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File formats on this website

(various-format files for use and/or for download)

This webpage presents a guide to various-format files for download from this website, free of copyright restrictions as long as due acknowledgement is made of the source(s) [including this website] for material which netsurfers may find to be of interest.

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If you value the information posted here,
and the projects of these websites in general,
you may like to consider making a donation
to help reduce our production costs?
It would be greatly appreciated.
Options include:
paying via PayPal which this website uses - Ed

Slave Ship Voyages (British)

(2) Another file made available here is Slaving Summary 1770-1782, by Tony Palwyn (UK) an extraction from Lloyd's Listings of ship names/captain names of British ships on slaving voyages (1770-1782).
This file is a Microsoft spreadsheet, (.xls format, name= "slavingsummary.xls" in a newly-made directory, "guides".)-

The format for the layout of the data on the spreadsheet is given with headings which read (from left to right) as;

    Lloyd's date (d/m/y),
    Master (captain),
    Of (ship's home base),
    Via, (going by ports various),
    For/At (destination/delivery point),
    Slaves (number of, not given in all entries),
    Remarks (annotations, brief).

View/download the file here (it is 386kb): SlavingSummary

A thesis by Ken Cozens

Finally this website has decided to display one of the major inspirations for its appearance on the Internet. It is the 2005 thesis by Kenneth J. Cozens, entitled Politics, Patronage and Profit. The format is a standard PDF file.

That is. Kenneth James Cozens, Politics, Patronage and Profit: A Case Study of Three 18th Century London Merchants. MA thesis 2005, Greenwich Maritime Institute (GMI)/Greenwich University.

You can download the Cozens thesis from here. Rest assured it will change some of your views.

Something different about Ancient Egypt, from Larry West (Texas USA)

Or, How the Architects of the Bronze Age became the Accursed of the Iron Age

ancient Egyptian boat

12 September 2012: This entry needs some explanation. For some years this webmaster has been in e-mail touch with Larry West, who lives in Texas, USA. West, an American now aged beyond 70, who has so far (by 2012) self-published and made available on the Internet, two editions of his book Our Common African Genesis (which is easily found by googling). West's intention is to prove that the Ancient Egyptians (Pharoahs included) were Blacks. (Or if you like, Negroes/Africans, also known as "Ethiopians" or Hamites). His views by 2012 now go further, and he has compressed them into a 16-page PDF file now made available here. If you download this file, you will find it is filenamed "larrywest.pdf". The actual title of the 16-page presentation is Science, History, Race and Religion: A Review, By Larry West 2012. He did not say here, "Ancient History" because his thesis is that History more modern than ancient, has been hijacked by certain parties who - well - go and read his material.
The findings are controversial and we do not here comment on them qua controversy, as they involve genetic studies, speculative history on people movements (migrations) in ancient times after the last Ice Age (for which valid information is limited), climate changes in ancient times, Ancient Egyptian history, and quite some variety of History of Religion. What took our fancy with the idea of making West's latest PDF available is his take on ancient shipping - that the regimes of the Pharoahs initiated international trade via the use of shipping. It is an interesting thing to suggest, and so we freely present it, as long as netsurfers respect Larry West's copyright and retain respect for the originality of his approach. If this website gets wind of a single infringement of West's copyright(s)) and any of his moral rights pertaining and so relating, we will remove his file from our server so that it cannot be further abused. Anyone utilising West's material is asked to observe the usual academic courtesies with handling any such information and related speculations. - Ed.

Follows some sample remarks and observations date-wise from West on his topics. 6000 BC: Rudimentary ships (rowed, single-sailed) are depicted in Egyptian rock art. A very early naval battle is depicted on the carved relief decoration of a Naqada II ivory knife handle that was found at Gebel al-Arak. It shows boats with high, straight prows and sterns, which are usually interpreted as foreign (non-Egyptian) vessels. Putting 2 & 2 together we find: The Bronze Age was kicked off by meteorological conditions which also lead to the desertification of the present-day Sahara and the migrations of its inhabitants to Egypt and to the Eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans, and the Aegean (Greece). This spurred the rise of Egypt with its surplus grain available for acquisition of bronze-made tools and other commodities and the subsequent rise of suppliers and buyers around the eastern Mediterranean -- Crete, Greece, Miletus, Cyprus, and Canaan, all supported by the Egyptian economy. The later Bronze Age Collapse was also kicked off by meteorological conditions leading to decreased grain production in Egypt and elsewhere. This caused the Egyptian economy and subsequently other economies to collapse because Egyptian grain was the life support for everyone. This was followed as before with mass migrations of people -- Dorians into Greece, the Sea people rampaging south around the Eastern Mediterranean, Etruscans moving west to Italy, and the release of slaves from Egypt. Nothing would ever be the same anywhere in the Eastern Mediterranean. The die was cast for the rest of Western and Middle Eastern History. The Black-inspired civilizations and people of the Bronze Age would receive little to no credit for what was to follow, a condition later set forth in writings by Jews, their historians and their spiritual proteges, Christians. I find that the Bronze Age was for the most part African or African-inspired, leading humanity out of the Neolithic Age into the Iron Age. The foundation for Western Civilization was set in Egypt, Minoa, Ionia, Cyprus, and Canaan. Bad weather started it and bad weather ended it. None of the diverse Bronze Age civilizations could weather the changes. Caucasians and Semites moved in for the cultural-history kill.
And once again, you can download Larry West's latest ... here.

Theme Song (now discontinued)

(3) Below you can click to a theme-song file for the website.


Play a theme song for this website (available only with Internet Explorer, not with Firefox).

(? Check your sound volumes on your machine first. Sound will probably play only via the browser, Internet Explorer, depending on your settings.)

So, depending on your settings, for any second hearing, simply refresh your browser! Voila!

At right is a graphic named "greenbird.gif"; it used to be the motif for the sound file given here, the Beatles' song (two minutes only) from their Revolver album, And Your Bird Can Sing, (via a MS .wma file).
We greatly admire the lead guitar work! Voila! Yet another timeless Beatles' masterpiece!

The greenbird image here has been colour-modified from an original b/w image by artist Stephen Bobroff, in the book, p. 146, Alan Aldridge (Ed.), The Beatles Illustrated Lyrics. London, Macdonald Unit 75, 1969.

© Permission to play the sound (when it was available on this website) had not been sought from Beatles' estates, or anyone else, and we hope they don't mind, etc. -Ed. We have long discontinued use of any sound file, and so the greenbird graphic is superfluous. After the 2008 GFC, we rather feel by 2012 that if we used any sound file at all as a website logo, it would have to be Warren Zevon´s Werewolves of London, which is about the finance chaps in The City of London up to their usual nefarious tricks. And not a rather more subtle Beatles song.

Select Bibliography - Merchant and Family Networks

The bibliography given below is specially-tailored, so to speak, to particularly emphasise the kinds of work economic historians have, or have not done, on merchant and/or merchant-family networks of older days, specifically, in contrast to overview treatments of a more regional, general or abstract nature. The list was compiled around 2008 from bibliographies of works we most admired in the topic area, and by 2012 after some years´ work of collecting extra data, we could now update it considerably. But so could anyone else, including you, the reader. And so we recommend that you copy this page and update at your lesiure.

The compilers have not themselves seen such a list before, so we might be as interested in the results of this new compilation as any other specialty reader might be.

(The lists are to be given strictly alphabetically by author, so as to avoid over-detailed annotation. However, detailed netsurfing should give any netsurfer some good results after noting some of these listed titles.)

Presumably, the list of articles presented will also be of interest to serious family historians. Some of the items are longitudinal treatments of merchants across long timeframes. Some are boring, or dry, or too short of information. Some are excellent models (as with work by Jacob Price) for anyone seeking to emulate excellent research and presentation.

Some items listed below will point to further detailed genealogical research on specific families, and/or sets of business linkages - some will present mere lists of merchants involved in a particular region. But all items listed will teach anyone interested, some of the ways of going about such research in either economic or maritime history, throughout the spread of the British Empire (roughly 1750-1900).

Some information resources, various ...


1840s: G. J. Abbot and G. Little, (Eds.), The Respectable Sydney Merchant, A. B. Sparke of Tempe. Sydney, Sydney University Press, 1976.

G. J. Abbott A Note On The Volume Of Treasury Bill Expenditure 1788-1821,' Bulletin of the Business Archives Council of Australia, February 1966, Vol. VI, No. 1, University of Sydney, pp. 81-84.

Peter Adams, Fatal Necessity: British Intervention in New Zealand, 1830-1847. Oxford University Press, 1977.

Scrimshaw art from USA

A ship in serious trouble: American scrimshaw art. As used as a logo
on the business card of Scrimshaw Gallery Ltd., Pier 39, San Francisco.

Robert C. Alberts, The Golden Voyage: The Life and Times of William Bingham. Boston. 1969.

Joan Anim Addo, Sugar, Spice and Human Cargo: An Early Black History of Greenwich. Greenwich Council, 1996. ISBN 0 90439921 4. (Joan Anim Addo works at Caribbean Centre, Goldsmiths College, part of the University of London, in New Cross, London.)

Joan Anim Addo, Longest Journey: A History of Black Lewisham. Deptford Forum Publishing, 1995. ISBN 1 898536 21x.

S. Airlie, The Thistle and the Bamboo: The Life and Times of Sir J. S. Lockhart. Hong Kong, 1989.

Robert G. Albion, Forests and Sea Power: The Timber Problems of the Royal Navy, 1652-1862. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1926.

1815: R. G. Albion, 'New York Port and its Disappointed Rivals, 1815-1860', Journal of Business and Economic History, III, 1931., pp. 602-629.

1820: R. G. Albion, 'Yankee Domination of New York Port, 1820-1865', New England Quarterly, V, 1932., pp. 665-698.

Robert G. Albion, William A. Baker and Benjamin W. Labaree, New England and The Sea. Middletown, 1972.

Robert G. Albion, The Rise of New York Port, 1800-1840. 1938.
See also, Compilation - Work Projects Administration, A Maritime History of New York. 1941.

Robert Greenhalgh Albion, Square-riggers on Schedule: The New York Sailing Packets to England, France and the Cotton Ports. nd.

David Alexander, Retailing in England during the Industrial Revolution. London, University of London, Athlone Press, 1970.

James Alexander, 'The Economic Structure of the City of London at the end of the Seventeenth Century', Urban History Yearbook, [Great Britain], 1989, pp. 47-62.

B. W. E. Alford, W. D. and H. O. Wills and the Development of the UK Tobacco Industry, 1786-1965. London, Methuen, 1973.

Allan - See Sir Henry Trueman Wood, History of the Royal Society of Arts. See D. G. C. Allan, 'The Society of Arts and Government, 1754-1800', in Eighteenth Century Studies, Vol. 7, 1973-1974, No 4, Summer, 1974, pp. 434-452 noting that an outstanding case of confusion between Society of Arts and The Royal Society is seen in J. Newman, 'The Enigma of Joshua Steele', Journal Barbados Museum and Historical Society, 19, No. 1, 1952., p. 6.; see a history being, D. Hudson and K. W. Luckhurst, The Royal Society of Arts, 1754-1954. London, 1954.

Robert S. Allen, Loyalist Literature: An annotated bibliographic guide to the writings on the Loyalists of the American Revolution. Toronto, Canada, Dundurn Canadian Historical Document Series, Publication No. 2, Dundurn Press Ltd., 1982.

Anton A. Allahar, 'Slaves, Slave Merchants, and Slave Owners in 19-Century Cuba', Caribbean Studies, [Puerto Rico], 1988, 21, (1-2), pp. 158-191.

Anton L. Allahar, 'Merchants, Planters, and Merchants-become-Planters: Cuba, 1820-1868', Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 1985, 10, (9), pp. 73-93.

Noel Annan, Leslie Stephen: The Godless Victorian. London and Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Kenneth R. Andrews, Ships, Money and Politics: Seafaring and Naval Enterprise in the Reign of Charles I. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991.

Anon, John Julius Angerstein and Woodlands, 1774-1974: a Bicentenary exhibition celebrating the building of Woodlands by John Julius Angerstein, 17 September-5 November, 1974. London Borough of Greenwich, Woodlands Art Gallery, 1974.

Anon., London's Roll of Fame: Being Complementary Notes and Addresses from the City of London on Presentation of the Honorary Freedom of that City and on Other Occasions, to Royal Personages etc [scientists, explorers, etc] From the Close of the Reign of Geo II AD 1757 to 1884, With a Critical and Historical Introduction. London, Cassell and Co., 1884.

Roger Anstey and P. E. How, (Eds.), Liverpool, The African Slave Trade and Abolition. Vol. 2. Historical Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, 1976.

H. A. Antrobus, A History of the Assam Company, 1839-1953. Edinburgh, Constable, 1957.

R. T. Appleyard and C. B. Schedvin, (Eds.), Australian Financiers: Biographical Essays. South Melbourne, Macmillan, 1988.

1820: William Armstrong, The Aristocracy of New York: Who They Are, and What they Were: Being a Social and Business History of the City for Many Years. 1848.

