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History of Technology of Music

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This page updated 28 May 2019

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Year 2001

More to come

Year 2002

More to come

Year 2003

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More music info for today's Australians interested in music in early 2005: A message from Vlad Gilbourd: HoTM, I'd enjoy introducing my website "CorporateNews + more especially here, Jazz'n'Blues" (at: http://www.corporatenews.com.au) It features very comprehensive J'n'B gig guide, huge artists' profiles list, transcripts of interviews, CD reviews, etc. Also, in the business section, it provides business media monitoring information. It would be great if you add link to my site to your list. Thank you, Vlad Gilbourd (0412-199-818 at IP Addr:

29 April 2003: EMI in UK now plans to make more than 140,000 music tracks available on the Net in Europe's biggest such initiative so far, reports say. Tracks can be burned to CD, copies to MP3 players and bought, through music retailers.

Year 2004

Ray Hoff rocks on at a Tamworth Country Music Festival 2004
Australian rocker Ray Hoff, Tamworth 2007
Photo by Brian Robson
(Vale Ray Hoff, died 19 March 2010)

2003-2004: Amount of money the world movie industry reportedly loses from sales of bootleg DVDs and videos, excluding net piracy: About $4.6 billion (Reliable source -Ed).

Item 2004 - Get a Conversion Guide for LPs and cassettes by Jack Daniel, for putting your old-format music onto computer at: pages.prodigy.net/jdjd/vinyl/

2004: Beastie Boys issue To the 5 Boroughs, on Capitol, with more a political agenda.

Bob Dylan: US folk/rock legend Bob Dylan, albeit ultra-deadpan, receives honorary Doctorate of Music from St. Andrew's University, Scotland. He apparently left without speaking a word. (Reported 25 June 2004)

2004: Freedom of speech on air suffered in London recently when a long-experienced DJ has been suspended from his morning show for defying a ban on playing Cliff Richards tracks. (Reported 25 June 2004)

20 July 2004: Glowing publicity for his Australian tour for Britain's biggest selling jazz musician, Jamie Cullum; and his modern versions of jazz classics. Looks like an artist to watch - and enjoy - Ed.

According to a recent UK report, about 600,000 pirate movies are downloaded each day in the US alone. (Reported in Australia 24 July 2004)

Year 2005

Been touring in Australia - musicians to watch out for -

14 February 2005: Rod Stewart performs in Sydney.

15 March 2005: Neil Diamond performs in Sydney.

John Lennon, the prickly Beatle defined a generation, yet now many young people cannot identify a picture of him. Sean O'Hagan reassesses the legacy of the first modern pop star. (From an article in Spectrum, Sydney Morning Herald, 10-11 September, 2005.)

John Lennon, the prickly Beatle defined a generation, yet now many young people cannot identify a picture of him. Sean O'Hagan reassesses the legacy of the first modern pop star. (From an article in Spectrum, Sydney Morning Herald, 10-11 September, 2005.)

The Beatles legends: By now begins bursts of publicity in Australia media re new book, simply called John, by today's rather sad-faced Cynthia Lennon (nee Powell), now aged 66, on her marriage to Beatle, John Lennon... “a violent, cheating and jealous Lennon” read headlines. She says” “The more I got to know him, the more I realised what a hard time he had had as a child...” (Reported by 26 September 2005)

Elvis obsession costly: In Britain a woman has stolen more than £500,000 from her employers “to fund her Elvis Presley obsession”. She has now been jailed for three years. She spent the stolen cash on “rare recordings by her idol”. (Reported 22 October 2005, and, Elvis records can be that expensive?)

Year 2006

1 July, 2006, Sydney Opera House, Opera singer Dame Kiri Te Kanawa in a piano recital with Jonathan Papp. Check: www.sydneyoperahouse.com/

July 18-26, 2006: Sydney, Porgy and Bess, the American musical masterpiece from the Gershwins. Lyric Theatre, Star City.

