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The Business of Slavery - Chapter 13

The Guinea Company

Matters on the West African coast need attention. A name of interest is Sir William St John.

In 1618, St John and thirty others were incorporated as "a Company of Adventurers of London trading into the ports of Africa". Known as the Guinea Company, they could not raise fresh capital, so they granted licences to private traders, who can be referred to as interlopers. One prominent interloper here was Sir Nicholas Crispe, who is said to have built the first permanent English settlement at Kormantin. In 1631, Crispe and his partners were issued with a patent giving them a monopoly for 31 years of trade on the entire west coast of Africa, and prohibiting all others importing Africa goods into England. In 1649 a formal protest was lodged against this company with the Council of State. A need for forts was seen, (infrastructure cost), and a monopoly was renewed till 1651, though limited to areas about Sierra Leone and Kormantin. Thus, the patentees survived the Puritans. But finances worsened, so in 1657 they sold Kormantin to the East India Company, which was glad of the calling point/refreshment base.
On Kormantin: Mukherjee, Rise and Fall, variously. Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 163ff, p. 174. K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company, p. 9. See also Sir Percival Griffiths, A Licence To Trade, pp. 62ff.

Crispe had been active in the Africa trade from 1625. On 22 November, 1632, Charles 1 gave Crispe and five others an exclusive right to trade to the Guinea coast, for 31 years patent. Crispe got redwood from Guinea and had a sole importation right. The wealth Crisp got from slaving and other business in 1640 enabled him to contract for two large customs farms, "the great and the petty farm", and on that security he and his backers gave the king use of £253,000. Crispe was knighted on 1 January, 1639-1640. Remaining a loyalist during the civil war, Crispe in that time had fifteen ships at sea. He had a house in Bread Street, many puritan relatives; he again farmed the customs. He advanced £1500 for the re-conquest of Ireland, and welcomed the return of Charles II. In May 1661 his son obtained the post of collector of customs for the port of London. He was notable in developing brick-making. His great-grandson Sir Charles Crisp died in 1740.

Between 1655 and 1665 one Thomas Crispe was in dispute with Denmark over land near Cape Coast Castle. In 1662 the Royal Adventurers Trading into Africa had one determination - to oust the Dutch in the slave trade.
Clark, Later Stuarts, pp. 63, p. 332.

News in July 2006: The history websites on this domain now have a companion website, and an updating website as well, on a new domain, at Merchant Networks Project, produced by Dan Byrnes and Ken Cozens (of London).

This new website (it is hoped) will become a major exercise in economic and maritime history, with much attention to London/British Empire and some attention to Sydney, Australia.

They were the third English-Africa Company, and took over a former English East India Company base, Cape Coast Castle, a few miles east of a Dutch station, Elmina, on the Gold Coast. One of Crispe's backers was that powerful and also under-rated commercial name - Maurice Thomson. Crispe's depositions stated that in 1649 he was the chief factor on the Gold Coast for Rowland Wilson, Maurice Thomson, John Wood and Thomas Walter, whom he called The Guinea Company (of London). The original site of Cape Coast Castle, said Crispe, had been given to English, then taken by the Swedes. It was re-taken by the English in Crispe's time on the coast.
K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company, pp. 40-41, 215, 282.

That is, Thomas Crispe claimed he'd established what became the prime English slaving depot. He once deposed that he had bought the site of Cape Coast Castle for goods worth £64 (in the small coastal kingdom of Fetu). That is, he claimed he'd bought freehold. (James Island had been occupied since 1651 by the Courlanders. or, men in service of the Duke of Courland, a European nobody. Later it passed into English hands).
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 119.

Meanwhile, the English East India Company had not fully colonised Madagascar, disliking the expense, in contrast to the Dutch taste for creating fortifications.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 170-172. Porter, a groom of the royal bedchamber, entered the service of Buckingham and married Olivia Boteler, a niece of Buckingham. Porter's descendancy includes tenth Baron Teynham; GEC, Peerage, Teynham, pp. 684-687; Strangford, p. 359. Roger Lockyer, Buckingham: The Life and Political Career of George Villiers, First Duke of Buckingham, 1592-1628. London, Longman, 1981., p. 74. (In 1637, Prince Rupert had wanted part of Madagascar, but he went instead to fight in Europe.)