Alan Atkinson, 'John Macarthur before Australia knew him', Journal of Australian Studies, No. 4, June, 1979., pp. 22-37.

Alan Atkinson, 'The Convict Republic', The Push From The Bush: A Bulletin of Social History, No. 18, October 1984., pp. 66-84.

Donald N. Attwood, Raising Cane: The Political Economy of Sugar in Western India. Westview Press, 1991.

Helen Auger, The Secret War of Independence. New York, 1955.


Geoffrey Badger, The Explorers of the Pacific. Kenthurst, NSW, Kangaroo Press, 1988.

Craig Allen Bailey (thesis), The Irish Network: A Study of Ethnic Patronage in London, 1760-1840, School of Advanced study, University of London, 2004.

B-Barclay: A. Wilson Fox, A History of the Barclay Family. 1933.

C. W. Barclay, A History of the Barclay Family. Two Vols. 1924. 1934.

B. D. Bargar, Lord Dartmouth and the American Revolution. Columbia, University of South Carolina Press, 1965.

1825: Jacob Barker, Incidents in the Life of Jacob Barker of New Orleans. 1855. (Barker was a prominent New York shipowner till banking troubles took him to New Orleans)

A. Barnard, The Australian Wool Market, 1840-1900. Melbourne, 1958.; A. Barnard, Visions and Profits (A Life of T. S. Mort), Melbourne. 1961.

John E. Barnard, John Barnard the Younger, Shipbuilder of Ipswich and Harwich, 1705-1784. The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 78. No. 2. May 1992.

Nirode K. Barooah, David Scott in North-East India, 1804-1831: A Study in British Paternalism. New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1970., George E. Brooks Jr., Yankee Traders, Old Coasters and African Middlemen. Boston, 1970.Nirode K. Barooah, David Scott in North-East India, 1804-1831: A Study in British Paternalism. New Delhi, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1970.

1784: Clayton Barrow, America Spreads Her Sails. Annapolis, 1973.

E. M. Barrows, The Great Commodore: The Exploits of Matthew Calbraith Perry. 1936. (On the US' "opening" of relations with Japan)

Sanjaya Baru, The Political Economy of Sugar in India: State Intervention and Structural Change. Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1990.

D. K. Bassett, 'British Trade and Policy in Indonesia and Malaysia in the late Eighteenth Century', Ch. 3 of British Commercial and Strategic Interest in the Malay Peninsula during the late eighteenth century. Inter Documentation Company, Zug, Switzerland., Aug 1971., pp. 50-71.

Thomas C. Barrow, Trade and Empire: The British Customs Service in Colonial America, 1660-1775. Harvard University Press, Cambridge University Press, 1966.

Tony Barrow, 'The Newcastle whaling trade, 1752-1849', The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 75, 1989., pp. 231-240.

Hugh Barty-King, The Worst Poverty: A History of Debt and Debtors. Gloucestershire, England, Alan Sutton, 1991.

D. K. Bassett, 'British Trade and Policy in Indonesia and Malaysia in the late Eighteenth Century', Chapter 3 of British Commercial and Strategic Interest in the Malay Peninsula during the late Eighteenth Century. Zug, Switzerland, Inter Documentation Co., 1971.

D. K. Bassett, 'British "Country Trade" and local trade networks in the Thai and Malay States, c. 1680-1770', Modern Asian Studies, 23, 4, 1989., pp. 625-643.

Marnie Bassett, The Hentys: An Australian Colonial Tapestry. London, Oxford University Press, 1954.

Marnie Bassett, The Governor's Lady: Mrs Philip Gidley King: An Australian Historical Narrative. Second edition. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1956.

John Bastin, 'Raffles' aides-de-camp in Java', Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. 65, Part 1, No. 262., pp. 1-14.

Whitney K. Bates, 'Northern speculation and Southern State Debts: 1790', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 19, January 1962., pp. 30-48.

Charles Bateson, The Convict Ships, 1787-1868. [Orig. 1959]. Sydney, A. H. and A. W. Reed, 1974.

K. Jack Bauer, A Maritime History of the United States: The Role of America's Seas and Waterways.. University of South Carolina Press, 1988.

1775: W. T. Baxter, The House of Hancock. Cambridge, Mass, 1945.

J. W. Blake, 'The Farm of the Guinea Trade in 1631', in Essays in British and Irish History, ed by H. A. Cronne, T. W. Moody, D.B. Quinn. London, 1949.

1820: M. Y. Beach, Wealth and Wealthy Citizens of New York City. (Has 13 editions, some titles vary) 1842-1855.

Hilary Beckles, 'Plantation Production and White Proto-Slavery: White Indentured Servants and the Colonization of the English West Indies, 1624-1645', Americas, [Academy of American Franciscan History], 1985, 41, (3), pp. 21-45.

Hilary Beckles, White Servitude and Black Slavery in Barbados, 1627-1715. Konxville, University of Tennessee Press, 1989, 218 pages.

Hilary Beckles, 'The Economic Origins of Black Slavery in the British West Indies, 1640-1680: A Tentative Analysis of the Barbados Model', Journal of Caribbean History, [Barbados], 1982, 16, pp. 36-56.

Hilary Beckles and Andrew Downes, The Economics of Transition to Black Labour System in Barbados, 1630-1680', Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 1987, 18, (2), pp. 225-247.

1815: F. L. Benns, The American Struggle for the British West India Carrying Trade, 1815-1830. 1923.

Bill Beatty, Early Australia: With Shame Remembered. Sydney, Cassell, 1962.

Bill Beatty, Tales of Old Australia. Ure Smith, Sydney, 1966.

A. B. Beaven, The Aldermen of the City of London. Two Vols. London, 1913. (Excerpts are now available from a website)

Jack Beeching, The Chinese Opium Wars. New York, Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich, c. 1975.

Samuel Flagg Bemis, Jay's Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy. New York, Macmillan, 1923.

Doron C. Ben-Atar, The Origin of Jeffersonian Commercial Policy and Diplomacy. Hampshire, England, Macmillan, 1993.

A. Charles Begg and Neil C. Begg, Dusky Bay. Christchurch, Whitcomb and Tombs Ltd., 1966.

George F. Bergman, 'Solomon Levey in Sydney', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 49, Part 6, 1963., pp. 401-422.

George. F. Bergman, 'Solomon Levey: From Convict to Merchant Prince, Part II: The Foundation of Western Australia', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol 54, Part 1, 1968., pp. 22-44.

G. J. F. Bergman and J. S. Levi, Australian Genesis: Jewish Convicts and Settlers. Adelaide, Rigby, 1974.

G. J. F. Bergman, 'Solomon Levey in Sydney', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 49, Part 6, 1963., pp. 401-422.

Ian Berryman, 'Solomon Levey, Thomas Peel, and the Founding of the Swan River Colony', Journal of the Australian Jewish Historical Society, Volume 10, Part 6, 1989., pp. 463-475.

Ian Berryman, 'Solomon Levey: Business Entrepreneur', pp. 63-75 in W. D. Rubinstein, (Ed.), Jews in the Sixth Continent. Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 1987.

G. Bhagat, 'Americans and American Trade in India, 1784-1814', The American Neptune, Vol. 46, No. 1, 1986., pp. 6-15.

Lennard Bickel, Australia's First Lady: The Story of Elizabeth Macarthur. North Sydney, Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1991.

Geoffrey Blainey, The Tyranny of Distance: How Distance Shaped Australia's History. Melbourne, Sun Books, 1966.

Geoffrey Blainey, Gold and Paper: A History of the National Bank of Australasia Limited. Melbourne, Georgian House, 1958.

George Blake, Lloyd's Register of Shipping, 1760-1966. London, Printed by Lloyd's Register of Shipping, nd? [1960?]

Wakefield genealogy: in Paul Bloomfield, Edward Gibbon Wakefield: Builder of the British Commonwealth. London, Longman's Green and Co., 1961. (With genealogical table.)

Paul Bloomfield, Edward Gibbon Wakefield: Builder of the British Commonwealth. London, Longman's Green and Co., 1961. (With genealogical table).

1820: D. B. Bobbe, DeWitt Clinton. 1933. See also, David Hosack, Memoir of DeWitt Clinton. 1829. Also, James Renwick, Life of DeWitt Clinton. 1840.

Kevin Bone, (Ed.), The New York Waterfront. Monacelli Press, 1997.

John Booker, 'On Cox and Greenwood, army agents', pp. 18-24 in Pamela Statham, (Ed.), A Colonial Regiment: New Sources Relating to the New South Wales Corps, 1789-1810. Canberra, Australian National University, 1992.

John Booker, Traveller's Money. London, Alan Sutton Publishing Ltd., 1994.

J. F. Bosher, 'The Premiers Commis des Finances in the Reign of Louis XVI, French Historical Studies, Vol. 3, No. 4, Autumn 1964, pp. 475-494.

J. F. Bosher, 'Success and Failure in Trade to New France, 1660-1760', French Historical Studies, Vol. 15, No. 3, Spring, 1988, pp. 444-461.

J. F. Bosher, 'The Imperial Environment of French Trade with Canada, 1660-1685', The English Historical Review, Vol. 108, No. 426, January 1993, pp. 50-81. (On co-ethnic networks, Huguenot)

J. F. Bosher, 'Huguenot Merchants and the Protestant International in the Seventeenth Century', The William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 52, No. 1, January 1995, pp. 77-102. (On co-ethnic networks, Huguenot)

E. W. Bovill, 'Some Chronicles of the Larkins family: the convict ship, 1792', The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1954., pp. 120-121. (On a family network)

E. W. Bovill, 'Some Chronicles of the Larkins Family: The Loss of the Warren Hastings, 1806', The Mariners Mirror, Vol. 42, No. 3, August, 1956., pp. 188-200. (On a family network)

K. M. Bowden, George Bass, 1770-1805. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1952. (On a family network)

H. V. Bowen, Revenue and Reform: The Indian Problem in British Politics, 1757-1773. Sydney, Cambridge University Press, 1991.

H. V. Bowen, 'Investment and empire in the later eighteenth century: East India stockholding, 1756-1791', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. XLII, 2, 1989, pp. 186-206.

Claude G. Bowers, Jefferson and Hamilton: The Struggle for Democracy in America. New York, Houghton Mifflin, 1953.

H. V. Bowen, Revenue and Reform: The Indian problem in British politics, 1757-1773. Sydney, CUP, 1991.

H. V. Bowen, '"Dipped in the Traffic"; East India Stockholders in the House of Commons, 1768-1774', Parliamentary History, 5, 1986, pp. 40-42.

Julian P. Boyd, (Ed.), The Papers of Thomas Jefferson. Vol. 9. (1 November, 1785 to 22 June, 1876). Princeton, New Jersey, Princeton University Press, 1954.

1834: J. E. Boyle, Cotton and the New Orleans Cotton Exchange: A Century of Commercial Evolution. 1934.

William Bradley, A Voyage To New South Wales, 1786-1792. Sydney. William Dixson Foundation Publication. No. 11. Facsimile Edn.

Frank Brady, James Boswell, the Later Years: 1769-1795. New York, 1984.

Robert Brenner, Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London's Overseas Traders, 1550-1653. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1993.

John Brewer, The Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783. London, Unwin Hymen, 1989.

Clarence S. Brigham, British Royal Proclamations Relating To America, 1604-1783. New York, Burt Franklin, 1911.

Philip Bright, (Ed.), The Diaries of John Bright. London, Cassell, 1930.

Frank J. A. Broeze, 'Foundation of fortune: the imperial axis, Flower-Salting-Challis', The Push From the Bush, No. 8, December 1980., pp. 50-74.)

Frank J. A. Broeze, Island Nation: A History of Australians and the Sea. Sydney, Allen and Unwin, 1998.

Frank J. A. Broeze, 'From Imperialism to independence: the decline and re-emergence of Asian shipping', The Great Circle, 9, 2, 1987., pp. 73-95.

Frank J. A. Broeze, 'From the periphery to the mainstream: the challenge of Australia's maritime history', The Great Circle, Vol. 11, No. 1, 1989., pp. 1-13.

Frank J. A. Broeze, 'Private enterprise and public policy: merchant shipping in Australia and New Zealand, 1788-1992', Australian Economic History Review, Vol. 32, , No. 2, 1992., pp. 8-32. (The issue, Land and Sea: the role of shipping in Australian economic development).

Frank J. A. Broeze, 'British intercontinental shipping and Australia, 1813-1850', Journal of Transport History, New Series, Vol. 4, 1977-1978., pp. 189-207.

Frank J. A. Broeze, 'Distance tamed: steam navigation to Australia and New Zealand from its beginning to the outbreak of the Great War', Journal of Transport History, Series 3, Vol. 10, No. 1, March 1989., pp. 1-21.

Frank J. A. Broeze, 'Private enterprise and the peopling of Australia, 1831-1850', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 35, Nos. 1, 2 3, 4. 1982., pp. 235-253.

Frank J. A. Broeze, 'The cost of distance: shipping and the early Australian economy, 1788-1850', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 38, 1975., pp. 582-597.

Frank J. A. Broeze, Mr Brooks and the Australian Trade: Imperial Business in the Nineteenth Century. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1993.

