephen family in Memoirs of James Stephen, edited by MM Bevington, 1954. Sir Leslie Stephen was first editor of English Dictionary of National Biography.
Also on the Stephen family: Noel Annan, Leslie Stephen: The Godless Victorian. London and Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1984.
On Virginia Woolf see: Quentin Bell, Bloomsbury. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson. On Adeline Virginia (Woolf) STEPHEN writer (1882-1941)m Father: Sir Leslie STEPHEN KCB and Mother: Julia Prinsep JACKSON.
On ADELINE VIRGINIA (WOOLF) STEPHEN, WRITER, See table in Nigel Nicolson, (Ed.), The Question of Things Happening: The Letters of Virginia Woolf, 1912-1922. London, The Hogarth Press, 1976.
Louise DeSalvo, Virginia Woolf: The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Her Life and Work. New York, Ballantine Books, 1989. Mowle's Genealogy for Stephen, p. 328.
Alma Halbert Bond, Who Killed Virginia Woolf: a psychobiography. New York. Human Services Press. 1989.
Lyndall Gordon, Virginia Woolf: a writer's life. OUP. 1984. Anne Olivier Bell and Andrew McNeillie, (Eds.), The Diary of Virginia Woolf, Vol. 2, 1920-1924. London, Penguin, 1981.
Regina Marler, (Ed.), introduction by Quentin Bell, Selected Letters of Vanessa Bell. London, Bloomsbury Pub Ltd., 1993-1994. James King, Virginia Woolf, London, Penguin, 1994-1995.
Frances Spalding, Vanessa Bell. London, Phoenix, 1994. On William Wyamar VAUGHAN, a cousin of Virginia Woolf, see p. 271 of Bell/McNeillie, (Eds.), Vol. 2 of Diary of V. Woolf. He is headmaster of Rugby school. Table by Q. Bell.
On Charles Lloyd NORMAN (1833-1889) Banker, son of Father: George Wade NORMAN an investor in the Australian Agricultural Company and Mother: Sibella STONE, C. L. Norman married Julia Cameron wife 1 and Emily MANGLES wife2 (daughter of director of the New Zealand Companmy Ross Donelly Mangles and Harriet Newcombe). See Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Norman of Bromley Common.
On ISABEL SOMERS, see Michael Stenton, (Ed.), Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: A Biographical Dictionary of the House of Commons. Peterhouse, Cambridge, UK. Harvester Press. 1976-1978. (Four Vols). Vol. 1, 1832-1885. Vol. 2, 1886-1918., Vol. 1, p. 356.
On JULIA CAMERON WIFE1 and husband Norman, Burke's Landed Gentry for Norman of Bromley Common.
On ADELINE DE L'TANG, James King on V Woolf, p. 7. She had earlier links to Chevalier de l'Tang and Therese Blin de Grincourt. She is descended from a servant of Marie Antoinette, Chevalier de l'Etang. (See p. 365 of notes of Annan on Sir Leslie Stephen.)
On Capt ROBERT ARTHUR WARD, see GEC, Peerage, Dudley of Dudley Castle, p. 491, Note B. On WILLIAM HUMBLE WARD Earl3 Dudley, governor-general of Australia, see Burke's Landed Gentry for Gurney of North Runcton. His progenitor is Baron1 Ward in GEC, Complete Peerage, Dudley of Dudley Castle, p. 491; Ward of Birmingham, p. 344. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Birmingham.
Note: I am indebted to Georgina Chaseling for assistance with the links between the name Prinsep and the circle of writer, Virginia Woolf, the Bloomsbury Group. Ms Chaseling is descended from the Stephen family who were part of Woolf's circle.
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Note: Persons to be named in this listing project with at least one member of their extended family listed in the IGI include: The Pattle family, Richard Pennant (1737-1808), first Baron Penrhyn, a chairman of a committee of West India merchants, whose wife provided the name for the First Fleet ship, Lady Penryhn. Nicholas Nepean, under-secretary of the Home Office in 1786, a friend of the merchant and government contractor, Alexander Davison. Members of the Lux family of convict contractors of the 1730s in North America. John Julius Angerstein, a noted underwriter of Lloyd's of London before and after 1800. London Lord Mayor and West India planter, William Beckford. John Palmer, the first Commissary of the early colony at New South Wales. Charles Edward Mangles (1798-1873), a merchant in "the Australia trade". London brewer and MP, Samuel Whitbread (1759-1815).
Some merchants who might be listed here, but are not apparently with family members listed in the IGI, include the whaler Sydenham Teast; a compatriot of John St. Barbe in the 1790s, William Bignell. James Duncan, a convict contractor of Blackheath, London, in the 1790s with East India trade connections.
Bateson in The Convict Ships has notes on Chapmans, pp. 203, 359. One Edward Chapman is master of a convict ship, p. 359. Bateson gives Abel II Chapman as a convict contractor, p. 203, in ship lists (Appendices). And, Bateson has A. [Abel] Chapman sending a convict ship Mariner Capt John Herbert in 1816, in 1817 (with a mutiny aboard, a ship built in 1777 at Whitby and named for her owner Abel Chapman; probably Abel II) Chapman, Capt John Drake; in 1819 ship Recovery Capt Wm Fotherly, in 1824 ship Chapman again, in 1826, Chapman, in 1827, Andromeda, in 1827 Mariner again.
The Chapmans sent relatively few convict ships to NSW and Tasmania; and they are not easy to assess genealogically.
The family has at least six men named Abel. The two convict contractors of the family were Abel II (1752-1849) who married Rebecca Bell as second wife; and Abel II's relative, Aaron Chapman (1771-1850), MP, married to Elizabeth Barker of Whitby. Aaron Chapman was son of John Chapman (1732-1822). Aaron was MP for Whitby, and one of the parliamentary investors in the Australian Agricultural Company from the 1820s.
Of the family also was banker William Chapman (1792-1878) of Newcastle, an investor in the Australian Agricultural Company, son of Abel II Chapman. William married a cousin, Jane Chapman. William's family had links to Barclays as noted in Burke's Landed Gentry for Barclay of Mathers and Urie. He seems also to have been connected with the bankers, Herries, Farquar and Co. of St James Street. His private address was Acton, Middlesex.
Notes: Abel II CHAPMAN (2 May 1752-30 Dec 1849), son of William CHAPMAN and Hannah GASKIN wife3. Bateson, The Convict Ships, p. 203. He was of Woodford House, Wanstead, Essex, an Elder Brother of Trinity House in 1795. (Anthony Calvert listed herein was also in 1790s an Elder Brother of Trinity House). Abel II was Commr for Ltncy of London, Treasurer of St Thomas' Hospital, a director of London Assurance Co. and Union Bank.
The name Pelly is also found linked to the Chapman extended family. Men named Pelly were, like Abel II Chapman, Elder Brother(s) of Trinity House in the 1790s; also like Chapmans, Pellys worked as captains for East India Company ships.