Tamworth Country Music Festival, January 2007
Photo by Brian Robson 2007

Queen Elizabeth II calmly performs showbiz quality control work on acts appearing at the Tamworth Country Music Festival, 2007, at venue Southgate Inn. Is she perhaps wondering about inadvertent republican influences creeping into grassroots Australian life due to so much enthusiastic singing of such heavily-Americanized music? (Digital photo by Brian Robson, January 2007).

Get into the music of 2006

Recent good discovery:
UK Music - latest in Rock and Pop
The UK Music website is dedicated to the UK music scene. UKMusic.com is updated daily with the UK Music Top Ten and from UK music charts. They have music news, features, interviews and reviews from and of ALL the fave UK artists.
All scenes covered: rock, indie, grime, pop, hip hop, R&B, dance, soul, jazz, UK charts, video, audio streams, forums, events listings, games, gigs, and competitions.
(If you have a quality website on related music matters, drop them an e-mail about a cross-link. - Ed)

PayPal preferred graphic

If you value the information posted here,
and the projects of these websites in general,
you may like to consider making a donation
to help reduce our production costs?
It would be greatly appreciated.
Options include:
paying via PayPal which this website uses - Ed

Follows a little bit of music what's on in HoTM's home region:

3 March 2006: Armidale: Jazz: The Sandy Evans Trio per Armidale Jazz Club Inc. At Cattleman's Motel, Marsh Street. Phone: George Westbrook on 6775 0167.

You can find an excellent music-and-recording history timeline at [Last found as error 500 can't connect: http://history.acusd.edu/gen/recording/notes.html

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5/6 April 2006: Vale Gene Pitney, US singer, died April 2006 in Cardiff, Wales, just after a performance.

You can find an excellent music-and-recording history timeline at (Error 500 - can't connect): http://history.acusd.edu/gen/recording/notes.html

Get into the music of 2006

Recent good discovery:
UK Music - latest in Rock and Pop
The UK Music website is dedicated to the UK music scene. UKMusic.com is updated daily with the UK Music Top Ten and from UK music charts. They have music news, features, interviews and reviews from and of ALL the fave UK artists.
All scenes covered: rock, indie, grime, pop, hip hop, R&B, dance, soul, jazz, UK charts, video, audio streams, forums, events listings, games, gigs, and competitions.
(If you have a quality website on related music matters, drop them an e-mail about a cross-link. - Ed)

In Australia soon in 2006 - musicians to watch out for -

22 April, Sydney Superdome, Anzac Military Tattoo, from 1.30pm, and other times.

29 April, Sydney, Revesby Workers Club, Alex Lloyd with his national album tour.

26-27 May, Sydney Opera house, presented by Phil Bathos and Sydney Opera House, Let it Be, the Beatles songs of Lennon and Mcartney, with Leo Sayer, John Waters, Christine Anu and Rick Price, plus the 9-piece Day Tripper Band.

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New software could be aspiring music artists' waterloo (?)

It will come as no surprise to anyone with an ear for music, but Abba's Eurovision-winning song, Waterloo, has all the characteristics of a surefire hit, while this year's winner, Hard Rock Hallelujah, outlandish Finnish band, Lordi, doesn't.

The verdict was delivered by a computer running software developed for record companies to help them predict which songs will be hits and which will flop. And it seems to work. Last week, Hard Rock Hallelujah was at number 25 on the British charts; Waterloo went to number one in 1974.

The developers claim the software can identify a potential Top 30 hit within 20 seconds and has an accuracy rate of at least 80 per cent.

Critics argue that the technology could stifle creativity and promote dull uniformity. But backers of the software say that record labels may be encouraged to take more risks because the likely appeal of unusual songs can be judged in advance.

The program analyses 30 criteria including melody, beat, tempo, chord progression and cadence, and cross-refers them to a database of three million songs. It also spots mathematical similarities, even though songs might not sound the same or even be from the same genre.

It gives each piece of music a "hit grading" from zero to 1000. A score of 700 or more indicates that the song falls into a cluster of existing hits on the database and, theoretically, has got what it takes to succeed. The software is also capable of scoring a new song on its longevity - using its "classic grade".