In May 1638 the government gave a trade monopoly to Morocco to a group led by Sir Nicholas Crispe, who already held the Guinea patent. Hostility erupted, and a leading opponent of the Morocco patent was William Courteen Junior with Samuel Bonnell, plus Nathaniel Andrews; and Thomas and Nathaniel would link with more interloping against the East India Company. Oliver Cloberry was also against the Crispe-Morocco deal, and Cloberry was trying with Maurice Thomson to horn in on Guinea trade. Courteen for his part wanted Morocco and Guinea products for trade in the east.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 174.

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By June 1638 the Crown was going to war with Scotland, trying to mend its fences with the City, renewing its charter, which cost the City its Irish lands, plus £12,000. The crown also aided the Merchant Adventurers, but in 1639 the Courteen project was halted. Courteen was ordered to send only ships to bring back what he had sent out. The City was reluctant to help with war with Scotland.
Meanwhile, on Barbados by 1638 was Thomas Verney, son of Sir Edmund Verney (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 12). On St. Kitts in 1639 arrived penniless one Phance Beecher, a kinsman of the clerk of the Privy Council, regarded as a trashy, saucy upstart, who later led "a rebellion" against Governor Warner. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 120.

By 1639, of course, a chief of the interlopers working against the East India Company was Sir William Courteen, who "troubled the Surat factors" working for the East India Company. Courteen's men at Surat had found themselves "hampered" by being held responsible for some misdeeds committed by "other English", but the East India Company had the same view of the misdeeds committed by men of the Courteen association. Earlier, Methwold of the Company presidency at Surat had been imprisoned for two months respecting piracy by two English ships in the Arabian Sea - one of those ships had audaciously been flying the colours of England's royal navy. One employer of one such ship was certainly in Courteen's employ (it is thought).
(William Methwold (1633-1638), was bred in Norfolk and come to Bantam by 1616 and been apprenticed to a London merchant nine years, and spent five years in Middleburg. He became fluent in French and Dutch. From 1633 he was the East India Company president at Surat; he concluded a treaty with the Portuguese Viceroy at Goa in January 1635. Methwold had had to deal with the effects of an early 1630s famine and the effects of English interlopers. He was taken on as an East India Company factor, from 1618 to 1623 he was agent at Masulipatam. He had to return to England 1622-1623 regarding charges of private trading, and did some writing. He was first Englishman to visit a diamond mine. In 1633 he was deputy sword-bearer to Mayor of London, then was asked to go out as President at Surat. When he came home in 1639 he was a director and later deputy-governor of the East India Company till he died in 1653.
On Courteen: Furber, Rival, pp. 67-69.

Charles I had given a patent to a group of merchants headed by Courteen and a royal favourite, courtier Endymion Porter, to trade where the East India Company had not yet established factories.
K. N. Chaudhuri, The English East India Company: The Study of an Early Joint-Stock Company, 1600-1640, p. 73. Griffiths, Licence to Trade, p. 84. Furber, Rival, variously.

It has been suspected that the king had remained annoyed, the East India Company in 1628 had not let him become an adventurer. (It will be remembered, that the first Company had formally decided, it would not deal with "gentlemen", that is, the aristocratic capitalists of the late1500s-early 1600s). Weddell and Mountney sent ships east again in 1639, with much richer cargoes, worth perhaps £150,000, but their ships foundered (Methwold barely survived). Courteen's men's behaviour had been quite obnoxious in China and at Golconda. Courteens however managed to send out one or two ships per year; their factors at Surat and elsewhere drove up prices, their fortunes at home slid due to recklessness abroad and Civil War at home.
K. N. Chaudhuri, The English East India Company: The Study of an Early Joint-Stock Company, 1600-1640, p. 73.

By early 1639, a leading government financier was Philip Burlamachi, who found the East India Company short of new capital for a new issue. Perhaps linked to Courteen's plans, a new company for joint stock for eastern trade was appearing.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 289.