We also find in the extended family, Mary Temple (1660-1739 of the family Temple of Stowe) married as second wife of William Chapman (born 1646), the mother of Abel I Chapman.
A mystery arises however when the family history of the Pattle family is considered, since in Bloomfield's book on Edward Gibbon Wakefield, "builder of the British Commonwealth", so noted in South Australian and New Zealand history, it is stated that there were three brothers Pattle: William of the Bengal Light Cavalry; James (1775-1845) the father of seven daughters noted in the section above on Prinseps; and Capt Thomas, of Canton, who died worth a fortune in Macao in 1815.
Thomas's second wife was Elizabeth Brooke of the family Brookes of Sarawak; Thomas' first wife Eliza Anne Middleton had two daughters; one who married in the Brooke/Sarawak family, and Eliza Susan Pattle, who was the first wife of Edward Gibbon Wakefield (1796-1862). These linkages seem to have never before traced in full.
In Bloomfield's title on Wakefield, in a genealogical table, it is indicated that one Abel Chapman married Priscilla Wakefield, daughter of Edward Wakefield and Susan Crash; thus a relative of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
In the extended family, Chapman, we find East India Captain (HEICS) Alfred Chapman, also Capt Ingram Chapman HEICS; a Danish merchant resident at Blackheath, Thomas Chapman, married to Anne Cleaver, whose son John born 1797 was also resident at Blackheath; and names such as bankers Barclay and Gurney, India officials in India, Buxton, Birkbeck and Elwes. Joseph Gurney Barclay a missionary to Japan.
The Chapmans indicated here also had links to the name Bell, but whether this name Bell had linkages to the Sydney traders named Bell, I do not yet know.
Genealogical references on Abel II Chapman (1752-1849), convict
Bateson, The Convict Ships.
Philip Bright, (Ed.), The Diaries of John Bright. London, Cassell, 1930.
Paul Bloomfield, Edward Gibbon Wakefield: Builder of the British Commonwealth. London, Longman's Green and Co., 1961. With genealogical table.
Burke's Landed Gentry for Arkwright formerly of Sutton Scarsdale; Barclay of Highham; Barclay of Mathers and Urie; Birkbeck of Westacre; Buxton of Highham; Chapman formerly of Cookesbury; Chapman formerly of Whitby; Elwes of Congham; Elwes of Roxby; Fox of Penjerrick; Gurney of Walsingham Abbey and Earlham; Gurney of North Runcton; Hamond of Westacre; Hoare of Gateley Hall; Napier of Pennard House; Smith-Dorrien-Smith. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Aubrey-Fletcher; Backhouse; Blois; Buxton; Leith-Buchanan; Freeman-Attwood formerly of Sion Hill; Newborough; Pelly; Rowley of Hill House; St Levan; Temple of Stowe; Vaughan; Wimborne.
Byrnes, The Blackheath Connection; Cassis, City Bankers;
Pemberton, The London Connection; Stenton, British
F. M. L. Thompson, `Life after Death: How Successful Nineteenth-Century Businessmen disposed of their Fortunes', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 43, No. 1, 1990., pp. 40-61.
Follows an abridged database read-out
of Pattle family history:
1-- Senior PATTLE- sp-Miss NOTKNOWN; 2-- James PATTLE (1775-1845) sp-Adeline DE L'TANG-36752 (1793-1845); 3-- Maria PATTLE (1818-1892) sp-Dr John JACKSON (1804-1887) 4--widow Julia Prinsep JACKSON wife2 (1846-1895) sp-Sir Leslie STEPHEN, Bart1, KCB (1832-1904); 5-- Adeline Virginia (Woolf) STEPHEN Writer-34372 (1882-1941) sp-Leonard WOOLF-38083 (1880-1969), 5-- Julian Thoby STEPHEN died young-28874 (1880-1906)
see above read-out re Prinsep and the circle of Virginia Woolf;
3-- Sara PATTLE (c.1848) sp-Henry Thoby PRINSEP EICo merchant (1793-1878);
2--Capt Thomas Charles PATTLE ( -1815) sp-Elizabeth BROOKE wife2 sp-Eliza Anne Frances MIDDLETON wife1 ( -1820); 3-- Ruth Casson PATTLE - sp-Capt Robert BROOKE (c. 1727); 4--Judge EICS Thomas BROOKE (1760-1835) sp-Anna Maria STUART; 5-- Henry BROOKE died young, 5--Sir James BROOKE of Sarawak Unm (1803-1868) sp-Margaret NOTKNOWN, sp-Lily Willes JOHNSON wife2; 6-- Charles Vyner BROOKE Rajah3 Sarawak (c.1874), 6-- Charles Anthony JOHNSON-BROOKE Rajah, sp-Margaret Alice Lili DE WINDT; 7-- Ghita JOHNSON-BROOKE ( -1873), 7-- Charles Vyner JOHNSON-BROOKE - sp-Lady Sylvia Leonora BRETT (Lady Brooke) (1885-1971); 8-- Leonora Margaret BROOKE wife2 sp-Kenneth MACKAY Earl2 Inchape, P&O Line, (1887-1932), 8-- Bertram BROOKE (1876-1965) sp-Gladys Milton PALMER ( -1952), 8-- Vyner BROOKE sp-Miss NOTKNOWN; 6-- Bertram BROOKE- (c.1786), 6-- Harry BROOKE (c.1879), 6-- Stuart BROOKE; 5-- Emma Frances BROOKE (c.1822) sp- Rev. Francis Charles JOHNSON; 6--Rajah Sir John Johnson-Brooke BROOKE sp-Annie GRANT wife1- ( -1858); 7-- Basil BROOKE (c.1857), 7-- John Charles Evelyn BROOKE ( -1934) sp-Violet BARRINGTON; 8-- Vice-Admiral Basil Charles Barrington BROOKE sp-Nora TOPPIN; 9-- Peter Barrington BROOKE- sp-Julia WELSTEAD wife2; 7-- Capt William Frederic BROOKE, 7-- Charles Anthony BROOKE, 7-- Prison governor, Henry Stuart BROOKE ( -1894); 6--Sir Charles Anthony JOHNSON-BROOKE (1874-1963); 5-- Margaret BROOKE (c.1825) sp- Rev. Anthony SAVAGE (c.1825); 3-- Eliza Susan PATTLE wife1 sp-Edward Gibbon WAKEFIELD New Zealand Co., Western Australian Co., (1796-1862); 4-- Nina WAKEFIELD (-1835), 4-- Edward Jerningham WAKEFIELD MP, NZ colonist, author (1820-1879) -sp-Ellen ROE; 2-- William PATTLE Bengal Light Cavalry.
ARMIDALE, NSW 1999
Australian Dictionary of Biography.
English Dictionary of National Biography.