The catchy Waterloo generated a hit rating of 722 and a classic grade of 764, justifying its enduring popularity. The software placed it in the same hit cluster as Keane's Is It Any Wonder? and Elton John's I Guess That's Why They Call It The Blues. Lordi's song received a hit rating of just 368, way below the threshold for big-sellers.

The technology has already generated at least one hit single for Sony BMG and been used by a string of other major labels, including EMI, Capitol Records, Universal Music Group and Disney's Hollywood Records.

It has also thrown up a number of surprising connections: it showed that U2's Where The Streets Have No Name shares mathematical properties with Ode To Joy, the final movement of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony.

"A beautiful melody to Beethoven still sounds beautiful to us today," said Mike McCready, chief executive of Platinum Blue Music Intelligence, one of two companies that developed the software.

(Item originally from The Sunday Times – then The Australian, 19 June, 2006)

Year 2007

More to come

Year 2008

More to come

Year 2009

On Islamic hip hop from BBC news headlines RSS of 23-4-2009

Islamic hip hop, or a load of hype?

'Islamic music TV' launches in Egypt
By Rebecca Fordham, BBC News, Cairo

A satellite channel has launched in Egypt claiming to be the first Islamic MTV.

The studio presenter takes viewers' phone calls and interviews artists in baggy jeans, while music videos are played. But the similarities to the global music channel stop there.

4Shbab aims to promote traditional Islamic values through hip hop, rap and pop music, using new and established artists whose lyrics and visuals address Islamic themes.

The arrival of the channel has been described as a novel idea by some parts of the western press, seeing it as yet another example of contemporary Muslim culture becoming more conservative. But is it really so unusual and is it sustainable?

Ahmed Abu Heiba, 4Shbab's Executive Director, came up with the idea because of what he saw as as a contradiction between the videos young Muslims watch - often featuring scantily clad female dancers - and their desires to practise Islam in their day-to-day to lives.

"The main thing is how to think about God when you are working and playing," Mr Abu Heiba explains.

"The singer himself can go and make his recordings and speak about God and then go outside to any bar and drink. My singers are not like that. I make sure they feel it in on the inside."

Not up to scratch

Satellite TV has become a mass medium in the Middle East and it is now a crowded market.

There are approximately 800 satellite channels and more than 55 of these are music channels. As access costs have reduced, viewership has jumped into the tens of millions.

But with so much competition, 4Shbab may find itself going against the tide of viewer expectations.

Egyptian girls Habiba and Nouran watching 4Shbab Young Egyptians appeared less than impressed by 4Shbab's internet offering

And although the channel's founder has embarked upon a heavy marketing campaign among the western media, few people in Cairo have heard of it.

The channel is difficult to access as its narrow band width means reception is jagged and it only broadcasts for two hours at a time. Its website is not live although clips are available on video sharing websites.

In a popular cafe in central Cairo, most of the young people had never heard of it.

But some thought it would only appeal to a gap in the market if it offered high quality production values and original programming. "We only watch western music. Arabic music is the same, it just copies it. They are wannabee Britney Spears and Pussycat Dolls. I would rather just watch the real Britney Spears," said Nouran, 16.

"For Islamic pop music to appeal the singers should look like us," said Habiba, 16.

"They shouldn't (just) be kneeling and praying. That is not realistic. We are diverse."

Cultural schizophrenia

Some dismiss the channel, which is funded by Saudi businessmen, as nothing more than a clever bit of marketing.

But Said Sadek, Professor of Sociology at the American University of Cairo, worries that the arrival of 4Shbab shows the increasing conservatism of parts of the media and believes it causes an internal conflict amongst its young audience.

4Shbab studio

The operation and output of 4Shbab seems to be an entirely male preserve.

"The heavy dosage of religion through the media and the spread of intolerant views is not helping the youth," he said.

"Mixing modern music genres with Islamic content confuses young Muslim's identity and creates a schizophrenia inside them."

The day we visited 4Shbab at its basic rented studio, its entire production staff were male, as were the presenter and his interviewee.