By 1639, the East India Company at Surat owned a few country ships (regional traders only, not necessarily beholden to Company authority), and they in various ways saved the Company money. In early 1639 the East India Company was appalled as the Earl of Arundel with the king's backing wanted to get to the east; his plan resembled the Earl of Southampton's venture to settle Mauritius. And that idea simply revived an abandoned project of Prince Rupert.
Earl Arundel: This was Thomas Howard (1585-1646), fourteenth Earl Arundel, Earl Norfolk. See Mary F. S. Hervey, The Life, Correspondence and Collections of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel. Cambridge University Press, 1921. Kraus Reprint, New York, 1969; genealogical tables. Lorimer, (Ed.), Amazon, p. 194, Note 3. GEC, Peerage, Arundel, p. 255; Norfolk, pp. 624ff.

The fourth Earl of Southampton had a similar plan for a colony on Mauritius. This Earl of Southampton was Thomas Wriothesley (1607-1667) also second Earl Chichester; his third wife was Frances Seymour, who appears in the genealogical descent of Sir Francis Walsingham and Ursula St Barbe.

Charles I called a halt to plans for Mauritius in 1639 in response to calls from the East India Company, but he could not back anything up, so Courteen Junior proceeded, though Courteen was in deep financial trouble. This apparently meant that by the early 1640s, Courteen was drawn into linkage with Maurice Thomson. Thomson may have been drawn into such eastern business via Gregory Clement, who by 1631 was in trouble for interloping against the East India Company.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, 134.

Brenner finds direct evidence that by 1641-1642, Thomson and his partners was working with Courteen. For example, Jeremy Blackman was captain of ship William owned by Richard Bateson, Simon Turgis and Thomas Cox - sent out by Courteen.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 175.

Notes on "the Courteen debts" and on Maurice Thomson, business manager for the Earl of Warwick:

By 1642 Courteen Junior was bankrupt and he repaired to the Continent, leaving his East India Company matters in hands of his partners. Brenner divides these partners into four categories:
(1): the remarkably busy Maurice Thomson, William Pennoyer, Robert Thomson, Edward Thomson, Richard Bateson, Jeremy Blackman, Martin Noel, Nathan Wright Samuel Moyer, Thomas Andrews and his son Nathaniel;
(2): Foreign merchants in London who were friends of Courteens, including Joas Godschalk, John La Mott, Derrick Hoast, Adam Laurence, Waldegrave Lodovicke and John Rushout.
(Notes on Godschalk's family background are contained at the end of this chapter.)
(3): John Fowke;
(4): New recruits from the merchant community including John Dethick, Stephen Eastwicke a haberdasher, James Russell of the Spanish trade and the Merchant Adventurers, a Southwark sea captain William Ryder, plus a west country merchant, Thomas Boone.

(Some of these names turn up in a 20-man 1649 list on Adventurers in a "Second General Voyage", which included Nicholas Corsellis (who had married Maurice Thomson's daughter and who dealt in lead with Thomas Deacon). There were also in the 1649 list of Courteen's men, names including: James Houblon, John Casier, William Boene and Ahaseurus Regemont (whose widow married Jeremy Blackman).

Between 1642-1645, Maurice Thomson was linked with the Earl of Warwick and William Pennoyer with Capt Jackson's second raid on the Spanish West Indies. By 1640, Thomson was linked George Snelling and Edward Thomas, also Samuel Vassall and William Felgate, in Virginia and with West Indies tobacco and provisioning business. In 1647-1648, Brenner reports, men in the Guinea gold trade, owners of a ship Star, were Maurice Thomson, Rowland Wilson Senior, Rowland Wilson Jnr, John Wood and Thomas Walter.
(Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 192.)

In the 1640s, Maurice Thomson and the second Earl of Warwick became involved with the Guinea Company.
GEC, Peerage, Warwick, p. 406. Davies, Royal Africa Company, index, Burke's Extinct Baronetcies, pp. 441-442. See his son's DNB entry, his own DNB entry, and DNB for his father.

About 1645-1647 arose an ambitious plan to settle the Indian Malabar coast with an investment of £80,000; and in 1645 Maurice Thomson led interlopers and sent an expedition with Capt. John Smart, to settle the east coast of Africa to create a provisioning base for eastern shipping; and also to produce sugar, indigo, cotton, tobacco, much like Barbados, which they themselves "owned". Smart went to St Augustine Bay, Madagascar, with 140 colonists (Mauritius and Assada were also in view). But illness among other matters Smart forced to withdraw. The interlopers also wanted their port to handle trade of the Indian subcontinent, and had retained Courteen's long-held idea of integrating regular trade with Guinea with regular trade to the East; they were already active with West Indian and slave trade, and wished to use African gold to pay for Eastern trade.