Burke's Landed Gentry [Three Vols.]: for Gurney of North Runcton; Norman of Bromley Common.
Burke's Peerage & Baronetage [Various editions]: with entries for: Birmingham; Currie; Dyke; Norman of Bromley Common;
Noel Annan, Leslie Stephen: The Godless Victorian. London and Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1984.
Charles Bateson, The Convict Ships, 1787-1868. [Orig. 1959] Sydney, A. H. and A. W. Reed, 1974.
Anne Olivier Bell and Andrew McNeillie, (Eds.), The Diary of Virginia Woolf, Vol. 2, 1920-1924. London, Penguin, 1981.
Quentin Bell, Bloomsbury. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ?.
George Blake, Lloyd's Register of Shipping, 1760-1966. London. Printed by Lloyd's Register of Shipping. nd? [1960?]
Paul Bloomfield, Edward Gibbon Wakefield: Builder of the British Commonwealth. London, Longman's Green and Co., 1961. With genealogical table.
Alma Halbert Bond, Who Killed Virginia Woolf: A Psychobiography. New York. Human Services Press. 1989.
Philip Bright, (Ed.), The Diaries of John Bright. London, Cassell, 1930.
Dan Byrnes, 'From Glasgow to Jamaica to London and Australia: the elusive Duncan Campbell (1726-1803)', Cruachan, (Journal of Clan Campbell Society of Australia), No. 62, December 1993., pp 11-16.
Dan Byrnes, '"Emptying The Hulks": Duncan Campbell and the First Three Fleets to Australia', The Push From The Bush: A Bulletin of Social History, No. 24, April, 1987., pp. 2-23.
Dan Byrnes, 'Outlooks for the English South Whale Fishery, 1782-1800, and the "great Botany Bay debate"', The Great Circle, Vol. 10, No. 2, October 1988., pp. 79-102.
Dan Byrnes, 'The Blackheath Connection: London Local History and the Settlement at New South Wales, 1786-1806', The Push, A Journal of Early Australian Social History, No. 28, 1990., pp. 50-98.
Dan Byrnes, `Commentary', to Wilfrid Oldham, Britain's Convicts to the Colonies. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1990.
Youseff Cassis, City Bankers, 1890-1914. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
Youssef Cassis, 'Bankers in English Society in the late eighteenth century', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 38, No. 2, May 1985., pp. 210-229.
G. E. Cokayne, The Complete Peerage, for Dudley of Dudley Castle, p. 491, Note B; Ward of Birmingham, p. 344.
Henry Steele Commager, Documents of American History. (Ninth edition). New Jersey, Prentice Hall Inc., 1973.
John S. Cumpston, Shipping Arrivals and Departures, Sydney, 1788-1825. Canberra, Roebuck, 1963-1964.
John S. Cumpston, Macquarie Island: A Bibliography. Cremorne, NSW, Stone Copying Company, (Studies In Australian Bibliography, No. 6), Canberra, Roebuck, nd? 1958?
Louise DeSalvo, Virginia Woolf: The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Her Life and Work. New York, Ballantine Books, 1989.
Dawson, The Banks Letters.
The Samuel Enderby Book, Whaling Documents 1775-1790. (Originals held at the Pennsylvania Historical Society, 1300 Locust St., Philadelphia, PA. USA.) Canberra, Australian National Library, Petherick Collection of Manuscripts, Ms 1701. Used by permission.
Michael Flynn, The The Second Fleet Fleet: Britain's Grim Convict Armada of 1790. Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1993.
Michael Flynn, Settlers and Seditionists: The People of the Convict Ship Surprize, 1794. Sydney, Angela Lind, 1994.
Alan Frost, Botany Bay Mirages: Illusions of Australia's Convict Beginnings. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1994.
Lyndall Gordon, Virginia Woolf: a writer's life. OUP. 1984.
D. R. Hainsworth, The Sydney Traders: Simeon Lord and his Contemporaries, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1972., p. 68.
Historical Records of Australia.
Historical Records of New South Wales. Various Vols.
Historical Records of New Zealand.
Gordon Jackson, The British Whaling Trade. London, Adam and Charles Black, 1978.
A. G. E. Jones, Ships employed in the South Seas Trade, 1775-1861 [Parts 1 and 2]: plus A Registrar General of Shipping and Seamen, transcripts of Registers of Shipping, 1787-1862 [Part 3]. Canberra, Roebuck, 1986.
Katharine A. Kellock, 'London Merchants and the pre-1776 American Debts', Guildhall Studies in London History, Vol. 1, No 3, October 1974., pp. 109-149.
James King, Virginia Woolf. London, Penguin, 1994-1995.
Roger J. B. Knight, "The First Fleet, Its State and Preparation, 1786-1787", pp. 121-136, in John Hardy and Alan Frost, Studies from Terra Australis to Australia. Canberra, Occasional Paper No 6, Australian Academy of the Humanities, 1988.
R. Langdon, (Ed.), American Whalers and Traders in the Pacific: A Guide to Records on Microfilm. Canberra, Pacific Manuscripts Bureau, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1978.
George Sugden Le Couteur, Colonial Investment Adventure, 1824-1855: a comparative study of the establishment and early investment experiences in New South Wales, Tasmania and Canada, of four British companies. Ph.D. thesis, Sydney University, 1978.
Sibella Macarthur-Onslow, Some Early Records of the Macarthurs of Camden. [Orig. 1914] Sydney, Rigby, 1973., pp. 92-95.
Regina Marler, (Ed.), Introduction by Quentin Bell, Selected Letters of Vanessa Bell. London, Bloomsbury Pub. Ltd., 1993-1994.
W. P. Morrell, Britain In
The Pacific Islands. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1960.
L. M. Mowle, A Genealogical History of Pioneer Families of Australia. Fifth edition. Sydney, Rigby, 1978., Genealogy for Stephen, p. 328.
Nigel Nicolson, (Ed.), The Question of Things Happening: The Letters of Virginia Woolf, 1912-1922. London, The Hogarth Press, 1976.
C. Northcote Parkinson, (Ed.), The Trade Winds: A Study of British Overseas Trade during the French Wars, 1793-1815. London, Allen and Unwin, 1948., p. 143: about 1804, Prinsep and Saunders tendered 16 ships to the East India Company.
Pennie A. Pemberton, The London Connection: The Formation and Early Years of the Australian Agricultural Company. Ph.D. thesis. Canberra, Australian National University, 1991.
Arthur Phillip, The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay, With an Account of the Establishment of the Colonies of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island, including the Journals of Lts. Shortland, Watts, Ball and Capt. Marshall. Melbourne, Facsimile edition for Georgian House, 1950.
Rhys Richards, "The Cruise of the Kingston and the Elligood in 1800 and the Wreck Found on King Island in 1802", The Great Circle, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1991., pp. 35-53.