Frank J. A. Broeze, '"Our Home is Girt by Sea": the passenger trade of Australia and New Zealand, 1788-1914', in Klaus Friedland, (Ed.), Maritime Aspects of Migration. Koln, Bohlau, 1989., pp. 441-465.

Sir Joseph Broodbank, History of the Port of London. Two Vols. London, Daniel O'Connor, 1921.

George E. Brooks Jr., Yankee Traders, Old Coasters and African Middlemen. Boston, 1970.

Jerome Edmund Brooks, The Mighty Leaf: Tobacco Through The Centuries. Boston, Little Brown, 1952.

Jean Ingram Brookes, International Rivalry in the Pacific Islands, 1800-1875. New York, Russell and Russell, 1961.

Antony Brown, Hazard Unlimited: The Story of Lloyd's of London. London, Peter Davies, 1973.

Antony Brown, Three Hundred Years of Lloyd's. London, Lloyd's of London Press, Ltd., (Iain Lindsay-Smith, Lloyd's List), 1988.

1820: J. C. Brown, A Hundred Years of Merchant Banking: A History of Brown Bros. and Co. 1909. (On the noted banking family, Brown)

Peter Douglas Brown, William Pitt, Earl of Chatam: The Great Commoner. London, Allen and Unwin, 1978.

Robert and B. Katherine Brown, Virginia 1705-1786: Democracy or Aristocracy? East Lansing, Michigan, 1964.

Wallace Brown, The Good Americans: The Loyalists in the American Revolution. New York, Morrow, 1965.

Wallace Brown, The King's Friends: The Composition and Motives of the American Loyalist Claimants. Providence, Rhode Island, Brown University Press, 1965.

1784: Robert Kingery Buell and Charlotte Northcote Skladal, Sea Otters and the China Trade. New York, 1968. (A popular history)

Burke's Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry. Three Vols., Edn 18. London, Burke's Peerage Ltd., 1972.

John Burke and John Bernard Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic History of Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England, Ireland and Scotland. Second edition. London, John Russell Smith, [Facsimile of the 1841-1844 edition], 1964.

John Bruce, Annals of the Honourable East India Company. Three Vols. London, Court of Directors of the East India Company, 1810.

Jaap R. Bruijan and Femme S. Gaastra, Ships, Sailors and Spices: East India Companies and Their Shipping in the 16th, 17th and 18th Centuries. Amsterdam, Neha, 1993.

Norman Buck, The Development of the Organisation of Anglo-American Trade, 1800-1850. [Orig., 1925]. Yale, Newton Abbot. 1969.

1784: Robert Kingery Buell and Charlotte Northcote Skladal, Sea Otters and the China Trade. New York, 1968. (A popular history)

Anne Bulley, Bombay Country Ships, 1790-1833. London, Curzon Press, 2000. ISBN 0-7007-1236-4

James Burgess, The Chronology of Indian History. Delhi, Cosmo Pubs., 1972.

Kathleen Burk, Morgan Grenfell, 1838-1988: The Biography of a Merchant Bank. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1990.

Mary Butler, Mortality and Labour on the Codrington Estates, Barbados', Journal of Caribbean History, [Barbados], 1984, 19, (1), pp. 48-67.

S. J. Butlin, 'Charles Swanston and the Derwent Bank', Historical Studies, Australia and New Zealand, Vol. 2, No. 7, May 1943., pp. 161-185.

S. J. Butlin, The Foundation of the Australian Monetary System, 1788-1851. Sydney, Sydney University Press, 1968.

S. J. Butlin, Australia and New Zealand Bank: The Bank of Australasia and the Union Bank of Australia Limited, 1828-1851. Longmans, London, 1961.

Dan Byrnes, 'From Glasgow to Jamaica to London and Australia: the elusive Duncan Campbell (1726-1803)', Cruachan, (Journal of Clan Campbell Society of Australia), No. 62, December 1993., pp 11-16.

Dan Byrnes, '"Emptying The Hulks": Duncan Campbell and the First Three Fleets to Australia', The Push From The Bush: A Bulletin of Social History, No. 24, April, 1987., pp. 2-23.

Dan Byrnes, 'Outlooks for the English South Whale Fishery, 1782-1800, and "the great Botany Bay debate"', The Great Circle, Vol. 10, No. 2, October 1988., pp. 79-102.

Dan Byrnes, 'The Blackheath Connection: London Local History and the Settlement at New South Wales, 1786-1806', The Push, A Journal of Early Australian Social History, No. 28, 1990., pp. 50-98.


Boyd Cable, A Hundred Year History of Peninsula and Oriental Steam Navigation Company. London, Ivan Nicholson and Watson, 1937.

R. A. Cage, (Ed.), The Scots Abroad: Labour, Capital, Enterprise, 1750-1914. London, Croom Helm, 1985.

Robert McCluer Calhoun, The Loyalists in Revolutionary America, 1760-1781. New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1973.

Hector Charles Cameron, Sir Joseph Banks. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1952.

J. M. R. Cameron, Ambition's Fire: The Agricultural Colonization of Pre-Convict Western Australia. Nedlands, Western Australia, University of Western Australia Press, 1981.

J. M. R. Cameron, 'Traders, government officials and the occupation of Melville Island in 1824', The Great Circle, Vol. 7, No. 2, October 1985., pp. 88-99.

The Duncan Campbell Letterbooks, ML A3225-3230 are held as: ML A3225, Vol. 1. of Business Letterbooks, March 1772-October 1776; ML A3226, Vol. 2 of Business Letterbooks, 13 December, 1776-21 September, 1779; ML A3227, Vol. 3 of Business Letterbooks, September 30, 1779-March 9, 1782; ML A3228, Vol. 4 of Business Letter books, March 15, 1782-April 6, 1785; ML A3229, Vol. 5 of Business Letterbooks, December 1, 1784-June 17, 1788; ML A3230, Vol. 6 of Business Letterbooks, June 20, 1788-December 31, 1794. Some ML Blighiana is also relevant to Campbell. The breaks of dates which are noted between Business Letterbooks are not in all instances covered by letters entered into Private Letterbooks, ML A3231, comprising three volumes of same (of physically smaller volumes). ML A3232, Small Notebook, "Notes of Campbell's Correspondence by [grandson in Australia] William Dugald Campbell, Vols. A to F."

E. W. Campbell, The 60 Families Who Own Australia. Sydney, Current Book Distributors, 1963. (Not such a reliable book as the title suggests - Ed)

J. T. Campbell, 'The first decade of the Australian Agricultural Company, 1824-1834', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol, 9, Part 3, 1923., pp. 113-160.

R. H. Campbell, Carron Company. Edinburgh, Oliver and Boyd, 1961. (A company history.)

David Cannadine, The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy. London, Penguin (paperback), 2005.

Milton Cantor, (Ed.), Hamilton. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall Inc., 1971. [With essays by Richard B. Morris, 'Alexander Hamilton after Two Centuries', pp. 128-134; Broadus Mitchell, 'Continentalist', pp. 135-156; Cecilia M. Kenyon, 'Alexander Hamilton, Rousseau of the Right', pp. 163-176]

J. J. A. Campos, History of the Portuguese in Bengal. London/Calcutta, Butterworth and Co., 1919.

John Carey, (Ed.), Eyewitness To History. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard, 1988.

John Carswell, The South Sea Bubble. London, Cressett Press, 1960.

Harold B. Carter, His Majesty's Spanish Flock: Sir Joseph Banks and the Merinoes of George III of England. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1964.

Harold B. Carter, Sir Joseph Banks, 1743-1820. London, British Museum (Natural History), 1988.

Youssef Cassis, 'Bankers in English Society in the late eighteenth century', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 38, No. 2, May 1985., pp. 210-229.

S. D. Chapman, 'British Marketing Enterprise: The Changing Roles of Merchants, Manufacturers and Financiers, 1700-1860;, Business History Review, LIII, 1979, pp. 205-234.

E. Keble Chatterton, The Mercantile Marine. London, William Heinemann Ltd., 1923.

E. Keble Chatterton, Ventures and Voyages. London, Longmans Green, 1928.

K. N. Chaudhuri, The English East India Company: The Study of an Early Joint-Stock Company, 1600-1640. London, Frank Cass, 1965.

K. N. Chaudhuri, 'The English East India Company's Shipping, (c.1660-1760)', in Jaap R. Bruijan and Femme S. Gaastra, Ships, Sailors and Spices: East India Companies and Their Shipping in the 16th, 17th and 18th Centuries. Amsterdam, Neha, 1993.

K. N. Chaudhuri, 'The East India Company and the export of treasure in the early seventeenth century', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 16, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 1963-1964., pp. 23-38.

Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Clive of India: A Political and Psychological Essay. London, Barrie and Jenkins, 1975.

S. G. Checkland, The Gladstones: A Family Biography, 1764-1851. Cambridge at the University Press, 1971.

S. G. Checkland, Scottish Banking: A History, 1695-1973. Glasgow, Collins, 1975.

S. G. Checkland, 'Finance for the West Indies, 1780-1815', Economic History Review, Series 10, Vol. 10, Nos. 1-2-3, 1957-1958.

W. E. Cheong, 'Trade and finance in China, 1784-1834', Business History, Vol. 7, No. 1, January 1965., pp. 34-47.

W. E. Cheong, 'The beginning of credit finance on the China coast: the Canton financial crisis of 1812-1815', Business History, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1971., pp. 87-103.

W. E. Cheong, 'China Houses and the Bank of England crisis of 1825', Business History, Vol. 15, No. 1, January 1973., pp. 56-73.

W. E. Cheong, Mandarins and Merchants: Jardine Matheson and Co: A China Agency of the Early Nineteenth Century. London, Curzon Press, (Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies, Monograph Series, No. 26), 1979.

W. E. Cheong, 'Trade and finance in China, 1784-1834', Business History, Vol. 7, No. 1, January 1965., pp. 34-47.

W. E. Cheong, 'The beginning of credit finance on the China coast: the Canton financial crisis of 1812-1815', Business History, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1971., pp. 87-103.

W. E. Cheong, 'China Houses and the Bank of England crisis of 1825', Business History, Vol. 15, No. 1, January 1973., pp. 56-73.

W. E. Cheong, Mandarins and Merchants: Jardine Matheson and Co: A China Agency of the Early Nineteenth Century. London, Curzon Press, (Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies, Monograph Series, No. 26), 1979.

Anthony Chen, Kuo-tung, The Insolvency of the Chinese Hong Merchants, 1760-1843. Ph.D thesis, Yale University. May 1990. UMI Dissertation Services. [Copy, Dept. Economic History Library, UNE].

Ian R. Christie, British non-elite MPs, 1715-1820. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1995.

Leo Christopher, Land and Class in Kenya. London/Toronto, University of Toronto Press, c.1984.

Tan Chung, 'The Britain-China-India trade triangle, 1771-1840', The Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 11, No. 4, December 1974., pp. 411-431.

L. G. Churchward, 'Notes on American whaling activities in Australian waters, 1800-1850', Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 4, No. 13, 1949., pp. 59-63.

L. G. Churchward, Australia and America, 1788-1972: An Alternative History. Sydney, Alternative Publishing Co-Op Ltd., 1979.

Stanley F. Chyet, Lopez of Newport. Detroit, 1970.* (Merchant history on US eastern seaboard before and after American Revolution)

Sir John Clapham, The Bank of England: A History. Two Vols. Cambridge University Press, 1944.

1870: Arthur H. Clark, The Clipper Ship Era. New York, 1910.

C. M. H. Clark, A History of Australia: From the Earliest Times to the Age of Macquarie. (Vol. 1 One of a series). Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1962.

T. Clarkson, An Essay on the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species, particularly the African. London. 1786. (Clarkson later directed research for the anti-slavery movement)

T. Clarkson, History of the Rise, Progress and Accomplishments of the Abolition of the Slave Trade. Philadelphia. 1808. (London ed., 1839.

Sir Henry Clay, Lord Norman. London, Macmillan, 1957. On the Nineteenth Century family of bankers/financiers, Norman, mentioning George Wade Norman.

Walter Barrett Clerk, The Old Merchants of New York City. 1862, no other details.

H. P. Clodd, Malaya's First British Pioneer: The Life of Francis Light. London, Luzac and Co., 1948. (This Francis Light was father of William Light who is notable for surveying the location of Adelaide, South Australia)

Clare M. Clubb, 'The Archives of the City and Guilds of London', Journal of the Society of Archivists, [Great Britain], 1986, 8, (2), pp. 124-126.

David Clune and Ken Turner, (Eds.), The Premiers of New South Wales, Volume 1, 1856-1901. Volume 2, 1901-2005. Federation Press, 2006, 256pp.

David Clune and Gareth Griffith, (Eds.), Decision and Deliberation: The Parliament of New South Wales, 1856-2003. Federation Press, 2006, 735pp.

Frank Clune, The Search for the Golden Fleece: The Story of the Peppin Merino. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1965.

Frank Clune, Rascals, Ruffians and Rebels of Early Australia. Sydney, Angus and Robertson, 1987.

Austin Coates, Macao and the British, 1637-1842: Prelude to Hong Kong. Hong Kong, Oxford University Press, 1988.