All the video clips had male lead singers. A viewer rang in to complain after a woman appeared in a video and the channel ended its broadcast with a tease for an upcoming future programme which would discuss conservative female dress.

Ahmed Abu Haiba says the visible lack of women reflects a society where women do not put themselves forward in the entertainment business and he believes his audience is not ready to see a woman presenter.

Dr Sadek argues that not involving women in the production is as worrying and detrimental to society as seeing them barely clothed.

"Exposing and hiding women are the same thing. It is not acceptable to expose or hide them. There should be a balance," he said.

There are some recent examples of creative and interesting new ways of presenting current issues in the media in the Middle East.

An independent TV channel recently broadcast a live show to raise awareness about the situation in Gaza, which caused a great deal of debate, not just on blogs and among media watchers but across the Middle East.

This suggests that original programming rather than tried and tested formats will be more sustainable.

By July 2009, Google has been distributing new software called Google Radio Automation, supposed to be more reliable and user-friendly. It is being used at Tunefm, which is a student-run station at University of New England, Armidale, Australia, which by mid-2009 is moving into a new purpose-built building. This website thinks that Google has distributed a boon for mankind, a better way to manage small radio stations. We look forward to hearing more about it.

BBC news headlines of 30-7-2009

Page last updated at 10:09 GMT, Thursday, 30 July 2009 11:09 UK

Men At Work face plagiarism case

A music publisher that says Australian band Men At Work stole a melody from a children's song in their hit Down Under has won the first stage of a court battle.

Larrikin claims the flute riff from the 1981 hit is stolen from Kookaburra Sits in the Old Gum Tree, written by Marion Sinclair for the Girl Guides in 1934.

The band disputed Larrikin's claim that it bought the song's copyright in 1990.

But a judge in Sydney has ruled that the publisher does own the song, clearing the way for a plagiarism case.

Larrikin Music is suing Sony BMG and EMI for breach of copyright and is seeking royalties from the hit 80s song.

The publisher began the action after the alleged similarities were pointed out in a music quiz programme shown in Australia in 2007.

I said do you speak my language, he just smiled and gave me a Vegemite sandwich

Lawyers for the record companies have denied the plagiarism claim.

They had also argued that the Kookaburra copyright was never properly signed over by Sinclair - who died in 1988 - and still belonged to the Girl Guides movement.

No date has been set for the next hearing.

Down Under, a number one in Australia, the US and the UK, tells the story of an Australian backpacker touring the world.

It pays tribute to "a land down under where beer does flow and men chunder".

The song also references popular Australian food spread Vegemite.

"I said 'do you speak my language?', he just smiled and gave me a Vegemite sandwich," it says.


Monkeys Get A Groove On, But Only To Monkey Music

ScienceDaily (Sep. 2, 2009) — Music is one of the surest ways to influence human emotions; most people unconsciously recognize and respond to music that is happy, sad, fearful or mellow. But psychologists who have tried to trace the evolutionary roots of these responses usually hit a dead end. Nonhuman primates scarcely respond to human music, and instead prefer silence.

A new report by Charles Snowdon, a professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and musician David Teie of the University of Maryland shows that a monkey called the cotton-top tamarin indeed responds to music. The catch? These South American monkeys are essentially immune to human music, but they respond appropriately to "monkey music," 30-second clips composed by Teie on the basis of actual monkey calls.

The music was inspired by sounds the tamarins make to convey two opposite emotions: threats and/or fear, and affiliation, a friendly, safe and happy condition.

The study, published this week (Sept. 1) in the journal Biology Letters, reported that the monkeys could tell the difference: For five minutes after hearing fear music, the monkeys displayed more symptoms of anxiety and increased their movement. In contrast, monkeys that heard "affiliative" music reduced their movements and increased their feeding behavior -- both signs of a calming effect.

Snowdon, a longtime researcher into primate behavior, says the project began with an inquiry from Teie, who plays cello in the National Symphony Orchestra: Had Snowdon ever tested the effects of music on monkeys? When Teie listened to recordings made in Snowdon's monkey colony at the psychology department at UW-Madison, he readily discerned the animal's affective state, Snowdon says. "He said, 'This is a call from an animal that is very upset; this is from an animal that is more relaxed.' He was able to read the emotional state just by the musical analysis."