Neil Rhind, The Heath: A Companion Volume to Blackheath Village and Environs. Blackheath, London, Bookshop Blackheath Ltd., 1987. [In the same series by Neil Rhind are, Blackheath Village and Environs, 1790-1970; and Blackheath in Lee: From Lloyds Place to Dartmouth Row]
Frances Spalding, Vanessa Bell. London, Phoenix, 1994.
Eduoard A. Stackpole, Whales And Destiny, The Rivalry Between America, France, and Britain For Control Of The Southern Whale Fishery, 1785-1825. University of Massachusetts Press, 1972.
A. C. Staples, 'Memoirs of William Prinsep; Calcutta years, 1817-1842', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 26, No. 2, April-June 1989., pp. 61-79.
Michael Stenton, (Ed.), Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: A Biographical Dictionary of the House of Commons. Peterhouse, Cambridge, UK. Harvester Press. 1976-1978. (Four Vols). Vol. 1, 1832-1885. Vol. 2, 1886-1918., Vol. 1, p. 356.
Richard Straus, Lloyd's: A Historical Sketch. London, Hutchinson and Co., 1937]
David Syrett, 'The Victualling Board charters shipping,
1775-1782', Bulletin of Historical Research, The Institute
of Historical Research, Vol. 68, 1995., pp. 212-224.
F. M. L. Thompson, `Life after Death: How Successful Nineteenth-Century Businessmen disposed of their Fortunes', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 43, No. 1, 1990., pp. 40-61.
On the Venn family, see John Venn, Annals of a Clerical Family, 1904. [On The Clapham Sect]
Simon Ville, 'The deployment of English merchant shipping: Michael and Joseph Henley of Wapping, ship owners, 1775-1830', Journal of Transport History, Vol. 5, No. 2, September 1984., pp. 16-33.
Simon Ville, 'The Growth of Specialization in English shipowning, 1750-1850', Economic History Review, Vol. 46, No. 41, 1993., pp. 702-722.
William Wilson, A
Missionary Voyage To The South Pacific Ocean, 1799-98. (Rare,
copy, Dixson Library, UNE). Printed for T. Chapman, No. 151 Fleet
Street, by T. Gillette, Printer, Sainsbury Sq.
W. A. Shaw, The Knights of England. Two Vols. London, Heraldry Today, 1971.
T. H. Hollingsworth, 'A demographic study of the British ducal families', pp. 73-102 in Michael Drake, (Ed.), Population in Industrialisation. London, Methuen, 1969.
Davis McCaughey, Naomi Perkins and Angus Trumble, Victoria's Colonial Governors, 1839-1900. Melbourne University Press, 1993.
For more on genealogy, Alan's
Cheshire Page: UK: http://members.tripod.com/~AlanCheshire/index.html
(broken link): http://ftp.cac.edu/~saw/royal/r51.html/
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Follows parts of work-in-progress
Email-to for this discussion includes:
Mary Hover in Florida, USA: email@example.com
James Sinclair, Surbiton, Surrey, UK: JJamesSinclair@compuserve.com< /a>
Rogan Coles in Hong Kong: firstname.lastname@example.org
New information on the Pattle line has arisen by
email exchange from the following: Mary Pattle Hover, of Florida,
USA. James Sinclair Surbiton, Surrey UK email:
Rogan Coles in Hong Kong.
The following is a transcript from Alan Hardcastle writing in the Indiaman, December 1996 Issue.
("My research into the history of Addiscombe College over the last eight years or so, has drawn my attention towards the following bizarre tales associated with India; which caught my imagination and may be worth recalling here. BAIS member, Joan Hoseason kindly provided me with the first of these back in 1991.)
James Pattle joined the H.E.I.Co in 1792 in Bengal, being born at Beauleah in that province on Christmas Eve 1775. he began as a writer and then rose though various legal and administrative posts to be High Court Judge, and was in the H.E.I.Co's employ for 53 years - being their longest serving member when he died.
He was highly successful, very wealtlhy, had a beautiful, forgiving wife (Adeline Maria de L'Etang 1793-1845), and beautiful daughters who all made successful marriages to wealthy men. For many years he lived in a huge house in Calcutta, which he had bought for £20,000 and it later became the episcopal palace of that city.
However, he drank to such an extent that a nightcap became known as 'having a Pattle', and he told such wild yarns that he earned the nickname of 'Jim Blazes' and 'Joot Singh' - the king of liars.
When James died he ordered in his will that his body should be taken to England, and that he desired to be buried next to his mother at Camberwell, South London. Adeline, respecting his wishes, had his body placed in a barrel of rum to preserve it, and waited for a ship to sail for England. The barrel was placed in an appartment adjoining Adeline's bedroom, but the gasses in James's body swelled, and one awful night, the container exploded. Adeline ran through to see what had happened and saw her husband half-in-half-out of the barrel. The sight of this sent her out of her mind, and she never spoke again.
Two months later the couple's daughters; Virginia (then aged 18) and Sophia (aged 16) took their mother to visit their sister Sarah in London, and Adeline died during the voyage over. It must have been pretty awful for the two girls, having lost both parents within two months - and with such drama.
Back to James - his body was hoisted out of the barrel and was placed in another barrel of rum. This was duly placed aboard a ship due to sail for England.
As sailors were higly superstitious, it was deemed unwise to let them know that they were carrying a dead body, but they recognised a barrel of rum when they saw one, and pierced a hole in it and syphoned out the contents, and drank it. They became so drunk and spilt rum all around. Subsequently, this caught fire. Panic ensued and as they rushed about to put the flames out, the ship ran aground (the mouth of the Hooghli River was famous for it's sand bars). The fire was put out and James (surely he was splitting his sides with laughter from whichever hereafter he went to) was decanted into a third barrel and eventually arrived in London.
The final twist to the story was that the church in Camberwell where James's mother was buried and where he requested his body to be buried also, was bombed out of existence during the second world war, and it was deemed that the bodies interred there should be dug up and removed to consecrated ground elsewhere. His mother's remains (Sarah Pattle 1755-1813) were found, but no sign of James was ever found! His Hoseason decendants refer to him as 'P.J.' - Pickled Jim.!"
JAMES PATTLE - AS AN EAST INDIA COMPANY MAN
Follows from the footnote on page 218 by Raleigh
Trevelyan in "The Golden Oriole" pub. OUP 1988.
*According to Virginia Woolfe her great-grandfather Jim Pattle (known as Jemmy Blazes) was 'a gentleman of marked, but doubtful, reputation, who after living a riotous life and earning the title of "The biggest liar in India", finally drank himself to death'. the Pattles lived at Garden Reach overlooking the Hoogly. Jim Pattle and James Prinsep saw to the construction of the Calcutta Ice House, ready for the first importation of Ice from Boston Massachusetts, an event which caused all business to be suspended until noon. Everybody it was said invited everybody to dinner to taste claret and beer iced by the American importation. Another Pattle girl was baptised Louisa Calbrook Pattle after Charles arch enemy at the Delhi Residency. I have often wondered whether the name Pattle derives from Patel, which is common among the Hindus and would like to float the idea that Virginia Woolf's genius in part derives from her Eurasian ancestry.