Hugh Cockerell, Lloyd's of London: A Portrait. Cambridge, Woodhead-Faulkner, 1984.

Peter Wilson Coldham, The Complete Book of Emigrants in Bondage, 1614-1775. Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Co., 1988.

Peter Wilson Coldham, Emigrants in Chains. Phoenix Hill, Far Thrupp, Stroud, Gloucestershire, Allan Sutton, 1992.

D. C. Coleman, Sir John Banks, Baronet and Businessman: A Study of Business, Politics and Society in Later Stuart England. New York, Oxford University Press, 1963.

Maurice Collis, British Merchant Adventurers. London, William Collins, 1942.

Maurice Collis, Siamese White. London, Faber, 1935.

D. C. Coleman, Sir John Banks, Baronet and Businessman: A Study of Business, Politics and Society in Later Stuart England. New York, Oxford University Press, 1963.

1832: Calvin Colton, Manual for Emigrants to America. 1832. (Typical of advice given to English intending to go to America) See also, Charles Knight and Co., The British Mechanic's and Labourer's Hand Book and True Guide to the United States. 1840.

E. Compton, (Ed.), A Master Mariner: Being the Life and Adventures of Capt. Robert William Eastwick. London, 1891. *

Howard Corning, (Ed.), "Sullivan Dorr: An Early China Merchant", Essex Institute Historical Collections, 78, 1942., pp. 158-175.

M. D. Conway, Barons Of The Potomack And The Rappahannock. New York, The Grolier Club, 1892.

Count Corti, The Rise of the House of Rothschild. [Translated from the German by Brian and Beatrix Lunn] London, Victor Gollancz Ltd., 1928.

Edward Countryman, 'The Uses of Capital in Revolutionary America: The Case of the New York Loyalist Merchants', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 49, No. 1, January 1992., pp. 3-28.

Compilation: Graham E. Connah, M. Rowland, J. Oppenheimer, Captain Richards' House at Winterbourne: A Study in Historical Archaeology. Armidale, Australia. Dept. Of Prehistory & Archaeology, University Of New England. 1978.

Gordon Connell-Smith, Forerunners of Drake: A Study of the English Trade with Spain in the Early Tudor Period. London, Longmans Green and Co., 1954.

S. R. Cope, 'Bird, Savage and Bird of London, merchants and bankers, 1782 to 1803', Guildhall Studies in London History, 1981., pp. 202-217.

Kenneth James Cozens, Politics, Patronage and Profit: A Case Study of Three 18th Century London Merchants. MA thesis 2005, Greenwich Maritime Institute (GMI)/Greenwich University.

James Cracraft, 'John Brogden in Russia, 1787-1788', Slavonic and Eastern European Review, xlvii, 1969.

Ian Crawford, We Won the Victory: Aborigines and Outsiders on the North-West Coast of the Kimberley. Fremantle Arts Centre Press, 2001.

Barbara Creed and Jeanette Hoorn, (Eds.), Body Trade: Captivity, Cannibalism and Colonialism in the Pacific. Pluto Press, 2001.

1810: Alfred W. Crosby Jr., America, Russia, Hemp and Napoleon. Columbus, Ohio, 1955.

Noel Currer-Briggs and Royston Gambier, Huguenot Ancestry. Chichester, Sussex, Phillimore and Co., 1985.


Jane De Falbe, Dear Miss Macarthur: Recollections of Emmeline Maria Macarthur, 1821-1911. Kangaroo Press, Australia, 1988.

Richard Davenport-Hines and Jean-Jacques Vanhelten, 'Edgar Vincent, Viscount D'Abernon, and the Eastern Investment Company in London, Constantinople and Johannesburg', Business History, [Great Britain], 1986, 28 (1), pp. 35-61.

Thomas M. Devine, The Tobacco Lords: A study of the tobacco merchants of Glasgow and their trading activities, 1740-1790. Edinburgh. Donald. 1975.

T. M. Devine, 'A Glasgow Tobacco Merchant During the American War of Independence: Alexander Speirs of Elderslie, 1775 to 1781', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XXXIII, 1976?, pp. 501ff.

P. G. M. Dickson, The Sun Insurance Office, 1710-1960: The History Of Two And A Half Centuries Of British Insurance. London, OUP, 1960.

1810: Mrs C. F. Diehm, Merchants of Our Second Century. 1889. (US business history)

Edward Dodwell and James Samuel, Bengal Civil Servants, 1780-1838. London, Miles, 1839.

E. Donnan, 'The Slave Trade into South Carolina before the Revolution', in American History Review, 1927-1928.

A. Dwight, 'The Use of Indian Labourers in New South Wales', Journal of Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 62, Part 2, 1976., pp. 114-135.

Barrie Dyster, `The Rise of William Fanning and the Ruin of Richard Jones', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 67, Part 4, March 1982., pp. 366-374.

Richard S. Dunn, '"Dreadful Idlers" in the Cane Fields: The Slave Labour Pattern on a Jamaican Sugar Estate, 1762-1831', Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 1987, 17, (4), pp. 795-822.

Geoffrey Dutton, Founder of a City: The Life of Colonel William Light, First Surveyor-General of the Colony of South Australia, Founder of Adelaide, 1786-1839. Melbourne, Cheshire, 1960.) pp. 20-25.


1834: Thomas Edison, The Cotton Trade of Great Britain. 1858.

H. Elking, A View of the Greenland Trade and the Whale Fishery. London. 1722.

Clive Emsley's article, 'The history of crime and crime control institutions, c.1770-c1945', citation mislaid, pp. 149-182.

Clive Emsley, The home office and its sources of information and investigation, 1791-1801, English Historical Review, Vol. 94, July 1979. pp. 532-561.

F. L. Engelman, 'Cadwallader Colden and the New York Stamp Act Riots',William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3. Vol. X. No. 1. Jan 1953-Oct 1953.

1857: D. M. Evans, History of the Commercial Crisis of 1857-1858 and of the Stock Exchange Panic of 1859. 1859. (US business history)


Nicholas Falk, 'London's Docklands: A Tale of Two Cities', London Journal, [Great Britain], 1981, 7 (1), pp. 65-80.

J. K. Fairbank, Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast, 1842-1854. Harvard, 1953. (See also, L. Dermigny, La Chine et l'Occident, Le Commerce a Canton au XVIII siecle, 1719-1833. Paris, 1964.)

1810: Edmund Fanning, Voyages Around The World: with selected Sketches of Voyages to the South Seas, North and South Pacific Oceans, China, etc. 1833. Also, Edmund Fanning, Voyages and Discoveries in the South Seas. 1924.

Sir Charles Fawcett, (Ed.), East Indiamen. By Sir Evan Cotton. nd?

James A. Field, America and the Mediterranean World, 1776-1882. Princeton, 1966.

1865+ Albert Fishlow, American Railroads and the Transportation of the Ante-Bellum Era. Cambridge, Mass, 1965.

1840: Robert Bennett Forbes, Personal Reminiscences. Boston, 1978. (Memoirs of a C19th US merchant to China, head of Russell and Co. at Canton, originally from Boston)

Alan Frost, Convicts and Empire: A Naval Question, 1776-1811. Oxford University Press, 1980.

Roger Fulford, Glyn's, 1753-1953: Six Generations in Lombard Street. London, Macmillan, 1953. (Banking history)

Holden Furber, Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient, 1600-1800. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, c.1976.; Holden Furber, (Edited by Rosane Rocher), Private Fortunes and Company Profits in the India Trade in the Eighteenth Century. ??? Published 1998.; Holden Furber, 'The Beginnings of American Trade with India, 1784-1812', The New England Quarterly, June, 1938., pp. 235-265.; Holden Furber, `The United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies, 1783-1796', ECHR, 10, (2), November 1940., pp. 138-147.; Holden Furber, John Company at Work. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1948.; Holden Furber, `American Trade', New England Quarterly, June 1938, pp. 255-256.


David P. Geggus, 'The Slaves of British-Occupied Saint Dominique: An Analysis of the Workforces of 197 Absentee Plantations, 1796-1797', Caribbean Studies, [Puerto Rico], 1978, 18, (1-2), pp. 5-41.

David P. Geggus, The Enigma of Jamaica in the 1790s: New Light on the Causes of Slave Rebellion', William and Mary Quarterly, [Virginia, USA], 1987, 44, (2), pp. 274-199.

Philip Geddes, In the Mouth of the Dragon: Hong Kong, Past, Present and Future. London, Century, 1982)

James R. Gibson, Otter Skins, Boston Ships, and China Goods: The Maritime Fur Trade of the Northwest Coast, 1785-1841. Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1992. Paperback edition of 1999.

R. F. Gillespie, 'Mary Bligh/Putland/O'Connell, An Australian Dynasty', Royal Australian Historical Society Newsletter, No 1, new series, January, 1981.

Pliny Goddard, Indians of the Northwest Coast. 1934. James R. Gibson, Otter Skins, Boston Ships, and China Goods: The Maritime Fur Trade of the Northwest Coast, 1785-1841. Seattle, University of Washington Press, 1992. Paperback edition of 1999., variously.

1785: B. B. Goode, The Fisheries and Fishing Industry of the United States. (Seven Vols) Washington, 1884-1887.

1812: E. M. Grace Jr., The Blockade of the Port of New York during the War of 1812. ms, 1937.

Richard Grassby, The Business Community of Seventeenth-Century England. nd?

Richard Grassby, Kinship and Capitalism. nd?

Richard Grassby, The Business Community of Seventeenth-Century England. nd?

Adrian Graves, Cane and Labour: The Political Economy of the Queensland Sugar Industry, 1862-1906. Edinburgh University Press, 1993.

1784: Sidney and Marjorie Greebie, Gold of Ophir. 1925. (On the US' old China trade)

Larry D. Gregg, The Barbados Connection: John Parris and the Early New England Trade with the West Indies', New England Historical and Genealogical Register, 1986, 140, April, pp. 99-113.

Andrew Griffin, London, Bengal, The China Trade and the Unfrequented Extremities of Asia: The East India's Settlement in New Guinea, 1793-1795. British Library Journal, UK, 1990, 16,2, pp. 151-173.

R. S. Guernsey, New York City and Vicinity during the war of 1812-1815. (Two Vols.) 1889-1895.

Peter Gullery, 'Building the Millwall Docks', Construction History, [Great Britain], 1990, 6, pp. 3-21.

Ashin Das Gupta, Merchants of Maritime India, 1500-1800. nd?


Robert S. Haskett, 'Santiago de la Paz: Anatomy of a Sixteenth-Century Caribbean Sugar Estate', UCLA Historical Journal, 1980, 1, pp. 51-79.

James H. Hitchman, A Maritime History of the Pacific Coast, 1540-1980. Lanham, University Press of America, c. 1990.

1787 - Douglas Hall, A Brief History of the West India Committee. Caribbean University Press. 1971.

D. R. Hainsworth, The Sydney Traders: Simeon Lord and his Contemporaries, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1972., p. 68.

D. R. Hainsworth, Builders and Adventurers: The Traders and the Emergence of the Colony, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Cassell, 1968.
William Fairlie earlier was a partner with John Fergusson. Another firm was Fairlie, Reid and Co. of Calcutta. I remain unaware of any links the Calcutta operations had with Fairlie and Bonham of London, except that Charles Magniac and Co. in China once "inherited" Fairlie and Bonham (London) as their London agents. From about 1800, Fairlie's Calcutta operations seem to have enjoyed useful links with David Scott and Co., noted London-based operators for the East India Company. Given the codes of the day for marriage, and the employment of relatives in successful firms, it remains frustrating that a merchant impressive enough to come to Dundas' attention is so little commented, but this remains the situation.

D. R. Hainsworth, `Exploiting the Pacific frontier: the New South Wales sealing industry, 1800-1821', Journal of Pacific History, Vol. 2, 1967., pp. 59-75.

D. R. Hainsworth, 'In search of a staple: the Sydney sandalwood trade, 1804-1809', Bulletin of the Business Archives Council of Australia, Vol. 5, No. 1, February, 1965., pp. 1-20.

D. R. Hainsworth, 'The New South Wales shipping interest, 1800-1821: a study in colonial entrepreneurship', Australian Economic History Review, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1968., pp. 17-30.

D. R. Hainsworth, The Sydney Traders: Simeon Lord and his Contemporaries, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1972.

R. Hainsworth, Builders and Adventurers: The Traders and the Emergence of the Colony, 1788-1821. Melbourne, Cassell, 1968.

Douglas Hamilton. 'Absent Kings in Kingston? Business Networks and Family Ties: The View from Eighteenth-Century Kingston, Jamaica, self-published, 2005-2006. (Per Ken Cozens in February 2006).

Douglas Hamilton. 'Private Enterprise and Public Service: Naval Contracting in the Caribbean, 1720-1759', National Maritime Museum, London, 36pp. Recvd Feb 2006, self-published in 2005.

Douglas Hamilton. 'Transatlantic Ties: Scottish Migration Networks in the Caribbean, 1750-1800', In A Global Clan, edited by A. McCarthy (Ed.). New York, I. B. Tauris, pp. 48-66. ( Per Ken Cozens in February 2006, 2006.)