The Assada project was attempted under Colonel Robert Hunt, a protégé of Lord Brook, (probably the second Baron Brooke). In 1636, Hunt replaced Philip Bell as governor of Providence Island.
Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 12, Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, p. 299. It was probably the "republican" Robert Greville (died 1642-1643) second Baron Brooke. The records seem unclear as to which Baron Brooke was involved. Also see Kenyon, Civil Wars, p. 253. Newton, Colonising Puritans, p. 66. GEC, Peerage, Brooke, p. 333.

They also began a second project on Pulo Run, an island in the East Indies seized by the Dutch but legally owned by the English.
See Giles Milton, Nathaniel's Nutmeg, Or, The True and Incredible Adventures of the Spice Trader who Changed the Course of History. Penguin Books, 1999/2000., variously

By then the English East India Company was on the verge of dissolution, and Parliament, since the King would not control the Courteen Association, had acceded to the request of Maurice Thomson, alderman Thomas Andrews, Samuel Moyer and James Russell for liberty to trade to the East, in April 1645. It was decided by March 1647 not to renew the old East India Company charter. The Company had to re-finance and mount a "Second General Voyage". By that time, new merchants had been interloping privately in the east, presumably profitably.

The Company's Second General Voyage involved sixteen special directors, with £1000 each in the venture, including Thomas Andrews, Nathan Wright, Maurice Thomson, Samuel Moyer, Jeremy Blackman and Capt. William Ryder, who all faced old-stock men of the East India Company. This arrangement lasted till 1649.
Brenner, Merchants and Revolution, pp. 176ff.

Scattered Courteen ships still sailed to the east, which might have been stopped by an Act of Parliament in 1647-1650. But in 1648, fortunately for the East India Company, Courteen Jnr. was short of money, and he gave up the struggle. Still, in 1649 some of Courteen's associates proposed to form a settlement at Assada an island off coast of Madagascar, to extend operations to India, thus infringing on East India Company trade. A long wrangle ensued.
Griffiths, Licence to Trade, variously. Furber, Rival, p. 75.

In 1649 a new London group headed by Lord Fairfax, with some old associates of Courteen, challenged the East India Company monopoly yet again, and wanted colonies on Assada, off the coast of Madagascar, and in the Indies. Here, the Fairfax name can be linked to the aristocratic Fairfaxs who were so influential in the history of Virginian tobacco planting.
(Thomas Fairfax (1612-1671), third Baron Fairfax, also Lord of the Isle of Man, in 1645 was commander of the New Model Army, although he later aided the Restoration.
Hibbert, Cavaliers and Roundheads, p. 299. GEC, Peerage, Colepeper, p. 365; Vere of Tilbury, p. 257, Note b; Fairfax of Cameron, pp. 229ff.

Thomas Fairfax (died 1709-10), fifth Baron Fairfax, was governor of Virginia, 1675-1682. In 1702 by the influence of the London-America merchant, Micajah Perry, Colonel Robert "King" Carter (1663-1732) of Virginia became agent for the Fairfaxes. The sixth Baron Fairfax was owner of much of the Northern Neck of Virginia. The friend of Courteen was Thomas, third Baron Fairfax, a Puritan Lord and general, Thomas Fairfax (1612-1671) who had as tutor to his daughter Mary, the excellent poet, Andrew Marvell.
On related colonials, and Fairfax of Virginia, see a classic source, Stella Pickett Hardy, Colonial Families of the Southern States of America: A History and Genealogy of Colonial Families Who Settled in the Colonies Prior to the Revolution. Second edition, revised. Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Co., 1968., p. 321, pp. 519-527. Jack P. Greene, (Ed.), The Diary of Colonel Landon Carter of Sabine Hall. Two Vols. Charlottesville, Virginia, Virginia Historical Society/University Press of Virginia, 1965., Carter Diary, Vol. ??, p. 67, p. 80. GEC, Peerage, Vere of Tilbury, p. 257; Fairfax, p. 230; Buckingham, p. 395.