D & A's note:
It seems that Iced Tea probably has its origins from Boston in a previous century!
In The Indiaman (Published by The British Ancestors in India Society) of December 96, archivist Alan Hardcastle wrote an account of the bizarre end of James Pattle
"JAMES PATTLE who joined the H.E.I.Co. in 1792 in Bengal, being born at Beauleah in that province on Christmas Eve 1775. He began as a writer and then rose through various legal and administrative posts to be High Court Judge, and was in the H.E.I.Co's employ for 53 years, being their longest serving member when he died. He was highly successful, very wealthy had a beautiful, forgiving wife (Adeline Maria de L'Etant 1793-1845), and beautiful dalughters who all made successful marriages to wealthy men."
Follows from Mary
Between 1732 & 1742, my ancestor, Thomas PATTLE, crewed as 1st, 2nd or 3rd mate aboard the British ships "Harrington," "Beaufort," "Newcastle," "Heathcote," & "Grantham." He was supposedly captain & part-owner of an East Indiaman later on in his life, but we have no details on this. His son, Thomas (1748-1818) was a director of the East India Company (The Hon. John Co.) in 1794, &. his sons, Thomas Charles and James (both born in Bengal) were also. James' daughter was Julia Margaret Cameron, the well-known photographer (many references to her on the www). James' daughter, Maria, was the grandmother of Virginia Woolf.
A LONELY GRAVE IN THE OLD CEMERTY AT ASHBURTON
Who Was Jerningham Wakefield?
Some years ago while on a visit to Christchurch I was taken by friends to Ashburton and seized the opportunity to visit the grave of my grandfather, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, who was I knew buried in the old cemetery there. The visit was a somewhat saddening experience. The cemetery was much overgrown and neglected, and even with the help of the Town Clerk we had the greatest difficulty in locating the grave at all.
This article was written by Irma O'Connor, a granddaughter of the noted pioneer, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, who was buried in Ashburton cemetery. On her return from a recent visit to her grandfather's grave, she wrote the article and forwarded it to the Ashburton Town Clerk's office suggesting it be published in the "Guardian".
This year on a sunny May morning my sister and I, through the good offices of a Christchurch friend, were invited once again to visit Ashburton. We were met by the Town Clerk, Mr. H. C. Childs, were most kindly entertained by the Mayor and Mayoress, Mr. and Mrs. G. Glassey and councilors and representatives of the Ashburton Historical Society, and were driven to see the greatly changed cemetery. Now a neatly grassed reserve, it bears a monument on which are inscribed the names of all those buried there, while a single tablet inscribed in the grass marks the last resting place of Jerningham Wakefield.
There were no fewer than five Wakefield brothers and one Wakefield son who left their mark on New Zealand history. It may well be, therefore, that even though a now history-conscious Ashburton has thus honoured the grave of Jerningham Wakefield, few of the present generation know even who he was.
The only son of the great colonising genius, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, Jerningham was born in London in 1820 but cost his mother [Eliza Susan Pattle] her life. For several years he and his little sister Nina were therefore in charge of his favourite sister Catherine, wife of the Rev. Charles Torlesse, vicar of Stoke-by-Nyland. When Edward Gibbon's diplomatic duties took him to Paris, however, the children accompanied him in care of a governess and learnt to speak French almost as soon as their native English. Later educated at Bruce Castle School and King's College, London, Jerningham accompanied his father to Canada at the age of 18 as his private secretary, Edward Gibbon having been selected by Lord Durham, the newly appointed Governor-General, as his confidential adviser.
The experience gave Jerningham a valuable insight into the world of colonial politics. When therefore on return from Canada his father's pet colonisation scheme was revived and at Edward Gibbon's instigation the New Zealand Land Company brought and fitted up the Tory for the voyage to the proposed colony, it was thought that Jerningham might be an asset to the party as secretary to his uncle, Colonel William Wakefield, who had been persuaded to take charge of the preliminary expedition.
To the adventure-loving boy of 19 the prospect made instant appeal and events proved the choice justified. Jerningham had not only a flair as a linguist, speaking five or six languages, but he possessed both charm and considerable literary ability. He thus became the journalist of the expedition, and from the day the Tory sailed on May 12, 1839, he kept detailed and vivid record of the voyage, the landing, the adventures of the party, the planning of various settlements, the life of the Maoris whom he learnt to love their reactions to the newcomers and the origin of the many place names now well known to us.
Although Jerninham left his mark on the young colony as a pioneer settler and Parliamentarian, it is for his written work that he is chiefly remembered. The carefully kept diaries and notebooks, "written up" on his return to England, were published by John Murray in two volumes in 1845 under the title, "Adventure in New Zealand". Despite a youthful disinclination to weigh and check all his facts and pass judgments fairly and impartially, "Adventure in New Zealand", since republished in a single volume, remains to this day one of the most valuable records we have of pioneer days in New Zealand.
When the first band of colonists for the new Church of England settlement in Christchurch set sail in 1850, Jerninghan returned to New Zealand to become one of Canterbury pioneers, his father following him two years later. Father and son were both elected to the House of Representatives and sat together in the first New Zealand Parliament in 1854. In 1857 he was elected to the Wellington Provincial Council and remained on the Council till 1861. At this period Jerninghan was much sought after as a gay and amusing companion, who hunted, rode and danced extremely well, was a witty and brilliant speaker, lavish with money and generous of hospitality.
Object of Concern
But life in a lusty young colony was not such as to check a tendency to improvidence and instability of character and he was already becoming the object of serious concern to his father. When therefore he fall in love with a beautiful girl of 17, Miss Ellan Roe, daughter of a farmer at Karori, his father and relatives welcomed the situation, believing that the marriage would be his salvation. But Ellen had many suitors, Jerninghan was more than 20 years older than she, and was it was a long time before she consented to an engagement. It was not till 1863 that the two were married at the Riccarton Anglican Church and made their first home at Coldstream, Fendalton - a large house with no pretensions to beauty but set among lovely old trees and garden, with a stream running through that gave the place its name.
At first all went well. The Wakefields entertained lavishly, and their carriage and postillions were a familiar sight, especially on race days at Riccarton. Any visiting celebrities who sometimes drifted out to the colony stayed at Coldstream and the house was always full of guests - Sir James Cracroft Wilson, Sir Edward Stafford and his lively brother Paddy, Archbishop Redwood and pioneer notabilities were often entertained there, In conjunction with Godley, Jerninghan had begun editing his fathers letters from England during the planning of the Canterbury settlement, and these are published in 1868 under the title, "The Founders of Canterbury".
