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This webpage updated 14 November, 2017

The Business of Slavery - Chapter 6

The Levant Trade - Commoner families and aristocracy: the cases of London's Lords mayor

The Levant was also important to English expansionism...

In 1546, Anthony Jenkinson (died 1611), mariner/merchant, sea captain, traveller, went to sea and to the Levant for commercial training. He visited most countries of the Mediterranean; Algiers, Tunis, Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey and "Western Asia", Sicily, Crete and Cyprus. In 1553 at Aleppo he got a licence to trade from Suliman the Great. In 1555 he was admitted to membership of the Merchants' Company; in 1557 he was appointed by the Muscovy Company as captain-general of their fleet sailing to Russia, and he would be a diplomat to an indecisive Czar. Jenkinson went to Bokhara, to the Caspian Sea area, and was at Moscow by 20 August, 1563. One of his companions was Edward Clarke, who carried Jenkinson's letters home. Then from London came a second expedition to Russia of May 1564, with Thomas Alcock. On 30 May, 1565 Jenkinson addressed a memorial to Queen Elizabeth about a north-east passage to Cathay, but nothing came of such ideas.
Active by 1560 were the "great pioneers" of the Russia Co. and the Morocco Co., William Bond and Francis Bowyer, also engaged in Levant trade. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 73.

By 1580, some great Merchant Adventurers who went into the Levant Company were Richard Saltonstall, Middletons, Batemans, Ferrars, Henry Andrews. By about 1580, the Muscovy Company was led by Sir George Barne. Rowland Heywood tried for a north-east passage, sending a voyage led by Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman. By 1580, English merchants were backing a voyage into the Arctic (Kara Sea), to find any near-Russia north-east passage to the East, perhaps by a river near China?
Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg. Penguin Books, 1999/2000.

By 1581, Elizabeth I had granted charters to companies trading to Spain and Portugal, the Eastland Co. to the Baltic, the Levant Co. to Turkey, while Raleigh began planning a company for Virginia which ended in disaster; and at century's end the East India Company was chartered.
Neville Williams, Elizabeth I: Queen of England. London, Sphere, 1971., p. 298.


Commoner families and aristocracy: the cases of London's Lords Mayor

Now, claims are made here about certain implications of Ann Boleyn's forebears being associated with the Lord Mayoralty of London - and some ideas here may seem unexpected. There are however, many genealogies relevant to the present argument... It is not generally thought that the English aristocracy married to the mercantile class, but we can find from the cases of up to 31 Lords Mayor of London, the following:

News in July 2006: The history websites on this domain now have a companion website, and an updating website as well, on a new domain, at Merchant Networks Project, produced by Dan Byrnes and Ken Cozens (of London).

This new website (it is hoped) will become a major exercise in economic and maritime history, with much attention to London/British Empire and some attention to Sydney, Australia.

Merchant Networks Project logo

(1) Adam Francis, Lord Mayor of 1339-1340, whose daughter Maud married John Montagu third Earl Salisbury, who was beheaded by a mob.
GEC, Peerage, Exeter, p. 210; Salisbury, p. 393; Willoughby, p. 665. There are also links here to lords Zouche and Fitzalan.

(2) The descendancy of Thomas Mirfyn of the fifteenth century can give 415 records from a database. It is helpful to see his descendants in line with those of Lord Mayor Geoffrey Boleyn. Mirfyn provides links to many names including dukes 4-7 Manchester, to many promoters of colonisation, a splendid crop of the Cromwell family (Oliver's family) and other Cromwellians, also the financier name, Palavicino.

See Lawrence Stone, An Elizabethan: Sir Horatio Palavicino. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1956., p. 260.

(3) Lord Mayor Robert Drope with his second wife, Joan Unknown, who married Edward Grey, third Baron Grey, who died in 1492.
GEC, Peerage, Lisle, pp. 59ff.