The Privy Council wanted this group to join with the existing Company with one joint-stock, but everyone now knew that the private traders had virtual impunity. Cromwell tired of all this. In January 1650, the House of Commons decided there should be a united joint stock Company to take over factories in India, leaving Courteen's associates only with their Assada factory, which was shortly abandoned.
Furber, Rival, variously. Griffiths, Licence to Trade.

In June 1651 the Company's activities were at quite a low ebb, and it was almost impossible to raise new capital. So the Company issued licences to private traders, but this only meant paying higher prices in India and getting lower sale prices at home. In 1654-57, the East India Company sent out 17 ships, while private traders sent out 38 ships. In 1656 an audacious rump of East India Company shareholders wanted to sell Company privileges and factories in the east to private traders, for a mere £14,000, with a proviso that the (Old) Company could continue in the trade.

Outraged, the Company in October 1656 petitioned Cromwell for support. Cromwell put matters in the hands of a sub-committee headed by his friend, Colonel Philip Jones, who was impressed with the success of the Dutch joint-stock East India Company (VOC). Cromwell's role in negotiations is unclear, Jones remained the main negotiator, but it is said the Cromwell also spoke with the Earl of Bridgwater, which would not have been surprising.

Annoying Spain was one motive for England to attempt to further dominate West Indian islands. Without a base in Barbados, England might not later in 1655-1656 have captured the prize of Jamaica, during the time of Cromwell's "Western Design", which intended to bring proper (Puritan) religion to the New World. Regarding the East India Company, by October 1657 it was thought that a permanent joint-stock would replace the older system of successive joint stock operations. The Charter given by Charles II when he arrived was very near to this; the East India Company would have power to repatriate interlopers, make war, and so on. Yet the Council of State hung back from such a form, so in January 1657 the Company voted to sell unless they got a decision within a month.

The name Willoughby of Parham appeared again on the Caribbean scene. By 9 July, 1660, Francis Willoughby (1613/1614-1666), fifth Baron Willoughby, was married to Elizabeth Cecil. Willoughby took a 21-year Caribbean lease from the Earl of Carlisle. The king directed Lord Willoughby to take up as governor of Barbados and other Caribbee islands, in view of Willoughby's position as lessee of the Earl of Carlisle's Caribbean rights. Soon, interested persons in London protested, and in July and August 1660, one protestor was Sir William Courteen Junior (who died 1666). Another protestor was a Mr. Kendall. They went to law. The decision was for Willoughby.

Bombay came to the English in 1661-1663, and one rather feels that if the Mogul rulers of India made serious tactical mistakes in dealing with the English, as they did, they did so during Cromwell's time, which was also during the "Courteen phase" of England's eastern trade. In the East, after 1660-1668, the Moguls fail entirely to note the rise of the Whigs in England, while economically speaking, the Whigs became a most aggressive group.
K. G. Davies, Royal Africa Company, index.

Much depends, on links between men engaged in Eastern trade and those engaged in slaving business.


Chronology items:
1662: In 1662 the Royal Adventurers Trading into Africa had one prime purpose, to oust the Dutch in the slave trade. It was the third English-Africa Company, and it took over an East India Company factory, Cape Coast Castle, a few miles east of a Dutch station, Elmina, on the Gold Coast. Prince Rupert maintained an interest as a shareholder. The Duke of York invested with the Hudson's Bay Company. By 1663 there appeared the Company of Royal Adventurers of England Trading to Africa, which in 1663 told Charles II, the very being of the plantations depended on the supply of Negro slaves.
Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 332). Eric Williams, From Columbus to Castro: The History of The Caribbean, 1492-1969. London, Andre Deutsch, 1970., pp. 136-137.

1633: In 1663, with formation of Royal Africa Co., e.g. Prince Rupert a shareholder, and Duke of York invests with Hudson's Bay Co.

1663: An Anglo-Dutch War. Capt. Robert Holmes (who ended in causing a war that changed the history of the Caribbean! So who sent him?) spent the 1663-1664 winter on the west coast of Africa in winter with a squadron to support the Royal Africa Company against Dutch encroachments. Holmes took the island of Goree, north of the Gambia River and Cape Coast Castle on the Gulf of Guinea, the Gold Coast. Other Anglo-Dutch conflict began elsewhere. the war lasted 30 months (as in London the Great Plague raged, the worst since the Black Death of 1348, almost 7000 deaths in one week).
Clark, The Later Stuarts, p. 63.