But his extravagance and irresponsibility could only have one end. Though at one time owning a great deal of property in Christchurch, much of it in Cathedral Square, he left the care of it almost entirely to agents and a dishonest steward, who took full advantage of his supreme carelessness in money matters and his lack of business acumen. By the time his second daughter Nina was born - the first died of diphtheria at the age of seven - his property was all mortgaged, Coldstream and most of his furniture had been sold and the family moved to a small house in Worcester Street. When a third daughter was born in 1869, life had already begun to assume a tragic aspect for the Wakefields. Jerninghan did publish several able political pamphlets, but it was not till 1871 that he was re-elected to Parliament as member for Christchurch east.
For young Mrs. Wakefield, however, life now became a grim and unending struggle, not merely against her husband's irresponsibility and growing alcoholism, but also against his political opponents, who lost no opportunity to help him on the downward path. Possessing both courage and resourcefulness she accompanied him on his journeys whenever possible to prevent his contact with his enemies. In fact, when important measures were on tapis, it was not uncommon for his colleagues in the House to write, imploring her to join him in Wellington because they knew her help would be invaluable in keeping one of their most brilliant debaters at the top of his form.
During Jerningham's period in office, he did important work in outlining proposals for new railways and pressing for their construction--schemes which have since been carried out. But no situation so harassing for all concerned could be expected to last long. He was defeated at the next elections and the future was now indeed dark. Obliged for the time being to depend on her own resources, Mrs. Wakefield accepted her brother, George's offer of a home for herself and her two little girls at Palmerston North until Jerningham could retrieve his position.
Alas, the little family was destined never to be re-united. An affectionate husband and father, Jerningham wrote to them regularly, sent his children books and music [Jerninghan's possessions included the music, "Stabat Mater" by Rossini that was previously owned and played by his mother, Eliza nee Pattle. It now resides in the Ashburton Museum] and took keen interest in their education. In 1878, he published a very able pamphlet on taxation reform, and planned a lecture tour largely on this subject. But, early in September, he had a very serious illness and went to friends at Ashburton to recuperate.
Last Letter The last letter, but one that his little daughters ever received from him, was written from there. Since this letter has never been published and, since the picture it gives of the Ashburton of those days, may be of interest to present readers, it is given below: -- his little daughters never received
Ashburton Eagle Hotel
14 Sept., 1878
"My dear daughters."
Again, I must write to you both together, in order to save time. My last letter to you was begun in the Hospital, where I had been there since Sunday, 12th Sept., having been very ill indeed through exposure to wet and cold for three days before that. But I am quite recovered now. I finished my last letter and posted it on the day I left the Hospital, 11th Sept. (last Wednesday).
"Yesterday, I left Christchurch at a quarter to nine in the morning by express train, running 36 miles to Rakaia in 1 hour and 20 minutes without stopping at any station. After a stay of five minutes to let thirsty "Washington" - an American locomotive of great power--have some water, we set off again; and, although a little retarded at first by the presence of one or two thousand sheep on the line, who kept trying to race us and crossed backwards and forwards over the rails in front of the engine--some of them indeed being rather rudely picked up and thrown aside by the "cow-scoop" in front, even at our slowed pace, we eventually reached Ashburton, 53 miles from Christchurch, at a quarter to eleven--two hours only, including the one stoppage.
"I had not time to examine this town of wonderfully rapid growth--three years ago, it had not forty houses. Now it has more than 1,000 inhabitants, five hotels, a large Town Hall, a small public library, spacious immigration barracks; one steam and one water mill, and a Mayor and council; and a gas company has been successfully started.
"My old coachman, Edward Cookson, who Mamma will remember, is the owner and driver of the Mail Coach from Ashburton to the place from which I am now writing--16 miles, which took us three hours and a quarter! Is that not a contrast to the railway part of the journey? We had three good horses and a nice, light coach, but the road has been newly metalled with that nasty round river-bed shingle nearly all the way, while the unmetalled part of the road was too heavy through the recent rains. Besides, we had four passengers, including myself, who averaged 14 stone each--(How many pounds is that?)--two lighter ones besides the driver, a young sheep-dog, two bags of sugar and one or two other pretty heavy packages. So we did have to creep.
"This house is kept by Mr. Phillipp Tisch, whom perhaps Mamma or Uncle George may remember as a settler at Papanui - a millar who came from Germany to Lyttelton in 1851. He had often invited me to visit him ad he received me with great kindness and hospitality, as an honoured guest and not as a customer. He has six sons and three daughters-- all I think, born in the colony. Only two girls and one boy are at home. The girls, about 18 or 19, are twins, and it is very curious that one is very dark and the other very fair, and not like each other in feature. They are thoroughly well educated for their station, write and speak English correctly and well - the writing very plain and legible. They play the piano tolerably well; but they do not disdain to do useful needlework, attend to general work of the house and wait at table with attention and politeness, and without the slightest vulgarity or coquetry, although they are both very handsome.
"The son attends to the bar, and is very quiet and well educated. The mother does the cooking herself; a pleasant, smiling matron. The house is scrupulously clean; and I have not heard the slightest "rowdings" or noise for 21 hours. I have been in the house, although a good many working men get their meals and drink at the bar here.
"Now for the place. We seemed yesterday to be traveling along a level plain. But we were really ascending from an elevation of about 200 feet to one of 800 feet above the level of the sea. The house is in the centre of a low terrace of gravel, with good ploughed land all round it. We came through a tract of mostly rich, arable land, very well fenced and farmed by a good many small proprietors, as well as two or three larger ones.
"There are no trees except where they have been planted (bluegums, poplars, willows, pine, fir, oak, elm and other English forests, as well as fruit trees) near homesteads. These plantations round some of the more ancient dwellings make a real show. All the tilled land is fenced in with neatly clipped gorse hedges. At one farm we passed, I saw five double-furrow ploughs whose teams were at rest during the men's dinner-time, and on another farm, three such ploughs were at work later in the day. We had forded the N. branch of the Ashburton, a stream about as large as the Turakina, but quite shallow now, and our journey was afterwards entirely between the two branches of the river. The south branch is much larger.
Cookson's mail coach goes 10 miles further, to a village called "Mount Somers", from a high, isolated mountain of that name, not far from it, but rather nearer to where I am--about six miles I suppose to the foot of it. The village of Mt. Somers is on the N. or left bank of the S. branch, just where it issues through a precipitous gorge from its sources in vast glaciers within the nearest range of mountains.
"To the northward, another road branches off to "Alford Forest", another village eight miles from here, at the edge of the "bush", which begins at the foot of the mountains and reaches a short distance up their sides for a length of about seven or eight miles, between the S. W. base of Mount Hutt, which rises abruptly to the height of 6,800 feet above sea level--6,000 feet higher than this house. Mount Somers is about 4,000 feet higher , or 4,800 above the sea. Mount Rickards, seen over the lower mountains, between Hutt and Somers, is about 7,000 feet high.