1834: M. B. Hammond, The Cotton Industry: An Essay in American Economic History. 1897.

D. Harington, The New York Merchant on the Eve of the Revolution. 1935. (On the period to 1815) Also on the war from Anglo-US 1812 war

1811+: Leonard Harris, London General Shipowners Society, 1811-1961. Some members of this organisation of interest from 1811 or later included: John William Buckle, George Lyall, G. Palmer, G. F. Young, O. Wigram, William Tindall, J. Chapman, H. Blanchard, Henry Buckle, R. Barry, A. Ridley, J. B. Chapman, Duncan Dunbar.

John Healey, (Ed.), S.A.'s Greats: The Men and Women of the North Terrace Plaques. Kent Town, SA, Historical Society of South Australia Inc., 2003.

J. Henniker Heaton, Australian Dictionary of Dates and Men of the Time: Containing the History of Australasia from 1542 to May, 1879. By J.H. Heaton Sydney; George Robertson, 125, New Pitt Street, and at Melbourne and Adelaide, 1879.

Ralph W. Hidy, The House of Baring in American Trade and Finance: English Merchant Bankers at Work, 17630-1861. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, 1949.

1785+ Elmo Paul Hohman, American Whalemen. New York, 1928.

Frederick Horner, History of the Blair, Banister and Braxton Families. 1898.

A. C. Howe, 'Debate: Bimetallism c.1880-1898: A Controversy Re-opened', English Historical Review, 1990, 105 (415), pp. 377-391.

1870: Octavius T. Howe and Frederick W. Matthews, American Clipper Ships. (Two Vols.) Salem, 1926-1927.

1820: Freeman Hunt, Lives of the American Merchants. (Two Vols) 1858. (Too much praise of merchant plaster-saints, reviewer suggests)

1825: W. C. Hunter, The "Fan Kwae" at Canton before Treaty Days, 1825-1844, by an Old Resident. 1882. (By one of the New Yorkers who was a partner making a fortune in Russell and Co.)

Richard P. Hyland, 'A Fragile Prosperity: Credit and Agrarian Structure in the Cauca Valley, Colombia, 1851-1887', Hispanic American Historical Review, 1982, 62, (3), pp. 369-406.


To find your way to more files on Merchant Networks topics related either chronologically, or alphabetically by merchant surname, go to the main file of Listings.


Jonathan Israel, European Jewry in the Age of Mercantilism, 1550-1750. nd?


J. Franklin Jameson, Saint Eustatius and the American Revolution., American Historical Review, 8, 1904.

Edgar Jones, Accountancy and the British Economy, 1840-1980: The Evolution of Ernst and Whinney. London, Batsford, 1981.

Stuart Jones, 'The Apogee of the Imperial Banks in South Africa: Standard and Barclays, 1919-1939', English Historical Review, 1988, 103, (409), pp. 892-916.

Depicted at right: Charles Bateson's Convict Ships, (1959 and later editions) an ideal place to start on Anglo-Pacific maritime history, unequalled since it was first published in 1959 ...Cover of book The Convict Ships


W. A. de Klerk, The Puritans In Africa: A story of Arikanerdom. Pelican. 1976. (In 1787 in the new district of Graaf-Reinet, frontier farmers were being attacked by natives, Bushmen and Xhosa, and they had lost 1200 cattle and 1500 sheep. Herders were being murdered. By 1793, on the Zuurveld, only four of about 120 farms had not been overrun, plundered or destroyed by blacks. The first nine ships of the British [naval] fleet had come into False Bay on June 11, 1795, and on 16 September Admiral Elphinstone and General Clarke had officially accepted the surrender of the cape after 143 years of VOC (Dutch East India Co) possession of the Cape. Hardly a shot had been fired. From 1803 was a brief return of Dutch rule, until 1806, when the British returned. European colonists only 26,000 at Cape. Some slaves in the area were from Malaya.)

John Keay, The Honourable Company: A History of the English East Company. London, HarperCollins, about 1997. ISBN: 0 00 638072 7

M. Kelly, (Ed), The Discrete Interest of the Bourgeoisie, before the Age of Gold, in Nineteenth Century Sydney. Sydney. 1979, pp. 4-6; See Ruth Teale on Fanning in Vol. 4 of Australian Dictionary of Biography.

1820: F. R. Kent, The Story of Alexander Brown and Sons. 1925.

Maggie Keswick, (Ed.), The Thistle and the Jade: A Celebration of 150 years of Jardine Matheson and Co. Sydney, Octopus Books Ltd., 1982.

J. R. Killick, The Liverpool Merchants and American Shipping: William Brown and the Cope Line of Philadelphia-Liverpool Packets, 1822-1880, Northern History, 37, 179-192. 2000.

Charles P. Kindleberger, A Financial History of Western Europe. London, George Allen and Unwin, 1984.

Herbert E. Klingelhofer, 'Matthew Ridley's Diary During The Peace Negotiations of 1782', William and Mary Quarterly, Jan. 1963, pp. 95ff.

Derrick Knight, Gentlemen of Fortune: The Men Who Made Their Fortunes In Britain's Slave Colonies. 1978.

Adam Knobler, Missions, Mythologies and the Search for Non-European Allies in the anti-Islamic Holy War, 1291-1540. University of Cambridge, 1989.

David Kynaston, The City of London: A World of its Own, 1815-1890. Vol. 1. London, Chatto and Windus, 1994.


Item: 1792: Cf. Langdon R, Lists of whalers mostly American visiting Norfolk Island 1792-1858. Over 50 whalers, this figure is merely suggestive, Norfolk visited no more frequently than other islands. No less, then, either.

Benjamin W. Labaree, The Boston Tea Party. New York, OUP, 1968.

David Lance and Robert A. Huttenback, 'The Export of British Finance, 1865-1914', Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, [Great Britain], 1985, 13, (3), pp. 28-76.

Jon Lawrence, Dean Martin and Jean-Louis Robert, 'The Outbreak of War and the Urban Economy: Paris, Berlin and London in 1914', Economic History Review, 1992, 45 (3), pp. 564-593.

1810: R. Langdon, (Ed.), Where the Whalers Went: An Index to the Pacific Ports and Islands Visited by American Whalers (and Some Other Ships) in the 19th Century. Canberra, Pacific Manuscripts Bureau, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1984.

1785+: R. Langdon, (Ed.), American Whalers and Traders in the Pacific: A Guide to Records on Microfilm. Canberra, Pacific Manuscripts Bureau, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 1978.

1822: H. W. Lanier, A Century of Banking in New York, 1822-1922. nd?

1822: H. W. Lanier, A Century of Banking in New York, 1822-1922. (Chapter V. lists wealthy New Yorkers at various periods)

1784: Kenneth S. LaTourette, Voyages of American Ships to China, 1784-1844. New Haven, 1927.

A. W. Laurence, Trade Castles and Forts of West Africa. London, 1963.

Constance Lever-Tracey, David Ip, Jim Kitay, Irene Phillips and Noel Tracy, Asian Entrepreneurs in Australia: Ethnic Small Business in the Chinese and Indian Communities of Brisbane and Sydney. Canberra, OMA/AGPs, 1991.

Ralph Liebermann, Renaissance Architecture in Venice, 1450-1540. London, Frederick Muller, 1982.

1830: W. S. Lindsay, History of Merchant Shipping and Ancient Commerce. (Four Vols) 1874-1876. (By a prominent British shipowner)

Jennifer Loach, Mid-Tudor Policy: 1540-1560. London, Macmillan, 1980.

1847: C. P. Low, Some Recollections of Captain Charles P. Low, commanding the Clipper Ships "Houqua", "Jacob Bell", "Samuel Russell" and "N. B. Palmer" in the China Trade, 1847-1873. 1905.

1850: Alfred Basil Lubbock, The Down Easters. Boston, 1929. (Treats the vessels of the California grain trade)

Mats Lundhal, Haitian Economy: Man, Land and Markets. London, Croom Helm, 1983.

W. J. Lyons. 'Prominent Business Figures of Sydney in the 1850s', [Part 2 of Notes on the History of the Royal Exchange], Business Archives Council of Australia, Vol. 1, pp. 1-11, May, 1956.


Roderick A. Macdonald, The Economy and Material Culture of Slaves: Goods and Chattels on the Sugar Plantations of Jamaica and Louisiana. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1993, 339 pages.

Keith Mason, The World an Absentee Planter and His Slaves Made: Sir William Stapleton and his Nevis Sugar Estate, 1722-1740', Bulletin of the John Rylands University, Library of Manchester, [Great Britain], 1993, 75, (1), pp. 103-131.

Bernard Marshall, Slave Resistance and White Reaction in the British Windward Islands, 1763-1833, Caribbean Quarterly, [Jamaica], 1982, 28, (3), pp. 33-46.

Marshall, 'The Bengal Commercial Society of 1775', Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, xlii, 1969, pp. 181-187.

1840: W. W. McBean, Biographical Register of the St Andrews Society of New York. (Two Vols) 1922-1925. (Especially on Scots merchants)

1815: John McReady, A Review of the Trade and Commerce of New York from 1815 to the Present Time - By an Observer. 1820.

Gaylene Mansfield-Smith, Trade and Violence: Early European Contact in New Zealand and the Massacre of the Boyd. M. Litt thesis, UNE, 1997.

See P. J. Marshall, 'The Personal Fortune of Warren Hastings', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. XVII, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 1964-1965., pp. 284-300. See also Foster, John Company, pp. 214ff.

Mason - The unpublished writings and research material of Marilyn Mason (Sydney, Australia) on own family history and the 1840s depression in Sydney.

Charles Massey, The Australian Merino. Melbourne, Viking O'Neil, 1990. (History of merino and sheep, etc)

Priscilla Metcalf, '"The Park Town Estate and the Battersea Tangle": a Peculiar Piece of Victorian London Property Development and Its Background', London Topographical Society Publication, No. 121, 1978.

Katharyn Mitchell and Brian Hammer, 'Ethnic Chinese Networks: A New Model?', pp. 73-97, in A. E. Safarian and Wendy Dobson, (Eds.), The People Link: Human Resources Linkages Across the Pacific. Toronto, Toronto University Press, 1997.

Miscellaneous: See also, David Mackay, 'Banished to Botany Bay: the fate of the relentless historian', a response', pp. 214-216, a riposte to Alan Frost, 'Historians, handling documents, transgressions and transportable offences', Australian Historical Studies, Vol. 25, April 1992-October 1993., pp. 192-213, and p . 215. GEC, Peerage, Aylmer, p. 370; Castle Stewart, p. 98. Namier/Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1754-1790, Vol. 2, p. 176. Valentine, British Establishment 1760-1784. The definitive work on the debts of the Nawbab of Arcot is J. D. Gurney, The Debts of the Nawbab of Arcot, 1763-1776., Oxford Ph.D, 1968. See Frost, Convicts and Empire, on Call, pp. 21ff, and p. 203, re the Nawbab of Arcot and Call's financial dealings with the Nawbab. Call knew Paul Benfield, one of the major creditors of the Nawbab of Arcot. H. Richmond, The Navy in India, 1763-1783. London, Ernest Benn, 1931. (Call had a cousin Thomas in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Brooke of Brookeborough who marries into that line. His youngest daughter is in Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Mackinnon. In 1784 Call became a partner in bank Pybus and Co of 148 New Bond St. He had been engineer at Madras, worked closely with Clive and amassed a fortune. Namier/Brooke, The History of Parliament: The House of Commons, 1754-1790, Vol. 2, p. 176.

W. F. Minchinton, (Ed), Politics And The Port Of Bristol In The Eighteenth Century. Petitions of The Society Of Merchant Venturers, 1698-1803. Printed for the Bristol Record Society. 1963.

Mockler, Mercenaries: As an oddity, follows a list of mostly pre-Modern Mercenary companies from Anthony Mockler, Mercenaries. London, Macdonald, 1969. The rise of the use of Mercenary companies grew from the end-times of feudalism. Mockler himself called the below information, "A Shaky Genealogical Tree" of mercenary companies: The Almogavares (Aragon, c. 1200-1300, "raiders", from an Arabic word). Semi-Feudal Array (Europe, c.1200-1300). The Almogavares led to The Grand Catalan Company (Byzantine Empire, 1306-1374) while in Europe were The Free Companies, (France, Spain, Italy, c.1300-1400). There were also the "Ecorcheurs (France, 1435-1445), leading to the Royal Companies (of France, 1445).

In Spain arose The Grand Catalan Company (under Roger di Flor, fought against the Turks for Byzantium, fell out with the Byzantines and set up their own duchy in Athens, Greece, for 63 years), led to The "Compagnie di Ventura (Italy c.1360-1400). To the Compagnia di San Giorgio (Italy, 1379). The Bracceschi and the Sforzeschi (Italy, c. 1400). The Condotteri (Italy, 1400-1530). The Swiss (of Burgundy, Italy, c.1470-1515) led to the Swiss Guards (of Europe, c.1500-1848), to the Official Swiss Regiments (France and elsewhere, c.1550-1630). And then to the Swiss Guards of the Vatican to the present day. From the Holy Roman Empire (1500-1550) arose The Landsnecht, which led to the Landgraves of Hesse-Cassel, etc, (Europe and America, c.1600-1800) which in turn led to the King's German Legion, not unlinked later to the French Foreign Legion and the Spanish Foreign Legion.