The end of 1664: The Dutch admiral de Ruyter with 12 ships recaptured African possessions - a battle fleet under the Duke of York and Prince Rupert made prizes of Dutch ships in the Channel.
Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 65.

1664: Holmes established Fort James up the Gambia River.
Clark, Later Stuarts, pp. 332ff.

1664: Formation of a French East India Company, wishing to take what the Dutch had not yet taken.
Glen Barclay, A History of the Pacific: From the Stone Age to the present day. London, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1978., p. 38.

1664: The name John Colleton reappears. In 1664 - Charles II granted a licence to Sir James Modyford to take to Jamaica all felons convicted on circuits and at the Old Bailey, then reprieved.
Oldham, British Convicts, p. 5.

1664: Holmes established Fort James up the Gambia River for the English. In 1664 Capt. Holme's expedition founded Fort James about 20 miles up the Gambia River, after cleaning out the Dutch, as a new base for British operations. There followed a confusing series of British-Dutch capture and recapture.

1664: Modyford, "a planter become a governor" as he boasted, was removed from Barbados to Jamaica, but this did not destroy the anti-Willoughby faction on Barbados that Modyford had built up to hinder first Searle, then Willoughby. Modyford shortly laid down on Jamaica an evil document, the Barbados slave code, which was later exported to Carolina and Virginia in North America.
Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 39.

1664: November. Charles II told the sheriffs that Sir James Modyford would ship felons to his brother on Jamaica. But in 1665, a similar licence was given Thomas Bennet, and in 1668, Peter Pate was given an exclusive trade in Newgate convicts. Till 1707, the London officials had to play round robin to find which colonies found transported prisoners most acceptable, for which reasons, or not, for which excuses.

1664: England: A mere two pounds and two ounces of tea are imported from China.
Frank Welsh, A History of Hong Kong.

1665: A "purely commercial" Anglo-Dutch war began, stemmed again from conflict on the African west coast, Capt. Robert Holmes took Goree north of the Gambia River, and Cape Coast Castle on Gulf of Guinea. Capt. Nicolls meanwhile took the New Netherlands (New York) from Gov. Peter Stuyvesant.
Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 63. The name Carteret would reappear.

In 1643 the New Englanders had helped form the New England confederation, for defense. A staple trade item was fur. In 1664 came a new effort to subdue New Netherland, as it was encroaching on English holdings. So Charles II decided to grant the area to his brother James Duke of York, as a proprietary province. James' deputy was Richard Nicholls who sailed for New Netherland from Boston. The Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendered in Sept 1664, the colony was renamed New York. Part of the New York territory included what would become New Jersey. The Duke of York here favoured his friends Lord John Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, two defenders of the Stuarts during the Puritan Cromwell period. In 1665 these proprietors established a government for the area, but New York protested as this clashed with their own interests. (Finns and Swedes were then on the Delaware River). In 1674 Lord Berkeley sold his New Jersey interests to two Quakers, John Fenwick and Edward Byllynge. and these Quakers used trustees including William Penn.
Ver Steeg, The Formative Years, pp. 115-116.

September 1665, another pro-Willoughby agent in the wings was John Champante, a clerk in the Grand Excise office.
Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 38.

1665: The Dutch attacked Barbados. Gov. Lord Willoughby perished in a hurricane that took his fleet and England no choice but to base defence on the very buccaneers they'd earlier been trying to suppress. England gained St. Eustatius, and Tobago. There followed the Peace of Breda in 1667. England regained Nova Scotia, the Dutch never recovered their dominant position in West Indian trade. At this time, the commentator on Mercantilism, merchant-cum-political scientist Josiah Child, dominated the East India Company. There was later a firm, Coutts and Child. Sir Josiah Child as political economist helped develop the outlook of Mercantilism.

1665 - With the connivance of the governor of Jamaica, three British captains including Henry Morgan made their way upriver and sacked Granada, capital of Nicaragua. Other parties later pillaged the Pacific coast.
Clark, Later Stuarts, pp. 327-328.

1665: The Dutch come to Ceylon, British power showed in 1796 and complete British control by 1817.

1665: A purely commercial war Anglo Dutch, stemmed from conflict on African west coast, Capt. Robert Holmes aggressive there winter of 1663-1664, he took Goree north of Gambia River and Cape Coast Castle on Gulf of Guinea - and Capt. Nicolls took the New Netherlands.
Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 63.