Teie composed the music using specific features he noticed in the monkeys' calls, such as rising or falling pitches, and the duration of various sounds, says Snowdon, who notes that monkeys are not the only ones who use musical elements to convey emotional content in speech. Studies show that babies that are too young to understand words can still interpret a long tone and a descending pitch as soothing, and a short tone as inhibiting.

"We use legato (long tones) with babies to calm them," Snowdon says. "We use staccato to order them to stop. Approval has a rising tone, and soothing has a decreasing tone. We add musical features to speech so it will influence the affective state of a baby. If you bark out, 'PLAY WITH IT,' a baby will freeze. The voice, the intonation pattern, the musicality can matter more than the words."

Snowdon, who has sung in choirs for most of his life, adds, "My talking does not necessarily tell you about my emotional state. When I add extra elements, change the tone of voice, the rhythm, pitch or speed, that is where the emotional content is contained."

Monkeys interpret rising and falling tones differently than humans. Oddly, their only response to several samples of human music was a calming response to the heavy-metal band Metallica.

The study opens a new window into animal communication, Snowdon says. "People have looked at animal communication in terms of conveying information – 'I am hungry,' or 'I am afraid.' But it's much more than that. These musical elements are inducing a relatively long-term change in behavior of listeners. The affiliative music is making them calmer; they move less, eat and drink at a higher rate, and show less anxiety behavior."

This change in behavior suggests that for cotton-top tamarins, communication is about much more than just information. "I am not calling just to let you know how I am feeling, but my call can also stimulate a similar state in you," Snowdon says. "That would be valuable if a group was threatened; in that situation, you don't want everybody being calm, you want them alert. We do the same thing when we try to calm a baby. I am not just communicating about how I am feeling. I am using the way I communicate to induce a similar state in the baby."

The similarities in communications between monkeys and people suggest deep evolutionary roots for the musical elements of speech, Snowdon says. "The emotional components of music and animal calls might be very similar, and from an evolutionary perspective, we are finding that the note patterns, dissonance and timing are important for communicating affective states in both animals and people."

Adapted from materials provided by University of Wisconsin-Madison - Ed.

Top Ten Albums 2009

Top Ten Albums 2009 from critic Bernard Zuel in Sydney Morning Herald Metro Music, 23-24 December 2009

Album of the Year, Grizzly Bear, Veckatimest.
Best Pop, Bob Evans, Goodnight, Bull Creek,
Best art rock, Bat for Lashes, Two Suns,
Best hip-hop, Horrorshow, Inside Story,
Best Adult, Tina Harrod, Temporary People,
Rest Rhythm and Blues, Alice Russell, Pot of Gold,
Best roots, Lucie Thorne, Black Across the Field,
Best electro, Veto, Crushing Lights,
Best country, Dave Rawlings Machine, A Friend of Mine,
Best rock, Arctic Monkeys, Humbug.


CD sales slump: Sales in the US of music CDs slumped 12.7 per cent during 2009. That followed a 14 per drop in 2008,and seven years of decline. (Maximum minutes of music on a compact disc (CD) = 74 minutes.) (Reuters by 13 February 2010)

Upcoming acts in Australia to watch out for

The Prom Concerts in UK -history and development

On 10-7-2010 per a GeneaNet newsletter

BBC launches online Proms archive

In the UK, BBC Proms London's Royal Albert Hall plays host to the Proms every year. Now the BBC has launched a Proms archive, listing all performances, composers, works, soloists, conductors and ensembles in its 115-year history.

Details of all the 7,168 concerts which have taken place since 1895 can be searched in the online database. It has taken two years to compile and cross-check the database using old Proms programmes.

Roger Wright, director BBC Proms, said it was a "fascinating" snapshot of musical trends over the last century.