(4) Lord Mayor Thomas Legge married Elizabeth Beauchamp. This Elizabeth Beauchamp was daughter of Katherine Mortimer (first daughter of Roger Mortimer, first Earl March, executed 1330) and Thomas Beauchamp, third Earl Warwick. There are links here also to Miles Bermingham, Lord Bermingham, and the later William Legge, first Earl Dartmouth. This Elizabeth Beauchamp also married Thomas De Ufford (died 1368, son of Robert De Ufford [1298-1369], first Earl Suffolk).
GEC, Peerage, Abergavenny, p. 28; Ufford, p. 152.

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(5) Lord Mayor of 1525, John Alleyn, whose illegitimate son Christopher married Audrey Paget, daughter of William, first Baron Paget.
Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, p. 3; GEC, Peerage, Paget, pp. 276-280.

(6) John Tate, whose descent provides 46 database descent records.
See Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Duncombe-Pauncefote; Burke's Landed Gentry for Flower.

(7) William Capel, circa 1503, with a descent providing at least 576 records following daughters linked to eighth Lord Zouche, and to Paulet as second Marquis Winchester.

(8) Circa 1517, Lord Mayor William Brown whose widow, Alice, daughter of Lord Mayor Henry Keble, married as third wife of William Blount (1478-1534), fourth Baron Mountjoy and became mother of Charles, fifth Baron.
GEC, Peerage, Mountjoy, p. 341.

(9) Lord Mayor circa 1520 John Brydges, whose daughter Winifred married Treasurer Richard Sackville (d. 1566).
GEC, Peerage, Dacre, p. 11, Dorset, p. 422; Winchester, p. 764.

(10) Lord Mayor of 1537, Richard Gresham, father of the founder in 1566 of the Royal Exchange, Sir Thomas Gresham (1519-1579).
Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Gresham, p. 227. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 55. R. G. Lang, �Social Origins and Social Aspirations of Jacobean London Merchants�, Economic History Review, 2, V, 27, 1974., pp. 28-47. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Bacon, regarding ancestors of the Lords Townshend.

The Lord Mayor of 1537, Sir Richard Gresham (died 1548), was brother of Lord Mayor John Gresham.

(11) Circa 1555: Lord Mayor Sir William Gerard/Garrard. This man produced a son John also a London Lord Mayor, and a daughter Anne who married Lord Mayor George Barne, and so arose a part-dynasty in commercial circles, more than any influence on aristocracy directly.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 17ff. Josef Hamel, England and Russia; comprising The Voyages of John Tradescant The Elder, Sir Hugh Willoughby, Richard Chancellor, Nelson and others, to the White Sea. London, Richard Bentley, 1854. (Translated by John Studdy Leigh)., p. 26. Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Garrard of Lamer, p. 214. R. G. Lang, �Jacobean London Merchants�, as above. Hasler, The House of Commons, 1558-1603, Vol. 3, pp. 294-295. GEC, Peerage, Berkshire, p. 151. In Thomas S. Willan, Studies in Elizabethan Foreign Trade. Manchester University Press, 1959., pp. 129 and previous, Garrard here seems to be involved in trade to Morrocco, exporting perhaps cloth and arms, importing sugar.

(12) For Thomas Curteis, Lord Mayor circa 1557, there appear to be nil linkages. The name Curteis does appear however in connection with George Sackville-Fox, twelfth Lord Conyers.
GEC, Peerage, Powis, p. 655.

(13) For Thomas Leigh, Lord Mayor in 1558, few linkages are found. His daughter Winifred married Lord Mayor Sir George Bond.
R. G. Lang, �Jacobean London Merchants�. Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Bond of Peckham and for Leigh of Stoneleigh. GEC, Peerage, Leigh, p. 566 for first Baron Leigh; Willoughby, p. 713.

(14) Lord Mayor Sir John Rivers, whose name appears in the lines for Garrard above.

(15) Lord Mayor George Barne has already been discussed. (With links to Secretary of State Sir Francis Walsingham, treated elsewhere.)