"Up the low gorge, through which the S. Ashburton, Hinds and Rangitata rivers all emerge from the ranges on to the great plain, are seen the sharp peaks of the Two Thumbs range more than halfway across this island, white with snow. So are Hutt, Rickards, Somers and Mt. Peel south of the Rangitata (about 6,000 feet high), quite two thirds down from their summits. They were very beautiful yesterday are now in the brilliant sunshine; they were still more beautiful in the light of the nearly full moon last night; but just before sunrise this morning, when they were all tinted a lovely blush rose colour by the sun, which shone on them, though the plain below was still in shade, the magnificent panorama was positively like fairy-land.
I was the only person up, and I revelled in enjoyment of the solemn beauty and silence of nature's majesty. "I am going back to Ashburton to-day; and next week I intend to give readings, recitations and lectures on the taxes, in that town. You must wish me good audiences and a favourable reception. If I succeed I shall travel through the whole colony, and perhaps you will hear me some day at Palmerston North, or, if I earn money enough, at Wellington or Christchurch.
Goodbye, best love from
Your affectionate father, E. J. Wakefield.
(turn over please).
P.S. I forgot to say that both the letters are very well written with few faults, and nearly all those, I think, rather through hurry than ignorance. E. J. W."
Alas, poor Jerninghan! Evidently severe illness again overtook him, for the next, and last letter ever received by either of the children from their father was written to his daughter, Nina, from Christchurch, dated 7 November, 1878, and began, "I have now a little more time and strength to reply more fully to your letter of the 30th." It was very short, and the last pathetic words scrawled across the back of the single page were to ask, "What day is your birthday?"
After that, silence! The letters ceased and for the little family in Palmerston North a long and anxious wait followed. Transport in those days was slow and difficult, and Mrs Wakefield knew little of her husbands' movements or his further illness till it was too late. But very early on the morning of 3 March, 1879, she awoke to hear his voice calling loudly and urgently, "Nellie! Nellie!" Believing that he must have arrived suddenly on the long-promised lecture tour in order to surprise her, she rushed to her brother's room saying "Why Jerninghan has actually arrived! Go downstairs quickly and let him in." So vivid was the experience that noting but the evidence of her own eyes would convince her that Jerninghan was not there, and she was horrified and grief-stricken to learn by telegram a little later that he had died in poverty in an old people's home at Ashburton that very day. "It has sometimes been stated that Jerninghan showed reprehensible carelessness in regard to material relating to early colonisation of New Zealand. On the contrary he was meticulous in docketing and dating all the papers in his procession; but circumstances of his lonely and tragic end were too strong for him. His widow asked that all the papers found in his possession at Ashburton should be sent to her, but they never reached her.
Nor were the cases left behind in Christchurch ever forwarded to her. It was would seem likely that instead, the contents were merely sent to auction, because from time to time articles or papers once belonging to Jerninghan turned up in the most unexpected places.
In 1939, for example, a little pocket diary suddenly came to light which the Alexander Turnbull Library in Wellington was delighted to buy since it recorded Jerninghan travels in the Whanganui area in 1846, and was one of the notebooks which provided the nucleus of his famous and still much-quoted books, "Adventure in New Zealand." Again, only last year, Professor Joan Stevens, of Victoria University, Wellington, heard of the existence of another of Jerninghan's diaries owned by Mr. R. J. Pope, of Auckland. It had come to his possession on the death of his father, who is believed to have brought it at an auction sale in Christchurch.
As this latest discovery is packed with fascinating and valuable material covering the years 1845-1846, when Jerninghan was sent by his father on various colonisaing missions in England in connection with the Otago and Canterbury settlements then planned being planned, the Turnbull Library gladly seized a chance to acquire it. It includes references also to London personalities in Jerninghan's circle of friends and acquaintances, one being the novelist Thackeray, with whom he evidently celebrated Derby Day in 1845. This particular diary is of such interest and importance that Professor Stevens is working on it with a view to publication.
It has now been found, however, that the Wellington "Dominion" in September, 1909, and "The Press", Christchurch, in December 1909 published articles by a Mr. W. F. Alexander, who quoted liberally from another diary of Jerninghan's covering the years 1850-1858. Subsequent research led to the conclusion that this diary was lent to Mr. Alexander for use in his articles following the arrival in New Zealand of the New Zealand Company's archives. But the burning question is, who lent the diary to Mr. Alexander and where is it now? Is it still in existence? The Alexander Turnbull Library would give a great deal to know. Can anyone in Ashburton or thereabouts help to solve the mystery?
Senior Jerningham - sp-Miss NOTKNOWN 2-- Sir
George JERNINGHAM, Bart5 sp-Mary PLOWDEN 3-- Sir William Jerningham
STAFFORD-JERNINGHAM, Bart6 sp-Frances DILLON ( -1825) 4-- Sir,
George William STAFFORD-JERNINGHAM, Bart7 Baron8 Stafford (1771)
sp-Frances SULYARDE 5-- Laura Maria STAFFORD-JERNINGHAM ( -1886)
sp-Hon. Robert Edward PETRE ( -1848) 5-- Sir Henry Valentine
STAFFORD-JERNINGHAM, Bart8 (1802-1912) sp-Emma Eliza GERARD wife2
5-- Emily Charlotte STAFFORD-JERNINGHAM (1835-1881) sp-Basil Thomas
FITZHERBERT ( -1919) 6-- Francis Edward STAFFORD-JERNINGHAM Baron12
Stafford (1859-1932) sp-Dorothy WORTHINGTON 6-- Admiral, Edward
STAFFORD-JERNINGHAM Baron13 Stafford (1864-1941) Unm 4-- Frederick
William STAFFORD-JERNINGHAM (1813) sp-Georgiana Howe MANGLES (
-1894) 4-- William Charles STAFFORD-JERNINGHAM (1772-1820) sp-Anne
WRIGHT 5-- Edmund William STAFFORD-JERNINGHAM (1805-1860)
sp-Matilda WATERTON 6-- Clementina STAFFORD-JERNINGHAM ( -1925)
sp-William MOSTYN 3-- Edward Barrister JERNINGHAM sp-Emily
MIDDLETON, the daughter of Nathaniel Middleton (d.1807) below.