In more modern times were found, branching from the French Foreign Legion, groups such as French Mercenaries (Katanga 1960-1961), in turn leading to the Four Commando Brigade of Biafra in 1968, who had also stemmed from Five Commando, Leopard Group, Six Commando of the Congo (1964-1967).

Mockler writes, p. 30, "Peace for them was intolerable. After the Peace of Bretigny the free companions spread all over France like the plague that had preceded them only a few years earlier."

Here are the names of some of the more famous of their leaders: Regnault de Cervoles, known as the Archpriest (possibly the first of the companions from soon after the battle of Poitiers in 1358 and who soon terrified Pope Innocent VI, who fought for the king of France), Sir Robert Knollys (who recruited Perduccas d'Albret), Perrot le Beamais, Geoffrey Tete-Noire (and his nephews Alleyne and Peter Roux), Sir John Aimery, Sir John Hawkwood (or "Giovanni Acuto", firstly of The White Company in France, who later fought for the Vatican, who trained Alberigo da Barbiano who formed "the Italian Company of St George"), Bertrand de la Salle, Aymerigot Marcel (had once had a castle named La Roche de Vandais in Auvergne), the Bascot de Mauleon, Sir Bertrand du Guesclin, Sir Hugh Calveley, the Bourc de Capenne, the Bourc Anglais, the Bourc of Lesparre, Carsuelle, Lamit, the Captal de Buch, Eustace d' Auberchicourt, Sir James Piper, Bemard d'Albret. These captains were not generally noblemen; the very ring of their names is vulgar and plebeian; yet some of the most famous military leaders of the time are here. Bertrand du Guesclin, the Breton, went on to become Constable of France, and Sir Robert Knollys protected young King Richard at the time of the Peasants' Revolt. But most of them died violent deaths before attaining a respectable old age. As the Bascot de Mauleon told Froissart, 'I know of very few except myself, who were not killed somewhere in battle.' And if the battles of Crecy and Poitiers were won by English bowmen against the cavalry of France, all the succeeding battles of importance for many years were decided by the free companies. They fought for the King of Navarre against the King of France and were beaten at Cocherel. They decided the succession to the duchy of Brittany at the battle of Auray where the Comte de Blois was killed; they fought on both sides in the Castilian civil war between Pedro the Cruel and his brother, Henry the Bastard of Trastamare - a war that was finally won by Bertrand du Guesclin. In all these battles they were hired and led by feudal lords or princes. But at the battle of Brignais, their greatest achievement, the free companies united to oppose a feudal army sent by the King of France to wipe them out. ... There was one Geguin de Badefol, who styled himself, 'king of the companions' and frightened popes and cardinals. And why did the companions arise? Partly because of ambivalence within the feudal world about just who had the sovereignty and the rights to declare a war ... Other names in France were the White Company, the Compagnie de la Margot, the Compagnie des-Tards-Venus, the Compagnie des Batads, other "grand comapnies". There were Sir Silvester Bude, Pietter de Saquainville (beheaded at Evreux), Enguerrand de Bournonville admired by the French companies of Lombardy; Sir Henry Boynton, who fought for the King of Scots. Merigot Marches was tried in Paris in July 1391. There was the Breton Company of St Denis. In Italy, operated the condottiere Colleoni, Werner of Urslingen of The Great Company (who had fought for the King of Hungary), Braccio Fortebraccio (a minor noble from near Perugia), Federigo da Montefeltro ("duke of Urbino"), Muzio Attendolo Sforza (a peasant from Cotignola), Francesco Sforza, Cesare Borgia. One Albert Sterz of The White Company was beheaded by his employers, the Perugians. Gianpaolo Baglione was executed on the orders of Pope Leo X (a Medici) and his brother-in-law Bartolomeo Alviano was probably poisoned by Venetians. Mockler's is a fascinating book.

On the activities of early Italian bankers in roughly this period, see,
A. Beardwood, Alien Merchants in England, 1350-1377. Cambridge, Mass, 1931.
E. A. Bond, 'Extracts relative to Loans supplied by Italian merchants to the kings of England in the 13th and 14th centuries', Archaeologia, 28, 1840 (1940?).
C. Brooke and G. Keir, London 800-1216. 1975.
W. R. Childs, Anglo-Castilian Trade in the Later Middle Ages. Manchester, 1978.
E. M. Carus-Wilson and O. Coleman, England's Export Trade, 1275-1547. Oxford, 1963.
W. C. Jordan, (Ed.), Order and Innovation in The Later Middle Ages. Princeton, NJ, 1976,
R. Kaeuper, 'The Frescobaldi of Florence and the English crown', Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History, 10, 1973.
J. Klein, The Mesta: A Study in Spanish Economic History, 1272-1836. Cambridge, Mass, 1932.
R. W. Kaeuper, Bankers to the Crown. Princeton, NJ, 1973. (On The Riccardi)
R. W. Kaeuper, 'The Frescobaldi of Florence and the English Crown', Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History, I, 1973.
E. A. Bond, 'Extracts relative to Loans supplied by Italian merchants to the kings of England in the 13th and 14th centuries', Archaeologia, 28, 1840. {1940?}
T. H. Lloyd, The English Wool Trade in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press, 1977.
T. H. Lloyd, Alien Merchants in England in the High Middle Ages. Harvester Press, Sussex/St Martin's Press, New York, 1982.
W. E. Lunt, Financial Relations of the Papacy with England to 1327. Cambridge, Mass, 1939.
K. Polyani, 'Ports of Trade in Early Societies', The Journal of Economic History, 23, 1963.
M. M. Postan, Medieval Trade and Finance. Cambridge, 1973.
M. Prestwich, 'Italian merchants in the late thirteenth and early fourteenth century England, in The Dawn of Modern Banking. New Haven and London, 1979.
T. F. Ruiz, 'Castilian Merchants and England, 1248-1350', in W. C. Jordan, (Ed.), Order and Innovation in The Later Middle Ages. Princeton, NJ, 1976, which also has A. R. Lewis, 'Northern European sea power and the straits of Gibraltar, 1031-1350AD'.
R. de Roover, 'The story of the Albergi Company of Florence, l302-l348', Business History Review, 1958.
A. A. Ruddock, Italian Merchants and Shipping in Southampton, 1270-1600. Southampton, 1951.
V. M. Shillington and A. B. W. Chapman, The Commercial Relations of England and Portugal. London, 1907.
C. Verlinden, 'The Rise of the Spanish trade in the Middle Ages', ECHR, 10, 1939-1940.

H. B. Morse, The provision of funds for the East India Company's trade at Canton during the Eighteenth Century. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, April 1922, Part 2. pp. 227-254.

1783: S. E. Morison, Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783-1860. 1921. (Useful on US' China and East India trade, and a classic)

A. L. Morton and George Tate, The British Labour Movement, 1770-1920. London, Lawrence and Wishart, 1956.

Frederic Morton, The Rothschilds: A Family Portrait. Ringwood, Victoria, Australia, Penguin, 1964.

Clarence J. Munford, 'The "Pearl" of the Antilles is born: Haiti and Black Slavery, the Early Years, 1629-1715', Jahbuch fr Geschichte von Staat, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft Latinamericas, [Germany], 1991, 28, pp. 1-19.

Clarence J. Munford and Michael Zeuske, 'Black Slavery, Class Struggle, Fear and Revolution in St. Dominique and Cuba, 1705-1795', Journal of Negro History, 1988, 73, (1-4), pp. 12-32.

1860: Gustavus Myers, History of the Great American Fortunes. (Three Vols) 1910.


Sir Lewis Namier, The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III. Edn 2. London, Macmillan, 1957.

W. Keith Neal and D. H. L Back, 'Great British Gunmakers, 1540-1740', Historical Firearms, 1984.

1825: Vincent O. Nolte, Fifty Years In Both Hemispheres. (trans 1854). (Memoirs of an international financial adventurer, sometime visitor to New York and situations in New Orleans during 1825 cotton boom)

Norman - 1834: On Charles Lloyd Norman (1833-1889), banker, son of George Wade Norman, an investor in the Australian Agricultural Company and Sibella Stone, C. L. Norman married a first wife, Julia Cameron, and then Emily Mangles (daughter of director of the New Zealand Company Ross Donelly Mangles and Harriet Newcombe). The name Mangles is a London-based convict contractor name as discussed below, with connections to Western Australian settlement. See Burke's Peerage & Baronetage for Norman of Bromley Common. Youssef Cassis, 'Bankers in English Society in the late eighteenth century', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 38, No. 2, May 1985., pp. 210-229., here p. 215. Sir Henry Clay, Lord Norman. London, Macmillan, 1957. pp. 1-12., here, p. 6. David Kynaston, The City of London: A World of its Own, 1815-1890. Vol. 1. London, Chatto and Windus, 1994., here, p. 29. G. W. Norman is a good example of how socially well-knit were bankers of a reforming outlook. He was "friend and neighbour" at Bromley Common to bankers such as Hankey, George Grote, Hay Cameron, Lubbock, Stone, Martin. See also, Pike, Dissent, variously.
(Genealogically, the name Norman links three generations earlier to the families of Stone and Herring, both names in banking history being instrumental in backing the origins of the bank managed by the later Sir Francis Baring.)


Adele Ogden, The California Sea Otter Trade, 1784-1848. Berkeley, 1941.

Adele Ogden, 'The Californians in Spain's Pacific Otter Trade, 1775-1795', Pacific History Review, Vols 1-4, 1932, pp. 424-444.

1785+: Frances Downes Ommanney, Lost Leviathan. New York, 1971. (US whaling history)

Jurgen Osterhammel, 'Imperialism in Transition: British Business and The Chinese Authorities, 1931-1937', China Quarterly, [Great Britain], 1984, (98), 260-286.


Alan and Veronica Palmer, Who's Who in Shakespeare's England. Brighton, Sussex, Harvester Press Ltd., 1981.

J. G. Palmer, Biographical Sketches of Loyalists of the American Revolution. London/Westport, Meckler Books, 1984. (One page of entries on Delanceys, p. 214, no leads. Also entry on a relative of DC, Henrietta Colden, p. 165, citing AO12/101/186, she was in England in 1784 and 1785, and estimated the value of her husband's estate (in New York) at 21,790 pounds sterling [We do know that Duncan Campbell (1726-1803) helped her to obtain a stipend for her sons' education at Edinburgh].)

Sarah Palmer, Politics, Shipping and the Repeal of the Navigation Laws. Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1990.

Richard Pares, Merchants and Planters. Cambridge at the University Press, Published for the Economic History Review, 1960.

Richard Pares, Yankees and Creoles: The Trade between North America and the West Indies before the American Revolution. London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1956.

Richard Pares, A West-India Fortune. London, Longman Green and Co., 1950.

James G. Parker, 'Scottish Enterprise in India, 1750-1914', pp. 191-219 in R. A. Cage, (Ed.), The Scots Abroad: Labour, Capital, Enterprise, 1750-1914. London, Croom Helm, 1985.

R. A. C. Parker, 'Coke of Norfolk and the Agrarian Revolution', in Economic History Review, Series 2, viii (1955-1956)., pp. 156-166.

C. Northcote Parkinson, (Ed.), The Trade Winds: A Study of British Overseas Trade during the French Wars, 1793-1815. London, Allen and Unwin, 1948.

Ronald Parsons, Migrant Ships for South Australia, 1836-1860. Gumeracha, South Australia, Gould Books, 1988.

Ronald Parsons, Southern Passages: A Maritime History of South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia, Wakefield Press, 1986.

T. G. Parsons, 'Public money and private enterprise: the administration of the New South Wales Commissariat, 1813-1820', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 60, Part 1, 1975., pp. 1-11.

T. G. Parsons, 'The development of early colonial capitalism: some thoughts on Connell and Irving's class structure in Australian history', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 68, Part 2, September 1982., pp. 155-159.

1860: James Parton, Sketches of Men in Progress. 1870. (US business/merchant history)

Orlando Patterson, The Sociology of Slavery: An Analysis of the Origins, Development and Structure of Negro Slave Society in Jamaica. London, Granada, 1967.

George Pattison, 'Shipping and the East India Docks, 1802-1838', The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 49, No. 3, August 1963., pp. 209-212.

1784+ Charles Oscar Paullin, American Voyages to the Orient. Annapolis, 1971

Michael Pearson, 'Shore-based whaling at Two Fold Bay: one hundred years of enterprise', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 71, Part 1, June 1985., pp. 3-27.

M. N. Pearson, 'Brokers in western Indian port cities: their role in servicing foreign merchants', Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1988., pp. 455-472.

Robin Pearson, 'Taking Risks and Containing Competition: Diversification and Oligopoly in the Fire Insurance Markets of the North of England during the Early Nineteenth Century', Economic History Review, 1993, 46 (1), 39-64.