(16) For John White, Lord Mayor circa 1563, few linkages are found.
R. G. Lang, �Jacobean London Merchants�. Burke's Peerage and Baronetage for Bellyse Baker of Highfields.

(17) Lord Mayor William Holles, provides a descent with 364 records, with his son Sir William Holles marrying Anne Denzell; with their son Denzell Holles marrying Eleanor, a daughter of Edmund Sheffield, first Baron Sheffield. Here were later provided links with John Townshend second Viscount Sydney, the first and second marquises Rockingham and third Baron Rockingham, fifth Earl Dartmouth, second Earl Strafford, third Marquis Bath and fifth Earl Bath, third Duke Portland; the nineteenth century bankers Grenfell, fifth Earl Dartmouth; and the beheaded Thomas Wentworth, first Earl Strafford, who died in 1641.
Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 2, p. 330. GEC, Peerage, Clare, p. 247.

(18) Lord Mayor John Garrard is noted in R. G. Lang, �Jacobean London Merchants�, and GEC, Peerage, Berkshire, p. 151.

His lineage did not produce any marriages to aristocracy, but amongst the descendants of the progenitor of the family of Lord Mayor John Garrard (London grocer, John Garrard), we find a remarkable number of commercial names and descendants of other families noted in this book: London Lord Mayor Sir William Garrard (c.1555;d.1571); London Lord Mayor and Spanish Co. merchant Sir George Barne (c.1587;d.2 Jan 1593); Anne Barne, (d. 1564) the first wife of Sir Francis Walsingham (b.1532;m.1562;d.6 Apr 1590); and Anne Barne's first husband Alexander Carleill and his son, mariner Christopher Carleill; plus Anne Carleill who married merchant Sir Christopher Hoddeson; Elizabeth Barne who married London Lord Mayor Sir John Rivers (b.1574); Frances Bowyer who married Sir Matthew Carew, the poet Thomas Carew; Lord mayor Sir John Garrard himself, (c.1592;d.7 May 1625), father of London Lord Mayor, Sir Samuel Garrard; Sir John Garrard (d.1637) and later baronets of his line; MP Montague Drake; MP William Drake (b.1723;d.8 Aug 1796); MP Charles Garrard Drake (d.Jul 1817).

(19) Lord Mayor Rowland Hayward had links to Mirfyn, and his second wife was Catherine a daughter of customs farmer Sir Thomas "Customer" Smythe (d. 1591 of whom more later - the Smythes were notable figures in the early East India Company). Hayward provides links to Barons Knyvett and to Townshend MPs.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 63. Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 2, p. 283; Vol. 3, pp. 516-517. GEC, Peerage, Strangford, p. 358. Sir William Winter was friends with London merchant figure John "Customer" Smythe who is treated at more length in a later chapter.

(20) Lord Mayor William Bowyer provides no records of interest.
He is noted in Hasler, History of Parliament, Vol. 3, p. 368.

(21) Lord Mayor William Browne, providing 99 records of descent.
He can be noted in Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Tyrrell of Springfield, and in GEC, Peerage, Mordaunt, p. 196; Say and Sele, p. 484.) With links including to: fifth and sixth Viscounts Say and Sele, twentieth Baron Clinton, fourth Earl Lincoln, Robert Walpole as second Earl Orford and second Baron Rolle; Ralph Warren with 408 records, with daughter Joan married to Sir Henry Cromwell and following arose links to eleventh Earl Montrose, ninth Baron Brooke, third Earl Plymouth, ninth Earl Wemyss, first Earl Buckinghamshire and fourth Earl Buckinghamshire; and dukes 5-7 Manchester and via Cromwells to the financiers Palavicino.

(22) Lord Mayor John Spencer with 186 records due to his daughter Elizabeth, who married to William Compton the first Earl and second Baron Compton. (Providing later links to second Baron Amherst, first Earl Compton, John Townshend fourth marquis and fourth Duke Dorset; Barons 1 and 2 Chesham, twelfth Earl Devonshire; and Coke as second Earl Leicester.)