Ends this chart
Middleton DESCENDANCY CHART:
1-- Nathaniel MIDDLETON Bengal Civil Service ( -1807) sp-Miss Indian woman INDIAN-Unknown 2-- Eliza Anne Frances MIDDLETON wife1 ( -1820) sp-Capt. Thomas Charles PATTLE ( -1815) 3-- Ruth Casson PATTLE ( -1829) sp-Capt. Robert BROOKE (1727) 4-- Thomas BROOKE EICS, Judge EICo (1760-1835) sp-Anna Maria STUART wife2 5-- Henry BROOKE Died Young 5-- Sir James BROOKE, Unm, of Sarawak (1803-1868) sp-Margaret NOTKNOWN sp-Lily Willes JOHNSON, cousin, wife2 6-- Rajah Charles Vyner BROOKE Rajah3 Sarawak (1874) 6-- Rajah Charles Anthony JOHNSON-BROOKE Rajah sp-Margaret Alice Lili DE WINDT 7-- Ghita JOHNSON-BROOKE ( -1873) 7-- Charles Vyner JOHNSON-BROOKE sp-Lady Sylvia Leonora BRETT Lady Brooke (1885-1971) 8-- Leonora Margaret BROOKE wife2 sp-Kenneth MACKAY, Earl2 Inchcape P&O Line (1887-1932) 8-- Bertram BROOKE (1876-1965) sp-Gladys Milton PALMER ( -1952) 8-- Vyner BROOKE sp-Miss NOTKNOWN 6-- Bertram BROOKE (1786) 6-- Harry BROOKE (1879) 6-- Stuart BROOKE 5-- Emma Frances BROOKE (1822) sp-Rev. Francis Charles JOHNSON 6-- Sir John Johnson-Brooke BROOKE, Rajah sp-Annie GRANT wife1 ( -1858) 7-- Basil BROOKE (1857) 7-- John Charles Evelyn BROOKE ( -1934) sp-Violet BARRINGTON 8-- Vice-Admiral Basil Charles Barrington BROOKE sp-Nora TOPPIN 9-- Peter Barrington BROOKE sp-Julia WELSTEAD wife2 7-- Capt. William Frederic BROOKE 7-- Charles Anthony BROOKE 7-- Prison Governor Henry Stuart BROOKE ( -1894) 6-- Sir Charles Anthony JOHNSON-BROOKE (1874-1963) 5-- Margaret BROOKE (c.1825) sp-Rev. Anthony SAVAGE (c.1825) 3-- Eliza Susan PATTLE wife1 sp-Edward Gibbon WAKEFIELD, New Zealand Company, West Australian Co, (1796-1862) 4-- Nina WAKEFIELD invalid, Unm ( -1835) 4-- Edward Jerningham WAKEFIELD, MP, Author (1820-1879) sp-Ellen ROE sp-Major Alexander ROBSON 2-- Emily MIDDLETON sp-Barrister Edward JERNINGHAM
Ends this chart
J. Shakespear, John Shakespear of Shadwell
and his Descendants, 1619-1931. Newcastle, UK, Self-Published.
1931. (On another family line out to India and linked to family of
novelist William Makepeace Thackeray.)
Pamela Statham, (Compiler), Dictionary of Western Australians, 1829-1914. Two Vols. Vol. 1, Early Settlers, 1829-1850. Nedlands, Western Australia, University of Western Australia, August, 1979.
Michael Stenton, (Ed.), Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: A Biographical Dictionary of the House of Commons. Peterhouse, Cambridge, UK. Harvester Press. 1976-1978. (Four Vols). Vol. 1, 1832-1885. Vol. 2, 1886-1918.
Sir Leslie Stephen and Sir Sidney Lee, The Dictionary of National Biography: From the Earliest Times to 1900. London, Milford/Oxford University Press, 1917ff.
Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Vol. 1, 1769-1869. Wellington, New Zealand, Allen and Unwin and the New Zealand Dept. of Internal Affairs, 1990.
Ian R. Christie, British `non-elite' MPs, 1715-1820. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1995.
Alan Valentine, The British Establishment, 1760-1784: An Eighteenth Century Biographical Dictionary. Two Vols. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1970.
Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1754-1790. [Two Vols.] London, Parliament Trust of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1964.
Paul Bloomfield, Edward Gibbon Wakefield: Builder of the British Commonwealth. London, Longman's Green and Co., 1961. With genealogical table.
Burke's, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry. London, Edn. 18.
John Burke and John Bernard Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England, Ireland and Scotland. Second edition. London, John Russell Smith. [Facsimile of the 1964 edition]. Or, Burke's Extinct.
Charles Kidd and David Williamson, (Eds.), Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage. London, Macmillan's/Debrett's Peerage Ltd., 1985.
Patrick Montague-Smith, (Ed.), Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage. Australasian edition. London, Debrett's Peerage, 1980.
Rica Erickson, (Ed.), The Bicentennial
Dictionary of Western Australians, pre-1829-1888. In Vols.
Nedlands, Western Australia, University of Western Australia Press,
Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vols. 1-12. London, Melbourne University Press, 1966ff. Also, CD-ROM versions: The Pioneer Series, 1788-1888. Published in 1994. The Federation Series, 1889-1918. Published in 1993. Informit, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, City Campus, Melbourne.
The International Genealogical Index (IGI), microfiche version, Scotland; Salt Lake City, Utah, Genealogical Society of Utah, 1992 for England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Channel Islands, Australia and New Zealand. Also, computerised versions, various.
H. A. Doubleday and Lord Howard De Walden, (Eds.), The Complete Peerage or A History of the House of Lords and All Its Members from the earliest times. Vol. XIII, Peers Created 1901 to 1938. London, The St Catherine Press Ltd., 1940.
Bombay Civil Servants, 1780-1839. (Pub. 1839; Madras Civil Servants, 1760-1837. (Pub. 1839). India Registers (dated 1799, 1803, 1806, 1813 incl., and 1815, 1816), Bengal Civil Index. PRO.
A useful source at the India Office Library, Covenanted Overseas Civil Servants of the East India Company 1600-1858, has compilations.
Edward Dodwell and James Samuel, Bengal Civil Servants, 1780-1838. London, Miles, 1839.
John Burke and John Bernard Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England, Ireland and Scotland. Second edition. London, John Russell Smith. [Facsimile of the 1964 edition]. Hereafter, Burke's Extinct.
Vicary Gibbs, (Ed.) (GEC), The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom. [Extinct, extant or dormant]. London, St. Catherine's Press, 1910. In Vols.
Canadian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 4, 1771-1800. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1979.
Mary Pattle Hover's Website: (broken link): http://members.xoom.com/mqofs/
Scott's End: A site in Africa: (broken link): http://home.pix.za/ms/ms73/0757.htm/
Scott's End in Africa for Pattle family history: http://www.home.pix.za/ms/ms73/SITE.HTM
Also Scott's End on Pattle family history: http://www.home.pix.za/ms/ms73/ALPHKTOQ.htm#Pattle
Family History Documents, Free Records: http://www.ihr.com.au/free.html< /A>
First Mariners to Western Australia: (broken link): http://www.rainbowis.com.au/~greeve/firstmariners.html/
For a Canberra, Australia-based website on family histories rooted in India in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries, Check Website: (broken link): http://www.interfusion.net.au/~shazzac/IRDP.html/
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