Frederick Pedler, The Lion and the Unicorn: A History of the Origin of the United Africa Company, 1787-1931. London, Heinemann, 1974.

N. A. Pelcovits, (sic) Old China Hands and the Foreign Office. New York., 1948. Noted p. 205 in Parker's essay on Scots in India in R. A. Cage's book.

Pennie A. Pemberton, Pure Merinos and others: the shipping lists of the Australian Agricultural Company. Canberra, Australian National University Archives of Business and Labour, 1986.

W. Baring Pemberton, Lord North. London, 1938.

Lillian M. Penson, The Colonial Agents of the British West Indies: A Study in Colonial Administration mainly in the Eighteenth Century. Orig. 1924. London, Frank Cass and Co., Reprint 1971.

N. M. Penzer, Paul Storr: The Last of Two Goldsmiths. 1954.

Merrill D. Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation: A Biography. London, Oxford University Press, 1970.

Merrill D. Peterson, 'Thomas Jefferson and Commercial Policy, 1783-1793', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 22, October 1965., pp. 584-610.

C. H. Philips, The East India Company 1784-1834. Manchester University Press, 1940, 1961. p. 42, the "city interest" had gotten carried through the company court, Dundas' nomination of Campbell as Madras governor. p 50, fn 2, re Samuel Smith resigned as director against Board's encroachment on the directors' powers. The Company "interest groups" were Indian, City and Shipping. Of London ship men prior to 1808, interested in ships to Australia, Paul Le Mesurier was of the City/Shipping interest; Sir William Curtis, Mellish, Wigram, were City: John Call and Sir Arch. Campbell were India interest men. Few East India men were interested in voyages to Australia, especially if they were of the shipping interest, because ship design for India and China did not suit the voyage to Australia. But such politics had not surfaced until after 1800 and took twenty years to solidify. Multiple membership of ship men in bodies such as the South Whale Fishery, Lloyd's and the East India Company confuse issues considerably.

Jim Phillips, 'A successor of the Moguls: the Nawbab of the Carnatic and the East India Company, 1763-1785', International Historical Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, August 1985., pp. 364-389.

Jim Phillips, 'Private profit and Imperialism in eighteenth century Southern India: the Tanjore revenue dispute, 1775-1777', South Asia, New Series, Vol. 9, No. 2, December 1986., pp. 1ff.

C. H. Philips, (Ed.), The Correspondence of David Scott. Two Vols. London, 1951.

Chris Pickard, 'Eighteenth Century Manx Merchantmen and Privateers', Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, Proceedings IX, Vol. 4, unknown.

Chris Pickard. 'George Moore, HM Consul of Salonica', Manx Life (Notknown). (Per Chris Pickard in Feb 2006)

Douglas Pike, Paradise of Dissent: South Australia, 1829-1857. London, Longmans Green, 1957.

John Pollock, Wilberforce. London, Constable, 1977.

Frances Pollon, Shopkeepers and Shoppers: A Social History of Retailing in New South Wales from 1788. Sydney, Retail Traders Association of New South Wales, 1989.

Bernard Pool, 'Navy contracts in the last years of the Navy Board, 1780-1832', The Mariner's Mirror, Vol. 50, No. 3, August 1964., pp. 161-176.

B. Pool, Navy Board Contracts 1660-1832: Contract Administration under the Navy Board. London, 1966.

1815: K. W. Porter, John Jacob Astor, Business Man. nd?

Kenneth Wiggins Porter, The Jacksons and the Lees: Two generations of Massachusetts Merchants, 1765-1844. Two Vols. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Univ Press, 1937.

Om Prakash, 'Opium monopoly in India and Indonesia in the eighteenth century', Indian Economic and Social History Review, 24, 1, 1987., pp. 63-80.

Om Prakash, The Dutch East India Company and the Economy of Bengal, 1630-1720. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1985.

Om Prakash, 'Cooperation and conflict among European traders in the Indian Ocean in the late eighteenth century', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. XXXIX, Nos. 2 and 3, April-September 2002., pp. 131-149.

George Pratt, (Ed.), Papers Relating to the Ships and Voyages of the Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies, 1696-1707. Edinburgh, Scottish Historical Society, 1924.

John Prebble, The Darien Disaster. London, Secker and Warburg, 1988.

Malcolm D. Prentis, The Scots In Australia: A Study of New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland, 1788-1900. Sydney, Sydney University Press, 1983.

L. S. Presnell and John Orbell, A Guide to the Historical Records of British Banking. Gower/A Grafton Book, Business Archives Council [UK], 1985.

Jacob M. Price, 'The Economic Growth of the Chesapeake and the European Market, 1697-1775', The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1964., pp. 496-516.

Jacob M. Price and Paul G. E. Clemens, 'A revolution of scale in overseas trade: British firms in the Chesapeake trade, 1675-1775', Journal of Economic History, Vol. 43, No. 1, March 1987., pp. 1-43.

Jacob M. Price, Capital and Credit in British Overseas Trade: The View from the Chesapeake, 1700-1776. Cambridge, Mass, 1980.

Jacob M. Price, 'Who was John Norton? A Note on the Historical Character of some Eighteenth-Century London Virginia Firms', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, XIX, 1962., pp. 400-407.

Jacob M. Price, 'The rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake tobacco trade, 1707-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 11, April 1954., pp. 179-199. [Also reprinted in Peter L. Payne, (Ed.), Studies in Scottish Business History. London, 1967.

Jacob M. Price, 'Joshua Johnson In London, 1771-1775: credit and commercial organization in the British Chesapeake trade', pp. 153-180 in Anne Whiteman, J. S. Bromley and P. G. M. Dickson (Eds.), Statesmen, Scholars and Merchants: Essays in Eighteenth Century History presented to Dame Lucy Sutherland. Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1973.

Jacob M. Price, The Tobacco Adventure to Russia: Enterprise, Politics, and Diplomacy in the Quest for a Northern Market for English Colonial Tobacco, 1676-1722. 1962.

Jacob M. Price, 'The Last Phase of the Virginia-London Consignment Trade: James Buchanan and Co., 1758-1768', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XLIII, No. 1., Jan. 1968., pp. 64ff, inc. mention of John Yerbury, who supplied material to First Fleet.

Jacob M. Price, 'Buchanan and Simson, 1759-1763: A Different Kind of Glasgow Firm Trading to the Chesapeake', William and Mary Quarterly. Series 3. Vol. XL. No 1. January 1983., pp. 3-41.

Jacob M. Price, 'The Last Phase of the Virginia-London Consignment Trade: James Buchanan and Co, 1758-1768;, William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XLIII, No. 1. Jan. 1968, pp. 64ff. (Includes mention of John Yerbury, who supplied material to First Fleet to Australia.)

Jacob M. Price, 'The Rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake Tobacco Trade, 1707-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XI, April 1954., pp. 179-199.

Jacob M. Price, essay Joshua Johnson In London, 1771-1775, in Anne Whiteman et al, (Eds.), Statesmen, Scholars and Merchants, Essays... presented to Dame Lucy Sutherland. OUP, 1973.

Jacob M. Price, 'One Family's Empire: The Russell-Lee-Clerk Connection in Maryland, Britain and India, 1707-1857', Maryland Historical Magazine, Vol. 72, 1977., pp. 165-225.

Jacob M. Price, 'The Rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake Tobacco Trade, 1707-1775', William And Mary Quarterly, 3d Series, 11, 1954., pp. 179-199. Reprinted in Peter L. Payne, (Ed.), Studies In Scottish Business History. London, 1967.

Jacob M. Price, 'Capital And Credit In The British-Chesapeake Trade, 1750-1775', in Virginia B. Platt and David Curtis Skaggs, (Eds.), Of Mother Country And Plantations: Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh Conference In Early American History. Bowling Green, Ohio, 1971.

Jacob M. Price, 'The Rise of Glasgow in the Chesapeake Tobacco Trade, 1707-1775', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XI, April 1954, pp. 179ff.

Jacob M. Price, 'The Last Phase of the Virginia-London Consignment Trade: James Buchanan and Co., 1758-1768', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XLIII, No 1, Jan. 1968, pp. 64ff.

Earl Hamilton Pritchard, The Crucial Years of Early Anglo-Chinese Relations, 1750-1800. Pullman, Washington, 1936.

Earl Hamilton Pritchard, 'The Struggle for Control of the China Trade during the Eighteenth Century', The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. III, 1934., pp. 280-295.

Peter R. E. Proudfoot, Wharves and Warehousing In Central Sydney, 1790-1890. The Great Circle. Vol 5, No 2. Oct 1983. pp. 73-86.


Selwyn Raab, Five Families: The Rise, Decline and Resurgence of America's Most Powerful Mafia Empires. London, Robson Books, 2006.

J. Ramsay, Essay on the Treatment and Conversion of African Slaves in the British Sugar Colonies. London. 1784.

J. Ramsay, An Enquiry into the Effects of putting a stop to the African Slave Trade. London. 1784.

J. Ramsay, A Ms. Vol. entirely in his own hand, mainly concerned with his activities towards the Abolition of the Slave Trade, 1787. [rare, copy in the Library of Rhodes House, Oxford].

J. Ramsay, Objections to the Abolition of the Slave Trade, with Answers. London. 1788.

James E. Rauch and Vitor Trinidade, 'Ethnic Chinese Networks in International Trade', Review Econ Stats, forthcoming by 2001. (On varieties of networks)

1834: Arthur Redford, Manchester Merchants and Worsted Industries. 1920.

Joao Jos Reis and P. F. de Moraes Farias, 'Islam and Slave Resistance in Bahia, Brazil', Islam etc Socite au Sud du Sahara, [France], 1989, 3, pp. 41-66.

P. G. L. Richardson, The Political Economy of the Sugar Industry in Natal, 1860-1936. London, Social Science Research Council, 1981.

1785+ Frances Diane Robotti, Whaling and Old Salem. New York, 1962.

Edith K. C. and Kermit Roosevelt. American Backlogs: The Story of Gertrude Tyler and her family, 1660-1860. 1928.

W. Roscoe, A General View of the African Slave Trade demonstrating its Injustice and Impolicy. London. 1788.


Edward Sargent, 'The Planning and Early Building of the West India Docks', Mariner's Mirror, 1991, 77 (2), pp. 18-141.

D. Gail Saunders, Slave Life, Slave Society and Cotton Production in the Bahamas', Slavery and Abolition, [Great Britain], 1990, 11, (3), pp. 332-350.

Francisco A. Scarano, Sugar and Slavery in Puerto Rico: The Plantation Economy of Pence, 1800-1850, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1984, 242 pages.

Stuart B. Schwartz, 'The Plantations of St. Benedict: The Benedictine Sugar Mills of Colonial Brazil', Americas, [Academy of American Franciscan Studies], 1982, 39, (1), pp. 1-22.

John Sainsbury, The Pro-Americans of London, 1769 to 1782, William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. 35, January 1978., pp. 423-454.

Anna Lee Saxenian, Silicon Valley's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs. San Francisco, Public Policy Institute of California, 1999. (on varieties of networks, technology, Indian)

1810+: J. A. Scoville, (Walter Barrett, pseud), The Old Merchants of New York. (Five Vols. 1863-1866 and later editions. (Regarded as not logically arranged and "quite rambling" by one critic)

Edwin R. A. Seligman, The Income Tax: A Study of the History, Theory and Practice of Income Taxation. New York, 1970. Orig, 1914. 1970 reprint by AM Kelley. (On the Act of 1798 and Pitt's conversion to idea of Income Tax)

1784: Samuel Shaw, Journals of Major Samuel Shaw, with life of the author by Josiah Quincy. 1847. (Shaw was supercargo of Empress of China on her first trip New York to China and later first US consul at Canton.

Lord Sheffield, Observations on the Project for abolishing the Slave Trade. London. 1790.

1810: G. W. Sheldon, 'The Old Shipbuilders of New York', Harpers Magazine, LXV, 1882, pp. 223-241. See also G. W. Sheldon, 'The Old Shipping Merchants of New York, Harpers Magazine, LXXXIV, 1892., pp. 457-471.

1820: G. W. Sheldon, 'The Old Merchants of New York', in Harper's Magazine, LXXXIV., pp. 457-471. Illustrated

James F. Shepherd and G. H. Walton, Shipping Trade and the Economic Development of Colonial North America. Cambridge, England, 1972.

Richard B. Sheridan, 'Captain Bligh, the Breadfruit and the Botanic Gardens of Jamaica', Journal of Caribbean History, [Barbados], 1989, 23, (1), pp. 28-50.

Richard B. Sheridan, 'The Condition of Slaves in the Settlement and Economic Development of the British Windward Islands, 1763-1775', Journal of Caribbean History, [Barbados], 1990, 24, (2), pp. 121-145.

See Asiya Siddiqi, 'The Business World of Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. XIX, Nos. 3&4., pp. 301-324.