(23) The line of Lord Mayor for 1589-1590, Stephen Soame, seems to have had no aristocratic linkages, although family members later linked with many baronets.
R. G. Lang, �Jacobean London Merchants�. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 73. Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Soame. Lord Mayor Peter Soame is seen in Burke's Extinct Baronetcies for Barnardiston, p. 40.

(24) Lord Mayor of 1590, Sir John Hart, on whom there is little information, was a Levant Company merchant and moneylender, often governor of the Muscovy Company. He had a daughter Jane who married Sir George Bolles.
Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, Bolles, p. 69.

There are then, many precedents for discussing linkages between commercial families and aristocracy. Where the family of Boleyn becomes conspicuous, along with the "Bible-study group" of Katherine Parr, is with the rise of a Puritan social movement, which included increasing numbers of affluent merchant families. This was a new trend in English life, and it happened to connect with opportunities provided by the existing slave trades in the New World conducted by the Portuguese and Spanish... as follows... as can be seen from a larger fall of descendants than given above, as can pour from a genealogical database... Such descendancy lists for Lords Mayor of London, and/or London alderman, can often provide evidence of "mini commercial dynasties" active in London life.


The following material re Lord Mayor 1547-1548 John Gresham relates to the families of several London Lords Mayor
Descendants of John Gresham sp: Alice Blyth
2. Levant trader, Lord Mayor London Sir John Gresham (c.1547;d.1556) sp: Catherine Sampson wife2 sp: Mary Ipswell wife1 3. William Gresham, heir sp: Beatrix Guybon 3. Ellyn Gresham (b. 1533; d. 1567) sp: MP William Uvedale (b. 1528; d. 1569) 3. John Gresham sp: Elizabeth Dormer 3. Mary Gresham sp: Merchant adventurer, Lord mayor, Sir Thomas Rowe (c.1569) 4. Robert Roew (c.1551) sp: Elinor Notknown 5. Coloniser, EICo trader, Sir Thomas Rowe (b. 1581; d. 1644) sp: Eleanor Cave (m. 1613) 4. Elizabeth Rowe sp: Sir William Garrard (d. 17 Nov 1607) 4. London Lord Mayor William Roe (c.1590) 4. London Lord Mayor Sir Henry Rowe (c.1607) sp: Miss Notknown 5. Susan Rowe wife2 (c. 19 Sep 1582; d.16 Jan 1645/1646) sp: Gov EICo, London Alderman William Halliday (b. 1610; d. 14 Feb 1623/1624) 6. Miss Halliday sp: Sir Henry Mildmay
2. London Lord Mayor Sir Richard Gresham (c.1537;d.20 Feb 1548) sp: Audrey Lyne wife1 3. Sir John Gresham sp: Frances Thwaites 4. Elizabeth Gresham sp: Sir Henry Neville 3. Financier, economist Sir Thomas Gresham, Bart2 (b.1519;d.1579) sp: Anne Fernley legal wife sp: Miss Notknown 4. Anne Gresham wife1 sp: Sir Nathaniel Bacon 5. Anne Bacon sp: MP Sir John Townshend (b.1568;d.1603) 5. Elizabeth Bacon sp: Sir Thomas Knyvet 5. Winifred Bacon sp: Sir Robert Gawdy sp: Miss Notknown 4. Anne Gresham wife1 3. Christian Gresham wife1 sp: MP, Mercer Sir John Thynne (b.1513/1515;m.1548;d.1580) 4. MP Thomas I Thynne (b.1566;d.1625) 3. Sir John Gresham sp: Frances Thwaites 4. Elizabeth Gresham 2. William Gresham