PROMS FACTS * Wagner is the most performed composer * Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1 (Land Of Hope And Glory) has been performed 146 times * Wagner's Tannhauser is the most-performed work * Sir Henry Wood - the Proms co-founder - conducted more than 23,000 pieces * Sir Simon Rattle's first Prom was in 1976, when he was 21 years old

The team who worked on the database faced several challenges while compiling the record. There was a huge effort to standardise spellings and how particular works are listed, and to recognise changes in the titles of works and the names of ensembles over the years.

Programme listings also had to be cross-checked with what actually happened at the concerts, as works and artists were often added or changed at the last minute. Another challenge was identifying pieces of music by now-forgotten composers and working out who actually performed them.

Mr Wright said: "To have the entire database of concerts available reveals much about the Proms itself, but also about the history of classical music in the UK over the past 115 years. It's fascinating to see developments in musical trends and the careers and popularity of particular artists, composers and music. We're delighted to make this amazing resource available to the public and hope it will be invaluable to music-lovers, musicians, academics and fun for anyone who is interested in classical music."

The BBC Proms 2010 opens at the Royal Albert Hall on 16 July.

Year 2012

From: Unsigned Only
Reply-to: Unsigned Only
To: dan@danbyrnes.com.au Subject: Unsigned Only Music Competition Date: Fri, 20 Jan 2012 10:16:55 -0600 (21/01/12 03:16:55)

Unsigned Only is a unique new international music competition designed for solo artists, bands, and singers who are not signed to a major label record company or any of its affiliates, subsidiaries, or imprints.

Unsigned Only is not a songwriting competition; instead, it is a music competition with the goal of finding an outstanding, talented performer: a band, singer, or solo artist...a newcomer or veteran...raw or polished - the "gem" that needs to be discovered. Unsigned Only is looking for the total package.

Conceived of and produced by the same team who brings you the prestigious International Songwriting Competition (ISC), Unsigned Only is a brand new music competition and is completely separate and different from ISC. It is Not part of the Unsigned Only category of ISC. Unsigned Only is a fresh and novel approach to other music competitions. Yes, it offers great prizes, recognition, exposure, and the chance to be heard by a group of judges consisting of high-profile recording artists and industry professionals.

But, Unsigned Only also takes it a step further and puts the Grand Prize winner in direct, personal contact with the influential record label executives who are the ultimate decision-makers. For the first time ever, a music competition offers the Grand Prize winner the unprecedented opportunity to be mentored by a group of record company presidents, A&R reps, and more. This is a once-in-a-lifetime chance to directly network with the top echelon of record company professionals and get guidance, advice, feedback, and networking opportunities.

Categories include: AAA (Adult Album Alternative; AC (Adult Contemporary); Christian; Country; Folk/Singer- Songwriter; R&B/Hip-Hop; Rock; Pop/Top 40; and Vocal Performance.

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All entries must be original music except for the Vocal Performance category which accepts original or cover songs. Judging criteria in the Vocal Performance category will be based solely on the quality of the vocals. So, if you're an artist and you don't write your own songs - or if you do write your own songs and want to show off your singing - this is the category for you.

Sponsors include: Posse, Steamboat Ampworks, Verve Management, and Music Business Registry

Judges: 3 Doors Down, Jeremy Campm Cyndi Lauper, Robert Smith, The Cure, Kelly Clarkson, Manchester Orchestra, Angie Stone, St. Vincent, Musiq Soulchild, Craig Morgan, Mountain Goats, G. Love, Steve Lillywhite.

Producer: Matt and Kim, Lorraine Ali. Pop Music Editor: Los Angeles Times, Josh Jackson, Co-Founder and Editor-In-Chief Paste Magazine, Scott Lapatine, Founder/Editor-In-Chief, Stereogum and more to be announced ...

Mentors: Monte Lipman; President: Pete Ganbarg; Executive VP: Head of A&R David Wolter; Senior VP of A&R: Pete Giberga, Head of A&R David Wilkes, VP of A&R, Kim Stephens, A&R Trevor Jerideau, VP of A&R Jason Geter, President and more to be announced ....