From 1665-1671: Gov. Modyford of Jamaica sending out Henry Morgan as pirate, and finally after 1671, Charles II thought it had gone too far and recalled Modyford and set to suppress the buccaneers. The Gov. after Modyford, was Lynch, a planter man who wished to dispense with the buccaneers.
Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p 156.

1665-1670: Charles II made attempts to obtain the contract for the supply of slaves to the Spanish, the Asiento, which was not granted to Britain till the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713.
Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 328.
1665: The plague of 1665 took 100,000 Londoners, spreading from St. Giles and Drury Lane, to the City, then Stepney, Rotherhithe and Deptford, until 4-5000 deaths occurred per week. The plague lasted in all from summer 1664 to the Great Fire. Pro-Catholic Stuart kings remained hateful of the Protestant Dutch, there was fighting over supplying slaves to Catholic Spain. Further commerce was being designed. 1665 - A purely commercial Anglo Dutch war occurred, stemmed from conflict on the African west coast, where Capt. Robert Holmes remained aggressive over the winter of 1663-1664; he took Goree north of the Gambia River and Cape Coast Castle (Crispe's earlier creation) on the Gulf of Guinea. Capt. Nicolls took the New Netherlands (New York?)
Burke, Streets of London, p. 38. Clark, The Later Stuarts, p. 63.

1665-1671: Gov. Modyford of Jamaica began sending out Henry Morgan as pirate till finally, after 1671, Charles II thought it had gone too far and recalled Modyford and set to suppress the buccaneers. The governor replacing Modyford, Lynch, a planter man, wished to dispense with the buccaneers.
Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 156.

1667: Josiah Child dominates EICo, about the time of the Treaty of Breda ending Dutch War in 1667.

1667: Sir Peter Colleton had visited Barbados, then returned to London with a petition to the king respecting a risk of war with France. Barbados' governor then was Sir Jonathan Atkins. Disputes arose over island defence. Barbados agents became Colleton and the pro-Modyford, anti-Willoughby Colonel Henry Drax died 1683.
Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 54-56.

1667-1668: William Lord Willoughby had sailed to the Leeward Islands. On his return to London he was granted a renewal of his commission as governor of all the Caribbean Islands.
Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 43.

1667-1669: Act 18 Car II c. 3 empowered judges to exile for life the border brigands of Northumberland and Cumberland to any of the American colonies. This act expired in 1673.

1668: An advance in the art of economic reasoning, England begins to collect statistics.

1668: A new council of trade was established. In 1670 a council for the colonies was established, which in 1672 became a council for trade and plantations, with its secretary after 1673 John Locke. This body advised the Privy Council on co-ordinating policy, but the innovation was dropped by 1675, till Parliament grew dissatisfied.

1668: Barbadian agitators against Lord Willoughby include Sir Paul Painter and Ferdinando Gorges. (Penson, Colonial Agents, p. 48).

1668: Capt. Henry Morgan with 400 men seized Port Bello, the port from which Spanish silver fleets sailed, returning with 250,000 pieces of eight. (Clark, Later Stuarts, p. 328).

From 1669: The Scots name Campbell begins to appear on Barbados, in parishes such as St. Michael, St. Philip, St. Lucy, St. Peter in 1780, St. Joseph, Christ Church; in 1675 at Christ Church Barbados. In 1677 a Susan Campbell lived on Barbados. Culpeper and Campbell married in June 1774 at St. John. In 1664 was mentioned Mary Campbell at St. John. Campbell married Jordan at St. Lucy in 1763. Campbell and Armstrong were linked by 4 March, 1753. The names Campbell and Joseph Nurse were linked at St. John's. (IGI). After 1672 the name Nurse appeared as a dealer with the Royal African Company.

1670: After 1670, the Bahamas became subject of a grant to certain of the proprietors to whom the province of Carolina was also granted in 1670. (Penson, Colonial Agents, pp. 99-103; citing CSP iii, No. 311, pp. 132-133, 1 November, 1670).

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1502: Nicaragua is claimed by Columbus for Spain in 1502:

1542: Nicaragua: Settlements of Leon and Granada are founded by Spaniard Fernandez de Cordoba.

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