Endnote: Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor of 1583 Sir Edward Osborne
Descendants of Richard Osborne of Kent and sp: Jane Broughton
2. London Lord Mayor, Levant trader, Sir Edward Osborne (b.1530;d.1592) sp: Anne Hewett wife1
3. Sir Kt Hewett Osborne sp: Miss Notknown 4. Sir Edward Osborne, Bart sp: Anne Walmsley wife2 5. Thomas Osborne Duke1 Leeds Earl1 Danby (b.20 Feb 1631;d.26 Jul 1712) sp: Bridget Bertie (b.1629;m.1653;d.7 Jan 1703/1704) 6. Edward Osborne Visc Latimer (b.1655;d.Jan 1688/1689) sp: Elizabeth Bennet (b.1659;m.Mar 1676;d.1 May 1680) 7. Vice-Admiral Peregrine Osborne Duke2 Leeds Earl Danby (b.1659;d.25 Jun 1729) sp: Bridget Hyde (b.1662;m.25 Apr 1682) 6. Sophia Osborne wife3 sp: William Fermor Baron 1 Leominster (c.1692) 7. Thomas Fermor Earl1 Pomfret (b.23 Mar 1698;d.15 Jul 1753) sp: Henrietta Louisa Jeffreys Lady of Royal Bedchamber-16915 (m.1720;d.17 Dec 1761) 6. Martha Osborne wife1 (b.1664;d.11 Sep 1689) sp: Charles Granville Earl2 Bath, Suicide (b.Aug 1661;m.22 May 1678;d.4 Sep 1701) 4. Gov. Guernsey, Sir Peter Osborne (b.1584;d.1653) sp: Dorothy Danvers 5. Dorothy Osborne (d.1694/1695) sp: Irish statesman, Sir William Temple (b.1628;m.31 Jan 1654/1655;d.1699) 6. Paymaster-General, Sec-of-War, John Temple (d.1689) sp: Mary Duplessis (Huguenot) 7. Elizabeth Temple 7. Dorothy Temple sp: Nicholas Bacon sp: Miss Notknown 4. Sir Edward Osborne, Bart 4. Gov Guernsey Sir Peter Osborne (b.1584;d.1653) 3. Ann Osborne sp: John Offley sp: Margaret Chapman wife2 (m.15 Sep 1588) 3. Alice Osborne sp: Sir John Peyton 4. Frances Peyton wife1 sp: Miles Hobart (d.Dec 1639) 5. Cromwellian, Sir John Hobart (b.1627;d.22 Aug 1683) sp: Mary Hampden wife2 (b.1630;m.1655) 6. Sir Henry Hobart, Bart4 (d.21 Aug 1698) sp: Elizabeth Maynard (m.9 Jul 1684) 7. Lord of Trade John Hobart Earl1 Buckinghamshire (b.1695;d.22 Sep 1756) sp: Judith Britiffe wife1 (m.1717) sp: Elizabeth Bristow wife2 (m.10 Feb 1727/1728) 7. Henrietta Hobart (Lover) (b.1688) sp: George Augustus Guelf, George II (b.1683;m.2 Mar 1705/1706;d.1760) sp: Charles Howard Earl19 Suffolk (b.1675;m.2 Mar 1705;d.28 Sep 1733) sp: Hon. George Berkeley (m.26 Jun 1735;d.29 Oct 1746) 6. Sir Henry Hobart, Bart4 of Co. Norfolk (d.21 Aug 1698) sp: Elizabeth Maynard (m.9 Jul 1684) 7. Lord of Trade John Hobart Earl1 Hobart (b.1695;d.22 Sep 1756) 7. Henrietta Hobart (b.1688) sp: Philippa Hobart (d.19 Jan 1654/1655) sp: Philippa Sydney