Check out these noteworthy articles about current happenings in the music industry: Promote, Promote, Promote! - Capacity Productions - Magazine Exposure - Deuce Management & Promotion - 50 Tips For Booking A Recording Studio - Music Connection Music News - Radio Submit - Featured Auditions And Jobs - StarNow.

Who is Jim? - He's the office Aussie. His musical taste rocks. These are the new releases (list deleted - Ed)

Sponsor Spotlight Verve Management

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Industry Partners Music Connection Music Connection magazine is a veteran trade magazine that has been referenced as "The Musician's Bible." In the scene for over 33 years, MC provides key support for up-and-coming musicians that are looking for guidance, industry contacts, songwriting tips, promotion and more. From its unique vantage point, Music Connection sets its sights on every aspect of the business, from decision-making in corporate towers to performing in small clubs. Whether offering expert tips on raw survival or the factors contributing to breakthrough success, MC examines and defines the realities of music making. Go to http://musicconnection.com.

Radio Submit Get Your Music To Radio: Radio Submit is the leading website that allows artists and record labels to present their music, videos and promotional material to radio stations worldwide. Allowing the stations to view the artist's changeable promotional web site, then listen to and download the artist's music releases and play them on their stations. Radio Submit replaces the expensive, and time consuming process of mailing artist's CD's to radio stations. Being the first site of its type, Radio Submit was created by musicians who truly understand the troubles artist face in the music industry. For more info, go to http://www.radiosubmit.com.

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Target Audience Magazine Target Audience Magazine publishes online, quarterly, to promote independent artists of all genres, ranging from musicians to writers and illustrators, by encouraging them to find their voice for marketing and connect to their desired audience. Through education of those struggling to make it in the arts, and interaction with those who have succeeded, they inspire the circle to continue so that art may reward writing and all disciplines may cross-inspire. Once you find your voice as a passionate, creative soul, express yourself through art and find your target audience. Target Audience Magazine: Find yourself. Hit your target. Go to http://targetaudiencemagazine.com.

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Deuce Management & Promotion Deuce Management & Promotion has established itself as one of the leading companies to offer services to unsigned/newly signed bands and artists worldwide. With a growing reputation of being at the forefront of the best new music on the scene and with its idyllically placed office in London, they aim to ensure bands and artists are offered ways and means to get their music heard to a wider audience. More information on Deuce Management & Promotion can be found at www.deucemp.com, www.facebook.com/deucemp and www.facebook.com/deuceradioshow or you can email Rob Saunders at rob@deucemp.com with a link to your music for a Free evaluation.

The Music Mag The Music Mag is the ultimate resource for Unsigned Bands. Sell your merchandise, get your music reviewed, advertise yourselves, submit gig information, discuss random topics on the forums, and if you're super bored then even check out some of the feisty females from the music world in the babes section. The Music Mag prides itself on featuring some of the best music around - if they hear it and are blown away then they share it! So what are you waiting for? Head on over now and get involved! Email for a review, join the forum and sell your merchandise! Visit http://www.themusicmag.com.

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Unsigned Only, 1307 Eastland Ave., Nashville, TN 37206, Phone: 615.251.4441. Fax: 615.251.4442.

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Number of keys on a piano, 88.

Willie Nelson the Thinker, has out a new anti-war song, Whatever Happened to Peace on Earth, and is asked if he wonders if it will cause a backlash with conservative country music fans? Willie replies, “I sure hope so!”. (Reported 10 January 2004)

find date MP3 technology was developed in Liepzig, Germany.

1934: England: Death of famed English composer, Sir Edward Elgar.

On 4-2-2005, item on David Letterman show, in Oz of this date, on getting older, Elton John says, near age 58, he enjoys it, and doesn't complain about it, “except for the haemhorroids”.

1965: Early Bird I, the world's first commercial communications satellite, is launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida.

1954: Year of death of Oscar Strauss (1870-1954), Austrian composer.

1999: Year of death of Andre Previn, German-born conductor, arranger and composer and pianist.

1929: Year of birth of US country music singer/composer, Merle Haggard.

1944: Year of birth of Michelle Phillips (Mammas and Poppas), US pop singer.

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