Asiya Siddiqi, (Ed.), Trade and Finance in Colonial India, 1750-1860. Oxford University Press, 1995. With Holden Furber, Chapter 2, Trade and Politics in Madras and Bombay; Narendra K. Sinha, Chapter 3, The Armenian Traders in Bengal; Ashin Das Gupta, Chapter 4, The Medieval Merchant; P. J. Marshall, Chapter 5, The Internal Trade of Bengal; Asiya Siddiqi, Chapter 6, 'The Business World of Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy'; C. A. Bayly, Chapter 7, The Age of Hiatus: The North Indian Economy and Society, 1830-1850; Thomas A. Timberg, Chapter 8, Hiatus and Incubator: Indigenous Trade and Traders, 1837-1857; Amales Trepathi, Chapter 9, Indo-British Trade between 1833 and 1847 and the Commercial Crisis of 1847-1848. K. N. Chaudhuri, Chapter 10, India's Foreign Trade and the Cessation of the East India Company's Trading Activities, 1828-1840; Jitendra G. Borpujaki,Chapter 11, 'The Impact of the Transit Duty System in British India'; Marika Vicziany, Chapter 12, 'Bombay Merchants and Structural Changes in the Export Community 1850-1880'.

S. B. Singh, European Agency Houses in Bengal, 1783-1883. Calcutta, Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay, 1966.

Marion Sitzmann, 'The role of Ullathorne in the Repeal of Australia's Transportation Act', American Benedictine Review, 1989, 40 (3), pp. 323-332.

A. C. Staples, 'Memoirs of William Prinsep; Calcutta years, 1817-1842', Indian Economic and Social History Review, Vol. 26, No. 2, April-June 1989., pp. 61-79.

1828: J. W. Starr, One Hundred Years of American Railroading. 1928.

Robert Louis Stein, The French Sugar Business in the Eighteenth Century. Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1988, 240 pages.

Orlando W. Stephenson, 'The Supply of Gunpowder in 1776', American Historical Review, 30, Jan. 1925, pp. 271-281

Margaret Steven, 'The Changing Pattern of Commerce in New South Wales, 1810-1821', Business Archives and History, Vol. 3, August 1963., pp. 139-155.

Margaret Steven, 'Robert Campbell: His Scottish Background', Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 46, Part 3, 1960., pp. 172-180.

Margaret Steven, 'Enterprise', pp. 119-135 in G. J. Abbott, and N. B. Nairn, (Eds.), Economic Growth of Australia, 1788-1821. Melbourne University Press, 1969.; Margaret Steven, Merchant Campbell, 1769-1846. Melbourne, Oxford University Press, 1965.

1785+ Edouard A. Stackpole, The Sea Hunters. Philadelphia, 1953. (US whaling history)

1785+ Alexander Starbuck, A History of American Whale Fishing. (Two Vols), Waltham, Mass., 1876.

Sanjay Subrahmanyam, (Ed.), Merchant Networks in the Early Modern World, 1450-1800. 0860785076. pp. 424, Variorum, June 1996, hardback. (Re a global coverage of merchants as privileged intermediaries between peoples and cultures in the early modern era. The material ranges from the Wangara of the Sudan to the Mississippi Indians, and from Muslim merchants of Anatolia to the mercantile classes in Tudor England.) See http://www.historybookshop.com/

Lucy Sutherland, A London Merchant, 1695-1774: William Braund. London, OUP, 1933., p. 117. Leighton, Smiths the Bankers, pp. 68ff; the Smith-Payne bank opened with a capital of 16,963/8/71/2d. p. 53.


Thad W. Tate, 'The Coming of the Revolution In Virginia: Britain's Challenge to Virginia's Ruling Class, 1763-1776', William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XIX, July 1962, pp. 323ff.

Katherine M. Thomas, 'A Biographical Appraisal of John Hunter RN, (1737-1821)'. Honours thesis. University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales, 1992.

Robert Polk Thomson, 'The Tobacco Export of the Upper James River Naval District, 1773-1775',William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, Vol. XVIII, July 1961, pp 393ff.

F. M. L. Thompson, `Life after Death: How Successful Nineteenth-century Businessmen disposed of their Fortunes', Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 43, No. 1, 1990., pp. 40-61.

Michelguglielmo Torri, 'Trapped Inside the Colonial Order: The Hindu Bankers of Surat and their business world during the second half of the Eighteenth Century', Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 25, No. 2, 1991., pp. 367-401.

James D. Tracy, (Ed.), Rise of Merchant Empires. nd?

James D. Tracy, (Ed.), The Political Economy of Merchant Empires. nd?

1845: G. N. Tucker, The Canadian Commercial Revolution, 1845-1851. 1936.

George F. Tyson Jnr., On the Periphery of the Peripheries: The Cotton Plantations of St. Croix, Danish West Indies, 1735-1815', Journal of Caribbean History, [Barbados], 1992, 26, (1) pp. 1-36.


More to come here


Ruttonjee Ardeshir Wadia, The Bombay Dockyard and the Wadia Masterbuilders. India, 1955. (Rare? Lists vessels built, the Wadias are from Gujarat).

D. D. Wallace, Life of Henry Laurens for years 1744-1747. [no details]

J. Wallace, A General and Descriptive History of the Ancient and Present State of the Town of Liverpool ... together with a Circumstantial Account of the True Causes of its extensive African Trade. Liverpool, 1795.

G. M. Waller, Samuel Vetch: Colonial Enterpriser. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press for Institute of Early American History and Culture at Williamsburg, Virginia, 1960. preface, "For the British Empire the central fact of the first half of the eighteenth century was the struggle against France."

J. R. Ward, 'Emancipation and the Planters', Journal of Caribbean History, [Barbados], 1988, 22, (1-2), pp. 116-137.

T. T. Waterman, The Mansions Of Virginia 1707-1776. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1946.

D. H. Watson, Barlow Trecothick and other associates of Lord Rockingham during the Stamp Act Crisis, 1765-1766. Unpublished thesis, Sheffield University Library, UK.

Anthony Webster, 'The political economy of trade liberalization: the East India Company Charter Act of 1813', Economic History Review, Series 2, XL,III, 3, 1990., pp. 404-419. (Especially valuable re unusual attitude of Barings (?) on India trade.)

Murray Weidenbaum and Samuel Hughes, The Bamboo Network. New York, Free Press, 1996. (On varieties of networks, Chinese)

1785: Marilyn E. Weigold, The American Mediterranean. Port Washington, 1974.

Rosemary Weinstein, 'The Making of a Lord Mayor, Sir John Leman (1544-1632): The Integration of a Stranger Family', Proceedings of the Huguenot Society of London, [Great Britain], 1986, 2, (4), pp. 316-324.

Frank Welsh, A History of Hong Kong. London, HarperCollins, 1997. notes from Welsh's citations include: John Keay, The Honourable Company: A History of the English East Company. London, HarperCollins, about 1997. ISBN: 0 00 638072 7

Robert Whitney, 'The Political Economy of Abolition: The Hispano-Cuban Elite and Cuban Slavery', Slavery and Abolition, [Great Britain], 1992, 13, (2), pp. 20-36.

Frances Wilkins, George Moore and His Friends: Letters from a Manx Merchant, 1775-1760.: Wyre Forest Press, 1994. (Per Chris Pickard in Feb 2006. http://www.isle-of-man.com/)

Nigel Worden, 'Diverging Histories: Slavery and its Aftermath in the Cape Colony and Mauritius', South African Historical Journal, 1992, 27, pp, 3-25.

Conrad E. Wright, Merchants and Mandarins: New York and the Early China Trade, in New York and the China Trade. New York, New York Historical Society, 1984., pp. 17-54.

Michael Wrong, In the Footsteps of Mr Kurtz: Living on the brink of Disaster in the Congo. Fourth Estate, 2001, 324pp.


M. Y. Yoshino and Thomas B. Lifson, The Invisible Link: Japan's Sogo Shosha and the Organization of Trade. Cambridge, Mass, MIT press, 1986. (On varieties of networks)

Maxine Young, The British Administration of NSW, 1786-1812., pp. 23-41, in J. J. Eddy and J. R. Nethercote (Eds), From Colony to Coloniser: Studies in Australian Administrative History. Sydney. Hale and Iremonger. 1987., p 26, "Before 1815, it was the practise to borrow money from the king's current Civil List revenues to pay the running costs of New South Wales and other expenses concerning the colony. The money advanced was repaid by Parliament in the next Miscellaneous Supply Grants."


Nuala Zahedieh, Trade, Plunder and Economic Development in Early English Jamaica, 1655-1689', Economic History Review, 1986, 39, (2), pp. 205-222.

Philip Ziegler, The Sixth Great Power: Barings, 1762-1929. London, Collins, 1988.

:::::::::Ends Select Bibliography::::::::::::::

A database idea we discontinued

In 2008 ... Our thanks to Computer programmer, http://www.wrightwaydesign.com.au, Graeme Wright of Wrightway Design (websites and multimedia) of Uralla NSW. Graeme has used his LAMP and PHP programming skills to finish off a database idea for use by maritime historians. The test version of the database has been online since its launch date of 29 July 2008.
You can consult the database http://dbyrnes.wrightwaydesign.com.au/index.php.

(1) July 2008: The Merchant Networks Project team is pleased and proud to announce the unveiling of a newly-finished database for work on maritime history. The database test version was placed on the Net from 29 July 2008 at the above URL:

The database we presented was designed in two stages, firstly by this website's editor/webmaster, Dan Byrnes, as an Access database (a version by Microsoft).
Byrnes in 2004 placed more than 1000 separate ship voyages into the mix; data mostly lifted from the appendices to Charles Bateson's book, The Convict Ships. Sydney-based programmer Brian Robson contributed much to the early development of the data model used to help construct the database. A few years later, New England-based programmer Graeme Wright suggested he could adapt the existing database idea for an online, browser-based version, using PHP. Wright's treatment of the database seems very workable, by 20-7-2008.
So the next question arising is: will contributors be allowed to log on to the database and add to it? Probably not. It is probably better if the database is only added to by one skilled operator - the webmaster. But public access to the database will be unrestricted. There is by the way, no reason why the database could not be used respecting shipping operating anywhere in the world, at any time. - Dan Byrnes
A set of detailed explanations as how/why the database works as it does will given at the very bottom of this webpage (scroll down to there now if you wish to).

Notes on using the shipping database

(4) Netsurfers will not be able to contribute to the database, or modify it in any way, but they should feel free to consult it and/or to suggest listings to the webmaster. The final database is based around a voyages table which references to a ships table and a people table (captain's name, owners' names).
Initially, however, not all the names associated with voyages matched names placed in the people table. This situation will be improve in time. Some detailed fields are for information on births, deaths, spouses (Spouse1, Spouse2), etc.
Care has been taken with the database design for provision of fields for explanatory notes and hyperlinks to interesting websites (including genealogy websites). Graphics/photos of ships and people can also be added if the database operator wishes. Extra work planned for the database will mean it can include "distiguisher" fields which can relate first name, last name, to a person distinguisher, such as "name the third" or Junior or Senior, or a military/naval rank, or an honorific. The database should work acceptably with both Internet Explorer (Microsoft) and Firefox (Mozilla, open source browser) but has not yet been tested for other browsers.

Notes on the data model now in further development

The developers' discussions of the data model decided that the central item for the database was a ship voyage (not a ship name, or a ship name associated only with a departure date). Ships also have an arrival date. Or, arrival dates plural if a ship makes multiple calls on its voyage/way home. Of course, any voyage duration can be torn apart by a shipwreck or some diaster, which obviously will intrude on the owner's or captain's original business plan.
And here, a point. Particularly with the case of convict ship voyages to Australia (which suffered surprisingly few shipwrecks or disasters), it has seldom been recognised that the transport's owners utilised both a voyage plan (a navigational/geographic factotum) and a business plan, or decision. Two of the non-naval ships of Australia's First Fleet were reconnaissance vessels for England's whaling industry (the South Whale Fishery). This website's research team has devoted considerable time to investigating the owners of those two ships, and their commercial motives for wishing to bother with making any such voyage into the Pacific in 1788, and if the pun will be pardoned, this has sent the researchers into uncharted waters.
Ships' voyages, including slave ships, could also suffer mutiny. The most famous ship with commercial motives for its voyage, interrupted by a mutiny, is of course, HMAS Bounty, Captain Bligh, Fletcher Christian, and all that. So the data model was worked-around the duration of any ship's voyage. Durations of voyage can vary for rational or irrational or chancy reasons, which should be recognised.
Given that the research team is interested in shipowners and their commercial activities, the career of any ship voyage can thus be associated with both a captain's name (a prime identifier of any voyage) and owners' commercial decision-making, as well as with the more mundane shipping details such as tonnage, type of design (brig, barque), etc.
Obviously, multiple listings of any shipowner's name(s) will help to sketch a picture of that owner's commercial activities, regardless of which ships captains he employed.

And so the research team behind the presentation of the database hope that users of the database will find the listings presented in a more refined context than is usually offered by shipping registers.

What is the physical capacity of the database, how many listings can it carry? We have literally not yet had time to ask. Is use of the database available for sale? Yes. Questions of that nature should be directed to Graeme Wright, Uralla, Australia. Feel free to contact the webmaster on this. - Dan Byrnes (Please note that by 2012, use of this database has been discontinued for the foreseeable future, unless we get some more positive reactions.)

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