Endnote: Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord mayor of 1587-1588 Sir George Bond
Progenitor Bond... 2. Founder Russia Co., William Bond of Somerset (c.1570;d.1576) sp: Miss Hill
3. Coloniser, London Alderman, William Bond (c.1566/1568) sp: Margaret Aldy, of Surrey 4. Sir Daniel Bond 4. William Bond sp: Margaret Gore 4. Anne Bond (d.9 Oct 1615) sp: London Lord Mayor William Whitmore (c.1631;d.8 Aug 1593) 5. MP Sir Kt William Whitmore (b.5 Nov 1572;d.Dec 1648) sp: Margaret Mosley wife1 6. Anne Whitmore (d.1666) sp: MP Sir Kt Edmund Sawyer sp: Dorothy Weld wife2 (d.1626) 6. MP Sir Thomas Whitmore, Bart1 (b.28 Nov 1612;d.1653) sp: Elizabeth Action (d.1666) 7. MP Sir William Whitmore, Bart2 of Apley (b.8 Apr 1727;d.1799) sp: Mary Harvey of London- (d.30 Jan 1710/1711) 7. MP Sir Kt Thomas Whitemore (c.1661;d.1685) 6. Richard Whitmore (b.21 Jun 1614;d.20 Aug 1667) sp: Catherine Deards 7. MP William Whitmore of Apley (c.1705;d.24 May 1752) sp: Elizabeth Pope sp: Anne Weld 7. MP William Whitmore of Apley (c.1699;d.1725) sp: Miss Notknown 7. Richard II Whitemore sp: Miss Notknown sp: Miss Notknown 5. London Lord Mayor, Sir George Whitmore (c.1631/1632) sp: Miss Notknown 6. Margaret Whitemore/Whitmore wife2-57573 sp: Sir Charles Kemeys, Bart2 (d.1658) 7. Sir Charles Kemeys, Bart3 (d.Dec 1702) sp: Mary Wharton 5. Elizabeth Whitemore/Whitmore sp: London Lord Mayor Sir William Craven (c.1610;d.1618) 6. Whig, involved in Carolina projects, William Craven Earl1 Craven (b.1608;d.9 Apr 1697) 6. Elizabeth Craven (b.7 Jan 1599/1600;d.8 Oct 1662) sp: Percy Herbert Baron2 Powis (m.19 Nov 1622;d.19 Jan 1666/1667) 7. Royalist William Herbert Earl1 Powis, Mqs1 Powis (b.1626;d.2 Jun 1696) sp: Lady of Royal Bedchamber, Elizabeth Somerset (m.Jul 1654;d.11 Mar 1690/1691)
7. Mary Herbert (b.Oct 1623) sp: George Talbot, Lord Talbot (b.1620;m.Jan 1639;d.Mar 1644) 7. Urania Herbert sp: MP Coulson Fellowes (b.1696;d.1769) 6. John Craven, Baron Craven of Ryton, died young (b.1643;d.1648) 6. Thomas Craven, died young (b.1617;d.1637) 6. MP John Craven Baron1 Craven Of Ryton (b.1610;d.1648) sp: Elizabeth Spencer (b.16 Feb 1617/1618;m.4 Dec 1634;d.11 Aug 1672) 6. Mary Craven, wife1 sp: Thomas Coventry, Baron2 Coventry (b.1606;m.2 Apr 1627) 7. George Coventry, Baron3 Coventry (b.1628;d.15 Dec 1680) sp: Margaret Tufton 7. Thomas Coventry, Earl1 Coventry, Baron2 Coventry (b.1629;d.15 Jul 1699) sp: Winifred Edgecumbe, wife1 (m.2 Apr 1627;d.11 Jun 1694) sp: Elizabeth Graham, (Grimes), spinster, wife2 (m.16 Jul 1695;d.1724) 5. Margaret Whitmore sp: Sir Kt Richard Grubham 5. Mary Whitmore wife2 sp: Sir Charles Montagu, of Cranbrook 6. Elizabeth Montagu (b.30 Dec 1672) sp: Gov. Guernsey, FRS, Christopher Hatton, Baron1 Hatton (b.Jul 1605;m.8 May 1630;d.4 Jul 1670) 7. Christopher Hatton, of Gretton, Visc Hatton sp: Frances Yelverton wife2 (m.1675;d.15 May 1684) sp: Cicely Tufton, wife1 (m.12 Feb 1666) sp: Elizabeth Haslewood wife3 (m.Aug 1685) 6. Anne Montagu (b.1614;d.1 Feb 1680/1681) sp: Coloniser, Lord Keeper, Dudley North, Baron4 North (b.22 Oct 1637;m.24 Apr 1632;d.24 Jun 1677) 7. Economist, Turkey merchant, Sir Dudley North (b.1641;d.1691) sp: Anne Cann 7.Lord Keeper, Francis North Baron2 Guildford (b.1638;d.5 Sep 1685) sp: Frances Pope (m.5 Mar 1671/1672;d.15 Nov 1678) 7. Charles North Baron1 Grey of Rolleston, Lord5 North (b.1634;d.Jan 1690) sp: Catherine Grey, widow (m.6 Apr 1667;d.Jan 1694) 7. Prof John North, Cambridge University (b.4 Sep 1645) 7. Merchant, Montagu North 7. Lawyer Roger North (b.3 Sep 1653) sp: Mary Gayer 7. Anne North sp: MP Robert Foley (m.1674) 7. Elizabeth North (d.23 Jan 1730) sp: Sir Robert Wiseman (m.24 Sep 1672) sp: William Paston, (b. 1653/1654; m. 24 Sep 1672;d .25 Dec 1732) 7. Christian North sp: Sir George Wenyeve (m.1665) 7. Mary North wife1 sp: Sir William Spring, Bart2 6. Mary Montagu sp: Sir Edward Byshe 5. Frances Whitmore (has issue) (d.1656) sp: Sir Kt John Weld (d.1662) 6. Sir John Weld, Kt Banneret (d.1674) sp: Hon. Mary Stourton (m.1648) 6. Humphrey Weld (d.1684) sp: Clara Arundell (m.1638) 7. Mary Weld sp: Mr ? - Earl2 Carlingford (d.1690) 6. William Weld sp: Miss Notknown 7. William Weld sp: Elizabeth Sherburne (m.1672) sp: Miss Notknown 7. William Weld 6. Margaret Weld sp: Sir William Bowyer, Bart1 (b.1612;d.2 Oct 1679) 7. Sir William Bowyer, Bart2 (b.1639) sp: Frances Cecil 6. Humphrey Weld (d.1684) sp: Clara Arundell (m.1638) 7. Mary Weld sp: Robert King 4. Elizabeth Bond (c.1600) sp: London Alderman, Levant trader, merchant Henry Andrews (c.1634) 5. Miss Andrews sp: James Fenn/Venn (b.1642) 5. Elizabeth Andrews sp: Samuel Mico 5. Daniel Andrews 3. London Lord Mayor Sir George Bond (c.1587;d.1592) sp: Winifred Leigh 4. George Bond 4. Sir William Bond (c.1587) sp: Catherine Povey 2. John Bond (Navy) 2. Francis Bond (Navy)

Endnote: Follows an impression of the family history of London Lord Mayor for 1590 John Hart
Descendants of Ralph Hart and sp: Miss Notknown
2. Levant trader London Lord Mayor Sir John Hart (c.1590;d.1604) sp: Anne Haynes
3. Jane Hart sp: London Lord Mayor Sir George Bolles (b.1538;d.Sep 1621)
4. Sir John Bolles (d.8 Mar 1648) sp: Catherine Conyers 4. Anne Bolles sp: London Sheriff Humphrey Smith (c.1629) 3. Miss Hart sp: London grocer Edward Cage sp: Miss Notknown 2. Levant trader, London Lord Mayor, Sir John Hart (c.1590;d.1604)

Endnote: Follows material on London Lord Mayor 1597-1598 Sir Richard Saltonstall.
Descendants of Gilbert Saltonstall of Yorks sp: Miss Notknown
2. Founder Spanish Company, London Lord Mayor Sir Richard Saltonstall (c.1577;d.1601) sp: Susan Poyntz
3. Richard Saltonstall sp: Miss Gurdon
3. Elizabeth Saltonstall sp: Levant Company trader, Richard Wyche (c.1605;d.20 Nov 1621)
4. London merchant, royal household, Sir Peter Wyche (d.Dec 1643) sp: Jane Meredith
5. Jane Wyche (d.3 Feb 1691) sp: John Granville Earl1 Bath, Visc Granville (b.29 Aug 1628;m.Oct 1652;d.22 Aug 1701)
6. Carolinas Coloniser, John Granville Baron1 Granville (b.12 Apr 1665;d.3 Dec 1707) sp: Rebecca Child (m.14 Apr 1703)
6. Grace Granville Earl1 Granville yst daughter, Countess Granville (b.1667;d.18 Oct 1744) sp: Whig, Sir George Carteret, Baron1 Carteret (b.1659;m.15 Mar 1674/1675;d.22 Sep 1695)
7. John Carteret, Earl2 Granville Visc Carteret (b.22 Apr 1690;d.2 Jan 1763) sp: Frances Worsley, wife1 (m.17 Oct 1710) sp: Sophia Lady Fermor, wife2 (b.29 May 1721;d.7 Oct 1745)
7. Philip Carteret, Unm 7. Jemima Carteret, Unm 6. Jane Granville, (b.19 May 1675;d.7 Mar 1722/1723) sp: Sir William Leveson-Gower, Bart4 (d.1691) 7. John Leveson-Gower, Baron1 Gower, Of Stittenham (b.7 Jan 1674/1675;d.31 Aug 1709) sp: Catherine Manners 7. Jane Leveson-Gower (d.24 May 1725) sp: Tory MP, Edward (Henry?) Hyde, Earl4 Clarendon (b.1672;m.2 Mar 1691/1692;d.10 Dec 1753) 7. Notknown Leveson-Gower sp: Miss Notknown
6. Charles Granville, Earl2 Bath, Suicide (b.Aug 1661;d.4 Sep 1701) sp: Martha Osborne, wife1, dr5 (b.1664;m.22 May 1678;d.11 Sep 1689) sp: Isabella Nassau, wife2 (d.30 Jan 1691/1692) 7. William Henry Granville, (extinct), Died Young (b.30 Jan 1690/1691;d.17 May 1711) 6. Catherine Granville sp: Craven Peyton 5. Ambassador to Russia Sir Peter Wyche (c.1669) sp: Elizabeth Bolles 6. Sir John Wyche sp: Bethseda Savage 6. EICo trader at Surat, Barnard Wyche
6. Peter Wyche (b.25 Dec 1709) sp: Elizabeth Browne
5. Sir Cyril Wyche sp: Miss Jermyn
6. Jermyn Wyche Esq sp: Mary Hungerford
4. Elizabeth Wyche sp: London wine merchant, Job Harby (c.1650)
3. Hester Saltonstall, wife1 sp: London Lord mayor, privateer, Sir Thomas Middleton (b.1556;m.Oct 1585;d.1631) 4. son2 Myddleton Middleton 4. Thomas (Myddleton) Middleton
3. Miss Saltonstall sp: London merchant, MP Robert Myddleton
3. Coloniser, merchant Sir Samuel Saltonstall sp: Miss Notknown
4. Writer, Wye Saltonstall (c.1625) 3. Peter Saltonstall
3. Mary Saltonstall sp: Richard Sunderland (m.28 Jan 1629) 4. Mary Sunderland (d.16 Jan 1673) sp: Edward Parker (b. 3 Aug 1602; m. 28 Jan 1629; d. 1667) 5. Thomas Parker (b. 1631; d. 1 Aug 1695) sp: Margaret Assheton

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